Subject Area: Religion New Testament Study

Albrecht Ritschl and the Problem of the Historical Jesus
1992 0-7734-9822-2
This study reappraises Albrecht Ritschl and represents a fresh perspective on his work, through his study and use of the canonical Gospels. Ritschl's concern for theological responsibility when interpreting the life of Jesus is noted and explored in a discussion of the New Testament canon and the problem of the christological diversity found within the Gospel tradition.

Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus
1989 0-88946-616-5
Draws on the evidence of Paul and the Gospels to present the case for accepting the historicity of the bodily resurrection of Jesus.

Augustinian and Pauline Rhetoric in Romans Five a Study of Early Christian Rhetoric
1996 0-7734-2367-2
This study contributes to the understanding of early Christian rhetoric by focusing upon the interaction between Augustinian and Pauline rhetoric in Romans Five. The study first examines Augustine's hermeneutic with special attention to the function of rhetoric. It then considers Augustine's interpretation of the Apostle Paul. The author establishes the significance of Romans Five in Augustine's theology and assesses the bishop's exegesis. A particular contribution of the study is the detailed analysis of Augustine's construal of Romans 5:12-21, offering a judicious critique of traditional interpretation. The conclusion provides a solution to the ongoing debate concerning the rhetorical function and argumentative structure of Romans. This work furnishes a fresh elucidation and recent appraisal of the hermeneutical task of interpreting the Pauline epistles as rhetorical discourse.

Book of Acts According to Alexander Campbell an Historical and Rhetorical Commentary - Book 1
2002 0-7734-7026-3
Alexander Campbell was a 19th century religious reformer and founder of three major denominations, The Churches of Christ, The Disciples of Christ and The Christian Churches. This study collects his comments on each Book of Acts in the New Testament.

Each chapter begins with Campbell's translations of one chapter of Acts, followed verse by his verse-by-verse comments, keyed to the King James Version. Also included are occasional comments showing how Campbell appealed to these verses in his many controversies. Extensive footnotes direct the scholar to parallel comments and allows historians to study his sources and influences, and biblical scholars to evaluate his contributions.

Book of Acts According to Alexander Campbell an Historical and Rhetorical Commentary - Book 2
2002 0-7734-7028-X
Alexander Campbell was a 19th century religious reformer and founder of three major denominations, The Churches of Christ, The Disciples of Christ and The Christian Churches. This study collects his comments on each Book of Acts in the New Testament.

Each chapter begins with Campbell's translations of one chapter of Acts, followed verse by his verse-by-verse comments, keyed to the King James Version. Also included are occasional comments showing how Campbell appealed to these verses in his many controversies. Extensive footnotes direct the scholar to parallel comments and allows historians to study his sources and influences, and biblical scholars to evaluate his contributions.

Book of Acts According to Alexander Campbell an Historical and Rhetorical Commentary - Book 3
2002 0-7734-7030-1
Alexander Campbell was a 19th century religious reformer and founder of three major denominations, The Churches of Christ, The Disciples of Christ and The Christian Churches. This study collects his comments on each Book of Acts in the New Testament.

Each chapter begins with Campbell's translations of one chapter of Acts, followed verse by his verse-by-verse comments, keyed to the King James Version. Also included are occasional comments showing how Campbell appealed to these verses in his many controversies. Extensive footnotes direct the scholar to parallel comments and allows historians to study his sources and influences, and biblical scholars to evaluate his contributions.

Cultic Motif in the Spirituality of the Book of Hebrews
1993 0-7734-2376-1
This book begins with the assumption that cultus in Hebrews is a mode of discourse whereby the author intends to communicate something important about his conceptualization of Christian existence. He is seen to be quite at home with the attitudes and assumptions about ritual common in pre-industrial societies, and the work concludes that the Hebrews was in fact written as a pastoral response to a need for cultic religious expression. Given the supreme importance of cultic religious expression in antiquity, for Christians to find themselves without an external cultus presented a grave crisis of faith. They study examines why cultus boasts such a central role in pre-industrial religion, and then offers some suggestions toward incorporating the cultically-centered spirituality of Hebrews into modern Christian devotion.

