May, David C. 2001 0-7734-7367-X 196 pages This volume serves as an exploratory effort to understand the causes of adolescent fear and its subsequent association with defensive and aggressive behaviors. Responses from a sample of 318 incarcerated male adolescents in a Midwestern state are used to test the ‘fear of criminal victimization’ hypothesis in an attempt to explain subsequent gang membership, weapons possession, and juvenile violent activity. The results suggest a social milieu characterized by neighborhood incivility and victimization experiences which leads male youth to engage in defensive behaviors as a response to fear. This research offers an innovative explanation of violent delinquency that might be used to guide further research in this area.
Harris, Whitney G. 1999 0-7734-7884-1 180 pages This book differs from most of the available literature focused on African-American males, in that it is based on a collection of studies conducted on African-American males and data gathered from them, allowing them to ‘speak for themselves’. A few of the essays deal with the topic of being a gay African-American male.
Smale, William 2012 0-7734-2661-2 312 pages Smale and Gounko study twelve men who dropped out of school early, and wound up in juvenile delinquency. While many studies have suggested a link between early school leaving and delinquency nobody has done a study from the perspective of the criminals using dissimilar populations. The directional causality between criminal behavior and dropping out of school has yet to be established, and this study brings researchers one step closer to fully understanding which one happens first. The authors outline a long list of factors that contribute to early school leaving, and they insist that educators can play a role in impacting the in school environment to create positive outcomes for students on the fence about dropping out.
Durst, Maribeth 1992 0-7734-9634-3 136 pages A descriptive analysis of the results of a multi-method research study which utilized both qualitative and quantitative techniques to study the student culture at Saint Leo College. Describes the college student culture in detail: its mores and customs, its beliefs, values, and attitudes, its pattern of daily life, its developmental phases, and the interpersonal relationships among members of the culture. Although the methodology used in the study is common among anthropological researchers, it has rarely been used to study college students. Those taking or teaching anthropology or sociology can benefit from the description of methodology employed in the study. Also, the campus-specific data can be used to examine college policies and practices.
Mahoney, Daniel J. 2003 0-7734-6797-1 344 pages This book makes a major contribution to the scholarship of organizational analysis and leadership. It describes the imperfect world of school organizations as navigated by flesh-and-blood human beings – the leaders in this study are real people in real situations. It illuminates the ethical reasoning articulated by school principals in response to candid questions: why they chose to ignore, bend, or break rules; why they chose not to disclose factual information; or why they lied. Current administrators will find affirmation and validation in its theoretical grounding. Professors in graduate educational leadership programs will find integrity of scholarship, authentic descriptions of the realities of professional practice, and a means for promoting lively discussions. Scholars of organizational analysis and leadership studies will find a gold mine of data and future research suggestions.
Chaqueri, Cosroe 1992 0-7734-9228-3 264 pages This study focuses on Iranian tales as a medium for the transmission of mode of thought, behavior, and social values in the process of socialization, and in the social reproduction of the superstructure. Comparisons with Turkey, China and Arab countries isolate a complex of motifs that occur only in Iranian tales, and then treat the relation of these pertinent motifs with Iran's socio-historical reality. The historical development of Chess, one of the oldest games popular among Iranians, and its impact on their socialization process is also discussed. The inquiry concludes by comparing the historical process of social rise and the social ambitions of the Iranian political elite on the basis of the games and tales they are brought up with.
Kirby, David 1991 0-88946-793-5 212 pages Examines the charms and, more closely, the dangers of boyishness in American culture. Argues the paradox of American culture by drawing from the allied disciplines of literature, history, and psychology, from sources as venerable as the classic texts of our civilization and as current as today's headlines. In the words of one journalist, "our dreamy, drifting culture throws off dangerous, drifting dreamers," the kind of men who shoot our presidents, of course, yet also the kind of men who sometimes become president.
Krylova, N. L. 2000 0-7734-3183-7 400 pages This work centers on a community unique in its kind, the result of mixed marriages between Russian women and the natives of African countries. It explores the social reality of such alliances.
ATD/Fourth World 1981 0-88946-911-3 127 pages Presents comments from poor children concerning their lives, their problems, their families, and their view of the world. The editors offer their own interpretation of the children's words.
Gottfredson, Denise C. 1997 0-7734-8428-0 212 pages Summarizes evidence about the state's experience with sharply curtailing juvenile institutionalization by closing the Montrose Training School. It examines the effect of this decision on the residential placement pattern, attitudes, experiences, and behaviors of juvenile offenders in Maryland. It reports the results of an empirical study, based on data collected from nearly 1,000 youths over a several-year period.
Webster, Kate L. 2010 0-7734-3801-7 244 pages This book examines socio-cultural and gender-based barriers Kenyan secondary school girls face. Currently, research has focused on increasing girls’ enrollment rates to ameliorate the gender gap in African education. This research demonstrates that while it is important to have more girls attend school, girls today are disproportionately placed in inferior schools and confronted with gender-based attitudes that negatively impact their educational opportunities.
Tsayang, Gabatshwane Taka 1998 0-7734-8281-4 264 pages This book is the result is the result of a research project on the evaluation of Community Junior Secondary School Partnership Policy in Botswana. The methodology employed was mainly qualitative, notably field work, participant observation and in-depth interviews. Since research in this area is dominated by quantitative approaches, this volume makes an important addition to scholarship.
Terryberry, Karl J. 2002 0-7734-7309-2 164 pages Mary E. Wilkins Freeman’s tales for and about children arose out of cultural constrictions formulated by a strict adherence and obedience to the Puritan values embedded in New England history. At the time she wrote these stories, New England was experiencing a population decline fueled by massive changes in industry and farming, and the effects of war. With young, industrious men pouring out of rural New England, Freeman concentrated on the women and the weak men who were left behind. Role models for boys were hard to find, and respectable mates for girls were few. Consequently, the lines dividing gender roles got blurred in Freeman’s world, and she set out to redraw the lines by redefining the roles of men and women for children. This text not only discusses the impact of such cultural and historical forces on gender in her writing, but it also categorizes both collected and uncollected tales by grouping together the products of Freeman’s gender instruction.
Wertsch, Douglas 1997 0-7734-8669-0 168 pages When the Girls Reform School of Iowa opened, it became the first school of its kind (state funded and operated) west of the Mississippi River, and only the second such school in North America. This volume deals with the first years of the school's existence, using primary sources such as school records and journals.
Pyvis, David 2007 0-7734-5604-X 260 pages This book examines both the history and intent of youth policy in Australia. It investigates government intervention with youth from colonization through to the post-Federation era, challenging claims that youth policy is of relatively recent origin. A key concern of the book is with the logic of intervention. It utilizes an historical policy analysis to argue that governments in Australia typically seek to manage young people on behalf of the state. The book reveals that youth policy in Australia is not, as popularly imagined, invariably called into existence on behalf of youth. It shows instead that youth policy is often designed for the purpose of making use of youth. The book also maintains that generational interests have influenced the direction of youth policy in Australia. In examining various interventions over the years, it argues that youth policy is often mounted on a perception of youth as both a potential resource of the state that should be harnessed in its service and a problem population that needs to be contained, controlled and disciplined.
Adams, Richmond B 2013 0-7734-4530-7 328 pages The books written by Harold Frederic depict a self-made, properly Protestant American. Yet, in some of his books in particular The Damnation of Theron Ware, Frederic depicts self-made women, and challenges the idea that only men can attain culturally-defined success. The works offer an inversion of late 19th century gender-based expectations.
Lei, Christine 2011 0-7734-3861-0 268 pages This study revises the existing body of historical research by examining the critical role of the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary’s (IBVM) in the process of establishing convent schooling in Hamilton, Canada West, in 1865. Without the diligent work of women, and in particular that of the Loretto Sisters, the history of higher education of Hamilton girls in the late-nineteenth and early twentieth-centuries would have been markedly different. This work adds to our understanding of nineteenth and twentieth-century education by examining the experiences of those students and teachers who participated in the day-to-day life of Loretto Hamilton.
Chmidling, Catherine 2010 0-7734-3667-7 324 pages This case study combines James C. Scott’s theory of high-modern social engineering with economic and evolutionary theories of altruism and reciprocal altruism to analyze and interpret the text and quantitative data in reports spanning 1887 through 1963 from the Kansas Orphans’ Home.