Hymn Fragments in the New Testament: Hellenistic Jewish and Greco- Roman Parallels
2008 0-7734-4923-X
This study investigates the three main images of Christ in the material normally designated as hymnic in the New Testament (Phil 2:6-11, 1 Cor 8:6, Col 1:15-20, John 1:1-18, Heb 1:3-4, 1 Tim 3:16), specifically the images of Christ the pre-existent divinity, Christ the Creator and Christ the Incarnate god. It is the position of the author that the closest literary antecedents for the first two images can be found in the literary world of Hellenistic Jewish wisdom speculation, specifically that subset of Hellenistic Jewish wisdom speculation influenced by Middle Platonic thought and exemplified by the works of Philo of Alexandria. The final image, that of Christ the Incarnate god, finds its’ most compelling literary antecedents in works of Greco-Roman religious thought and philosophy, specifically those myths which deal with gods taking human form and serving as slaves. The image of the god as flesh, a subset of those images which deal with Christ as an incarnate god, however, fails to be easily classified as deriving from either Hellenistic Jewish or Greco-Roman literary images.

Import of Eschatology in John Howard Yoder's Critique of Constantinianism
1992 0-7734-9808-7
Through a close reading of relevant primary and secondary literature, this study describes and evaluates Yoder's eschatologically informed critique of Constantinianism and his alternative theory of Christian social action. The study finds that the relationship between Yoder's eschatology and his view of Christian social ethics is characterized by a lack of conceptual coherence at numerous points. The conclusions are largely critical of Yoder's project, as neither his critique of Constantinianism, nor his proposed alternative, is displayed with exacting historical accuracy and conceptual precision.

Is St. Paul a Jewish Deviant or a Reformer of Judaism? The Clash of Jewish Identity and Christian Identity in Asia Minor
2009 0-7734-4743-1
This work examines the first-century dynamics associated with the proclamation of the Gospel of Jesus Christ and in doing so addresses some important implications for modern missions. Paul’s missiology was intricately tied to his Christology, soteriology, and ecclesiology. He believed that the fullness of Judaism was to incorporate the Gentiles into the people of God through faith in Christ instead of through works of the Law. However, in advocating such a theology and practice Paul posed a great threat to maintaining Jewish identity and the survival of Jewish communities in the Diaspora.

Jesus' Last Passover Meal
1993 0-7734-2370-2
The goal of this work is a historical reconstruction of the Last Supper, of not only the who, what, where, and when, but also the why. It begins with a detailed account of how a typical first-century Passover would have proceeded, and then moves into a literary-critical analysis of the relevant New Testament texts.

Jesus, Born of a Slave. The Social and Economic Origins of Jesus' Message
1998 0-7734-2440-7
This book is an exploration of Jesus' social origins and location in the society of his time and place. The hypothesis proposed is that Jesus was of slave status because he was born of a woman who was a slave. Contends that his career outside his household of origin was as a "freedman" with continuing obligations to his former owner. This hypothesis explains much that is otherwise obscure in the early Christian writings concerning Jesus, and facilitates reconstruction of his life and crucifixion. The book applies adaptations of methodologies used by the Jesus Seminars of the Westar Institute, of which the writer was a Fellow, to determine the historicity of teaching ascribed to Jesus. Table of Contents: Introduction; Jesus as a Slave - Historical Plausibility; In the Form of a Slave; Slave or Son? John's Gospel; Slave Experience in Jesus' Teaching; From Slave to Slave/Child of God - the Synoptic Gospels and the Acts; An Outlaw Slave and the Jewish Law - the Synoptic Gospels; A Fugitive Slave and His Community in the Synoptic Gospels; Condemnation and Death of an Upstart Slave; Family and Birth Traditions; Conclusions and Reflections; Bibliography and Index

John's Gospel and the History of Biblical Interpretation
2002 0-7734-6982-6
Like the author's previous studies on Mark's Gospel (1982) and The History of Biblical Interpretation, this study of John's Gospel is much more than a mere list of annotated entries. The aim of these lively entries is to situate Johannean scholarship within the main trends of biblical scholarship from the first century up to the present while reaching out to the main corners of the Christian traditions. It avoids duplicating many items which are normally discussed in standard works. It is based on the firm belief that a solid knowledge of the whole Johannean tradition and its afterlife is vital for the adequate grasp of this key text. A valuable index of names is included.