Wang, Shun-Yung Kevin 2013 0-7734-4330-4 152 pages The monograph is a quantitative investigation of the connection between youth employment, career-ladder positions, job stability and delinquency. Based on the empirical evidence, the findings suggest that career-ladder jobs reduce crime and delinquency by providing an environment in which youths holding future-oriented career jobs commit more in their long-term goals and may tend to associate with more pro-social associates in the workplace.
A brilliant contribution to the existing literature on adolescent employment and crime. It connects theory and research with public policy in a balanced manner and introduces the concept of career-ladder jobs as a guide to reduce crime and delinquency by looking at public policy and adolescent employment in a new way.
Reid, Lydia 2017 1-4955-0596-0 352 pages This study aims to explore how Christian, Jewish and Muslim students navigate the terrain of the secular university whether such an environment is challenging or conducive to their faith in terms of degree content, interactions with peers and involvement with relevant societies and /or chaplaincies.
Hope, Wendy P. 2005 0-7734-6250-3 392 pages This book is significant to the work of educators who work with diverse student populations. For many educators including administrators, principals, and teachers the greatest challenge is that of meeting the educational goals of society while responding to the needs of the growing numbers of diverse students within the classroom. As a result, the current emphasis on meeting the needs of all students in the multicultural inclusive classroom require the extension of the conversation beyond multiculturalism, multiple intelligences and learning styles to include the social and political realities that influence students' learning and success. This book offers educators who are increasingly faced with diverse, multi-cultural inclusive classrooms an opportunity to find a place to start the process of revisionary pedagogical practices that validate and affirm the experiences of their students.
To this end, teacher education programs provide a relevant context for revision and rethinking of both the content and processes of teaching to benefit all students in a diverse, multicultural, inclusive classroom, as possibilities are inherent to prepare and equip prospective teachers with the knowledge that will shape and develop their philosophy of teaching and learning to include reflective practices in addressing the needs of diverse learners. As a result, this book calls attention to the central role of culture on the work of teachers; the development of methods by which culture and ethnicity are made vital components of the classroom experience; an examination of the best practices of teachers who work with students from diverse backgrounds; an understanding of the social, linguistic and cultural backgrounds of the communities they serve; and exploration of the ways in which collaboration with the communities they serve can be fostered The inclusion of these focused areas in teacher preparation programs as well as ongoing professional development will engage teachers in reflective teaching, through an examination of their assumptions, perceptions, beliefs and instructional practices that influence the pedagogical decisions and practices they employ when working with diverse students.
Burford, Edith Sue Kohner 2004 0-7734-6314-3 137 pages The book investigates the reason(s) why so many students at a university in south central U.S. have had to retake First-Year Composition. Using research of teaching and learning styles, this study sought to discover if there was a mismatch of teaching and learning styles because of a cultural difference of faculty and students. This work is of immense value to those in the field of education.
Webb, Michelle 2010 0-7734-3737-1 304 pages Chronicles, for the first time, the full history of the Labour Party’s youth movement from the LOY, established 1924, to the present organisation, Young Labour, established 1994. Previously unpublished primary source material, including oral interviews, provides a narrative that illuminates the culture, organisation and political activism of the youth sections and highlights the similarities and differences between them as well as their relationship with the party leadership at local and national level.
Davison, Kevin G. 2007 0-7734-5354-7 248 pages This book explores gender and the body in relation to the postmodern condition, challenging the stability of modernist understandings of gender and making a case for viewing gender as a pedagogical tool rather than as a threat. The research was conducted online among female-to-male transgender and gay men participants, presenting a complex methodological analysis to further question the stability of subjective gender identities. Historical moments when technology and gender have collided are considered as illustrations of the possibilities inherent in technology for renegotiating gendered identities. Further, contemporary debates about boys and academic underachievement are critically examined to illustrate how the resistance to a gender analysis may perpetuate educational inequities. This text offers the potential for building new theories to address gender gravity as a force that can be actively resisted and renegotiated as a part of everyday educational practices.
Edgell, Derek 1993 0-7734-9197-X 752 pages This book looks at the Quaker-inspired movement of the OWC and its founders, the Westlakes, who were uneasy about the military overtones of the Boy Scouts and who favoured an alternative form of training, one that borrowed from Ernest Thompson Seton and his Woodcraft Indians. The study examines the Westlakes; the concept of "recapitulation" in education; woodcraft chivalry in practice; internal conflicts; adult sections; the various schools; the war years and beyond. In two volumes.
Edgell, Derek 1992 0-7734-9197-X 752 pages This book looks at the Quaker-inspired movement of the OWC and its founders, the Westlakes, who were uneasy about the military overtones of the Boy Scouts and who favoured an alternative form of training, one that borrowed from Ernest Thompson Seton and his Woodcraft Indians. The study examines the Westlakes; the concept of "recapitulation" in education; woodcraft chivalry in practice; internal conflicts; adult sections; the various schools; the war years and beyond. In two volumes.
Silvey, Le Anne E. 2004 0-7734-6400-X 216 pages This book is based on an exploratory study whose purpose was to explore the variables that influenced and contributed to the role development of firstborn middle-aged American Indian daughters within their families of origin. It is the first research of its kind that explores the role development of the firstborn American Indian daughter within the context of her family of origin that was conducted by, for, and on behalf of, American Indian women. While there is a dearth of literature written about American Indian women, what has been written has been by Anglo men, based on studies of men, and whose findings are generally superimposed on women. This research is groundbreaking in that it gives voice to the middle-aged firstborn American Indian daughters studied within the context of ecological theory and in combination with self-in-relation and feminist theoretical perspectives.
This ethnographic study illuminates the everyday lives of the firstborn daughters whose role development was shaped and influenced by the experiences of their parents and grandparents, steeped in forced assimilation by U.S. government policies, who were removed from their own parents and sent to boarding schools. These ethnographic presentations of the women’s lives and families are moving the study of American Indians in new directions of viewing cultural history from an intimate feminist point of view. This book contributes to the historic writings of the American Indian cultural experience in America, as well as provides a new foundational insight into the role development of firstborn American Indian daughters within the context of their families, for deeper understanding by scholars and practice interventions for helping professionals across disciplines.
Kennedy, David 2010 0-7734-1430-4 256 pages “Philosophical Dialogue with Children” is a collection of essays that explores our common presuppositions about childhood and children’s thinking, and challenges adults to re-examine their notions about children’s capacity to engage in philosophical dialogue in group settings like the classroom.
Hughes, Albert 1992 0-7734-9484-7 232 pages This study involves research into bureaucratic behavior and group interest articulation, and repercussions of cultural, society-government (party) relations. This is one of the only books in the field to study the reasons why Soviet citizens do not do what the Party and State expect: to test an hypothesis that there is something about the Soviet character - particularly that of the Great Russian - that inhibits acceptance of the Party line and plans to remake the individual in Lenin's image.
Hale, Robert L. 1997 0-7734-8547-3 160 pages The review begins in 1642, when the first juvenile was executed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and culminates in 1957, with the last (to date) execution. A total of 331 juveniles are included in the study. A socio-historical analysis of specific periods in history provides an explanation for the type of juvenile that was executed during the period. Characteristics of interests are the juvenile's age, race, and gender, in addition to the total number of juveniles executed during the given period. The social, political, and legal atmospheres of the era are reviewed to determine what, if any, effect these had on influencing the administration of capital punishment. Particular attention is given to the fifty years immediately following the Civil War, as juvenile executions reached unprecedented high numbers.
Horn, Aaron L. 2010 0-7734-3771-1 152 pages This qualitative study analyzes African American males’ perceptions of the tutor-tutee caring relationship within in home, one-on-one tutoring. The participants were seven African American males who currently attend this type of tutoring.
Kuburic, Zorica 2013 0-7734-4331-2 632 pages The subject of this research is the analysis of Protestant family life and its effect on the self-image development of adolescents in Yugoslavian society which underwent a rapid transition from general animosity toward religion to overwhelming dominance of a traditional church. Within this environment the Protestant family is doubly condemned.
This book, based on empirical research and backed up by theoretical studies, seeks to examine psychological and social consequences of growing up in these conditions: how it affects their self-image, social relationships, mental health, social adjustment, but also their own religious views. Although based on experiences of Adventist families, the findings of this research are not restricted only to this Protestant group or to Protestantism in general.