Life and Ministry of Jesus as Enactment of the Great Commission: A New Proposal for Interpreting Matthew 28:16-20 in Light of Matthew’s Gospel
2015 1-4955-0333-X
This stimulating book fills a lacuna in New Testament studies on the interpretation of the missional paradigm of the “Great Commission” by energizing an interdisciplinary dialogue and fresh inquiry into the passage, it’s biblical theology, it’s missiological theory and it’s contemporary cultural perspective which are deeply rooted in Jesus’ mission and His vision for the coming kingdom of God.


Narrative Structure and Message in Mark: A Rhetorical Analysis
2003 0-7734-6683-5
Students of the gospel of Mark have been convinced for some time that it is carefully structured so as to communicate the message its author intended, and a number of proposals have been advanced as to the nature of this structure. This book examines the major rhetorical strategies employed in the narrative in the hope of developing a suggestion that will gain wide acceptance and shed additional light on the message of this gospel. This study focuses on three rhetorical devices: chiasmus, orality, and midrash

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs. Vol. 1
2006 0-7734-5756-9
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs. Vol. 2
2006 0-7734-5705-4
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

Parable of the Woman in Childbirth of John 16:21: A Metaphor for the Death and Glorification of Jesus
2011 0-7734-1500-9
She has provided feminist theology and Johannine studies with new challenges and new creative insights and understandings with which future scholars, activists and mystics will need to engage if we are to allow the moon to come into view and not just the finger that points to it as we read and engage with this study.

Parables and Fables as Distinctive Jewish Literary Genres
2012 0-7734-2598-5
A book that concerns itself with the historical development of the fable or parable as a way of communicating knowledge and truth, in both Judaism and Christianity.

Paul's Defense of His Ministerial Style: A Study of His Second Letter to the Corinthians
2011
This study of 2 Corinthians indicates that Paul maintained that Christian life and ministry generally, and apostolic ministry in particular, must be carried out through divine power, not human power.

Paul's Style of Church Leadership Illustrated by His Instructions to the Corinthians on the Collection to Command or Not to Command
1992 0-7734-9802-8
A scholarly study on how Paul interacted with his churches after he established them.

Paul's Usage of χάρὶζ in Corinthians 8-9: An Ontology of Grace
2011 0-7734-1590-4
The aim of this work is to cast a new light on 2 Cor 8–9 by highlighting certain features of the theology of grace in that text—its doxological agency, and its pneumasomatic properties. These features, when brought to the fore, serve to both unify Paul’s presentation of grace and redefine, in Pauline thought, whar counts as spiritual.

Paul, His Roman Audience, and the Adopted People of God: Understanding the Pauline Metaphor of Adoption in Romans as Authorial Audience
2008 0-7734-4927-2
Argues that the use of the metaphor of adoption as a literary construct in Romans would aid Paul's intended audience in the understanding of their Christian experience both in the present and at the eschaton.

Problems of New Testament Gospel Origins a Glasnost Approach
1992 0-7734-9807-9
This study takes a fresh approach to the Gospel origins problem, in which embarrassing implications of certain patristic evidence, as well as of the internal Gospel evidence, is paid special attention. All traces of theological commitment are set aside, while noting where previous analyses went astray in failing to do so. The main findings are that Papias' Logia was the key source document, and that a modified form of the traditional Augustinian hypothesis as well explains the priorities among the synoptic gospels. Limited sections of Mark also receive priority, however, through a novel stolen-writing hypothesis that explains the motivation for the writing of Mark and why it suddenly follows Matthew's order so well after Matthew's 12th chapter and so poorly before that point.

Rabbinic Perspectives on the New Testament
1991 0-88946-689-0
Disposes of the incorrect view expressed by many Jewish apologists that there is no explicit Jewish doctrine of the afterlife; that Judaism is concerned with earthly existence only; and "warns us against useless speculation about the details of the afterlife." Explicates an elaborate doctrine of eternal punishment which is explicitly formulated and recorded in the Talmud and various Midrashim.