Djamba, Yanyi K. 2004 0-7734-6243-0 304 pages When AIDS emerged in the 1980s, it caught humankind by surprise with its pants down in a world of cultural diversity and prejudice. However, the death toll associated with this pandemic shifted the course of scientific research and programs from family planning to sexual health as scholars struggled to understand the implications of different forms of sexual behaviors on populations. Still, in the two decades that followed, the tendency has been to search selectively for evidence that confirms held beliefs. This book provides a perspective on adolescent sexual behavior in Africa that is based on the state-of-art research methodologies. Written by an international and interdisciplinary group of scientists and covering all sub-Saharan regions, this book is a truly pan-African volume on new research on adolescent sexual behavior. The papers in this volume show that Africa is a mosaic of cultures where local norms and values must be considered in order to successfully understand and manage the emerging sexual and reproductive health issues. With its ten chapters and various methodological approaches that include sample survey research, focus-groups, meta- analysis, and actual HIV testing, this book is certainly a very strong and timely reference book to students, researchers, policy- makers, and all those interested in sexual science in contemporary Africa.
Risner, Doug 2009 0-7734-4661-3 216 pages This study investigates the competitive world of pre-professional Western concert dance training and education in the U.S. as experienced and lived by boys and young men, an under-represented population in the field. This work examines the discourses of professional dance preparation through theoretical and narrative approaches that combine to illuminate the highly gendered professional dance world as evidenced through the minds and bodies of male adolescents and young adults.
Risner, Doug 2021 1-4955-0924-9 216 pages With a Foreword by Ramsay Burt.
This book addresses the fact that "a lack of scholarly attention has been paid to this burgeoning research area in the U.S., especially in terms of book-length studies."
While research on the topic of boys who dance is scant, the author states that "what we do know, though tentative, provides cause for concern, linked as it is to dominant notions of masculinity, pervasive homophobia, and boys' neglect, harassment, and social isolation."
Jennings, Mary Ann 2005 0-7734-6283-X 244 pages In contrast to the traditional deficit perspective of working with children and adolescents, this book presents a strengths based family health perspective. The roles and functions of the family are being redefined in every domain of family life - physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, economic, cultural, and social. Embedded in each of these domains are the seeds of family life that can either be nurtured or left to wither and die. The profound challenge is how to identify the seeds to nurture and the seeds to leave uncultivated.
Delucchi, Michael 2003 0-7734-6689-4 196 pages This study investigates student satisfaction with postsecondary education in the 1970s by using a wide range of individual and organizational characteristics obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. The results favor a conceptualization of student satisfaction as a product of both collegiate institutional forces linked to wider societal definitions of the outcomes of higher education, and organizational processes that enhance access to social an structural support of the student role. The former is inspired by institutionalist theory, the latter by organizational inequality perspectives. These two approaches are integrated into a model to examine student satisfaction along the social dimensions of race, class, and gender. Student satisfaction is fundamental to a better understanding of educational process and quality as it relates to groups traditionally underrepresented in higher education. It may also be a critical mediating variable between students’ entering characteristics (i.e., race, class, and gender) and academic achievement and degree attainment. Also, accountability pressures from state legislatures on postsecondary education have placed increasing importance on the enrollment, retention, and satisfaction of minority students. Within this context, student ratings of their educational experience contribute to a better understanding and assessment of the outcomes of higher education. Finally, satisfaction is an important component of organizational analysis.
Partridge, Lee 2009 0-7734-3808-0 280 pages The research utilizes a symbolic interactionist framework and grounded theory methodology to generate a substantive theory regarding how adolescent boys diagnosed with AD/HD respond to the efforts of their teachers who employ rewards and punishments to moderate their actions. The theoretical propositions which were developed from the study have immediate and practical implications for teachers, school administrators and parents.
Ainsa, Patricia 2000 0-7734-7823-X 132 pages This study examines changes in pre-service teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and educational intent to implement HIV/AIDS classroom curriculum and universal precautions after participating in HIV/AIDS in-service training. Valuable pre-service teacher training information was obtained as questionnaire responses were recorded prior to and as a result of an in-service program for pre-service student teachers at a U. S. – Mexico border university.
Yake, John C. 2022 1-4955-1006-9 480 pages From the author's preface: "The experimentation that has characterized youth ministry since multitudes of teens have quit the Church in the last few decades has failed. Parish or high school-based youth group efforts that have continuously sprung up only to fold up soon thereafter have not been able to address the religious needs of teenagers in satisfactory or comprehensive ways. ...This book delineating Youth Ministry Theory (YMT) attempts to supply what has been missing from youth ministry...." (This book is a reprint of *Theory of Religious Ministry to Youth: Faith Development and the Christ in Others Retreat* (2005) with a new introductory section.
Hopkins, Peter 2008 0-7734-4952-3 236 pages Charts the life of young Muslim men in Scotland by exploring local issues connected with family life, residential segregation and everyday experiences; national concerns around Scottishness and Scottish politics; and responses to global events such as those of 11th September 2001.
Bernier, Bernard 2015 1-4955-0299-6 268 pages This skillfully edited collection of essays analyzes the social engineering process employed by both public and private sector Conservative ruling elites in Japan in its effort to mold and cultivate a small minority of Japanese youth super-achievers in order to maintain its conservative view domination of society. Five important aspects of Japanese youth culture are discussed including the impact youth labor, youth education, young women, juvenile crime and youth culture have on the ruling elite structure as Japan transitions into this age of globalization.
Yake, John C. 2005 0-7734-6066-7 476 pages This book builds upon doctoral research into the pastoral dynamics of the “Christ in Others” Retreat (COR), designed for late adolescents and which utilizes the faith development theory and research instrument of Dr. James W. Fowler. That study demonstrated that COR has potential to transform and support adolescent faith development. Insights were gained into youth ministry (YM) and the distinctive features of adolescent evangelization. This book synthesizes further reflection upon this dissertation, YM experience, and reading into a foundational method that can promise an effective ministry with youth. The book delineates five essential principles that need to come together to form a comprehensive program of YM. It is written for pastors, youth ministers, high school chaplains, campus ministers, teachers, parents and Christians who want to understand the unique dynamics of youth ministry: how to succeed, what to do, who should do what?
Dizer, John T. 1997 0-7734-8641-0 460 pages This study examines the contents, themes, and publishing histories of juvenile literature. Subjects range from Louisa May Alcott to Nancy Drew's home town, including Tom Swift (and his girlfriend), Dave Fearless, the Bobbsey Twins, Howard R. Garis, the Louisa May Alcott/Oliver Optic feud, Leo Edwards, Harry Collingwood, Edward Stratemeyer, the Rover Boys, Franklin Mathiews and Boy Scout Censorship, and Percy Keese Fitzhugh. This factual but humorous approach leans on the best scholarship in the field. It includes many illustrations to detail the publishing histories of these individual books and series, which often read like sophisticated pieces of detective work. With color illustrations.
Edgerton, Robert B. 2006 0-7734-5927-8 208 pages This book examines human courage and cowardice in combat in many parts of the world in recent times and in the distant past. The result is an introduction to an essential attribute of humanity – the quest for self-respect and the respect of others. The first chapter examines the role of women in war, from the earliest days to the present time. It presents a detailed review of the “Amazons,” women warriors of West Africa. Chapter Two reviews warfare in Africa, particularly the shocking Zulu defeat of British regular troops in 1879. The next chapters discuss the “Charge of the Light Brigade” during the Crimean War, the epic battle of the Alamo, the War of 1812, the battle of Waterloo and the American Civil War, the Vietnam War, the Aztecs, Mayans, and Inca, and chapter eight reviews combat in India and Tibet. The final chapter looks at warfare in the world’s many small societies.
Woods, Frances Jerome 1989 0-88946-634-3 150 pages A case history of a Creole people's efforts to establish an identity of their own, to transmit to successive generations the values and attitudes deemed important to the group, and to give their youth - some of whom were labeled "colored" in the Deep South - feelings of belongingness and status. The study concerns a mixed-blood Creole population descended from one couple; the study-population's time-span parallels that of the American nation.
Bryant, Dr. Geraldine J. 2015 1-4955-0288-0 136 pages This research was an opportunity to explore the personal stories of a group of young African American males that may be seen as an indication of the conditions that have affected our larger society. It deconstructs the common myth that drop outs are the trouble makers or low achievers in school and it inspires us to reconsider and challenges our present teaching approach to this demographic group.
Tilleczek, Kate 2008 0-7734-5161-7 232 pages This study will address the international, national and local issues and solutions pertaining to early school leaving and youth disengagement from school. The various contributors examine the impacts of social class, ethnicity, gender and sexuality on the issue of school leaving. The study also reviews past policy in addressing the problem of youth disengagement from school and offers recommendations for reform.