Raising of Lazarus and the Passion of Jesus in John 11 and 12
2003 0-7734-6694-0
This study holds that the fourth evangelist adopted and combined various traditions in chapters 11 and 12 into a single, unified eschatological statement, separately and specially conceived, as a complex literary and theological hinge of John’s Gospel, a bridge between Christ’s ministry to the world and his ministry to his disciples. The extent and unity of this statement has been disguised by the tendency to apply to John a pericopean mentality suitable for the Synoptics but foreign to John. When John 11 and 12 are viewed as a single, eschatological statement, an analysis of its three dominant literary forms (plot structure, sign and dialogue structure, and narrative dramatic structure) can help establish that the passage of 10:40-12:50 constitutes a tightly-knit literary unity. John shapes Jesus’ final discourse, 12:44-50 primarily as the natural conclusion of his eschatological statement, and secondarily as a summary of chapters 1-12 because the insertion of 11 and 12 is itself designed as the climax and summary of chapters 1-12. This new interpretation gives the passage a tight and comprehensive fit with the whole of John’s Gospel.

Rectification (‘ Justification’) in Paul, in Historical Perspective and in the English Bible. God’s Gift of Right Relationship Vol. 3: Paul’s Doctrine of Rectification in English Versions of the New Testament
2002 0-7734-7072-7


Resurrection Narrative in Matthew: A Literary-Critical Examination
1993 0-7734-2384-2
This work concentrates on the story that the narrative tells and highlights certain themes within the narrative from the perspective of literary criticism. Particular attention is given to the themes that unify the narrative, plot development, and Matthew's characters and their points of view. Concludes by highlighting three themes: the element of conflict between Jesus and his disciples and the religious leaders; prophecy and fulfillment; and universal mission to the nations.

Structure and History in John 11. A Methodological Study Comparing Structuralist and Historical Critical Approaches
1991 0-7734-9942-3
Examines two methods of interpreting scriptural text, the historical critical method and the French structuralist method. The former looks beyond the text to explore issues of reference and authorial intentionality, while the latter focuses on the inner world of the text. Bridges juxtaposes an historical critical exegesis and a structuralist analysis of the story of the raising of Lazarus, successfully showing the strengths and weaknesses of both methods.

Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels
1987 0-88946-610-6
The sequel to Martin's pioneering Syntactical Evidence of Semitic Sources in Greek Documents (Cambridge, Society Bib. Lit., 1974). In this study Martin applies his previously developed set of criteria for evidence of a Greek translation of a Semitic original to the Synoptic gospels, using as his methodology a calculus of the frequency of unusual syntactical formation.

Theological Significance of Jesus’ Temple Action in Mark’s Gospel
2002 0-7734-7141-3


Theology of Inclusion in Jesus and Paul: The God of Outcasts and Sinners
1996 0-7734-2436-9
This volume represents the latest and most comprehensive treatment of a critical issue of New Testament studies: Paul's relationship to the historical Jesus. It clearly defines the nature and scope of the issue by analyzing the debate from F. C. Baur to the most recent materials on the subject. The subject is examined from several standpoints: methodological, theological, historical, and sociological.

Understanding the Gospel of John
1992 0-7734-9640-8
Makes significant contributions to the scholarly understanding of the Gospel in three areas: understanding the Beloved Disciple not as a historic person, but as any person in the bosom of Christ as Christ is in the bosom of God, and such persons are the source of church authority; studies the dialogues which Jesus has with the "spiritually dull" as a way by which Jesus shows his divinity; and sees John as a midrashic development of the Synoptic Gospels. Important to the general reader is the attention given to the literary form of the Gospel, its understanding of Jesus as divine, the discussion of key concepts -- such as light and darkness, and abiding in Christ -- and a discussion of the realized eschatology of the Gospel. The book will be useful as a text for college or church classes.

Use of Italian Renaissance Art in Victorian Religious Education: How the National Society Shaped Our Modern Idea of Christ
2011 0-7734-3641-3
This book provides an important insight into Victorian classroom pedagogy.

Use of Textual Criticism for the Interpretation of Patristic Texts: Seventeen Case Studies
2012 0-7734-3073-3
This book examines the textual emendations to patristic writings to showcase the theological preoccupations of early Christian teachings. The debate around the formation of a unified church produced several key texts in the history of Christianity, and they are discussed in these scholarly essays. These seventeen chapters examine a shift in textual interpretations, notice a change in literary genre, and also identify ancient editing techniques. Two essays actually show an intentional change in a text to make it palatable to a different audience.