Centrality of Aima (Blood) in the Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews. An Exegetical and Philological Study

Author: Kuma, Hermann V. A.
Year:2012
Pages:452
ISBN:0-7734-1461-4
978-0-7734-1461-7
Price:299.95
This book demonstrates that because blood sanctifies, consecrates and purifies, the Greek word for blood provided the best expression for the unique role of Christ as self-sacrificing High Priest in the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Reviews

“The (author’s) text offers the only sustained analysis of the term (blood). However, his study is not limited to the Book of Hebrews along; rather, it begins by reviewing over one hundred years [of]scholarly scrutiny of “blood” in the New Testament.”Prof. William L. Lyons, Florida State University

Table of Contents

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION

Statement of the Problem

Purpose and Scope of the Research

Research Methodology

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Debate Over the Significance of Blood in the New Testament

Blood as Symbol of Life

Blood as a Symbol of Death

The Ambivalence of Blood

Summary of the Blood DebateStudies of Blood in the New Testament after 1950

Summary of NT Studies on Blood since 1950

Blood in Hebrews since 1950

Summary of Ideas of Blood in Hebrews

Justification for the Present Study

OLD TESTAMENT BACKGROUND OF (?Í??)

?Í?? in the Ancient Near East(Outside Israel)

Blood in the ANE Cults

Blood in the Ugaritic Cult

Summary

Blood and Covenant-Making in the ANE

Summary

?Í?? in the OT

Pre-Israelite References to (?Í??)in the OT

The Sacrifice of Cain and Abel

The Aftermath of the Flood

(?Í??)in the Old Testament Cultus

Blood and the Problem of Feminine Impurity in Leviticus

Blood and Leviticus

(?Í??)and Various Kinds of OT Sacrifices

The Holocaust Offering

The Peace Offering

The Sin/Purification Offering

The Trespass Offering

The Day of Atonement

Blood as Purification and Consecration Agent

Summary

(?Í??)and the OT Covenant Relationship

God’s Covenant with Noah

God’s Covenant with Abraham

The Passover

God’s Covenant with Israel at Sinai

The Covenant at Shechem

Circumcision as Sign of Covenant

Summary

Bloodshed in the OT

Blood and Its Sphere of Influence

The Dangerous Problem of Blood-guilt

Yahweh as Avenger of Blood

(?Í??)in the Israelite Cult as Viewed by the Prophets ofthe Eighth Century B.C.

(?Í??) IN THE NEW TESTAMENT WORLD

(?Í??)in the Jewish Apocrypha

Blood as Designating Death/Murder

Blood Designating Humanity/Family

(?Í??)in the Pseudepigrapha

Blood Designating Murder

(?Í??)in the Qumran Literature

Murder or Destruction

Blood as Defilement

Blood in the Cultic Sense

(?Í??)in Philo

Blood Designating Family Relationship

Blood Typifies Humanity

Blood Designating Pollution/Defilement

Cultic Use of Blood

(?Í??)in Josephus

Blood to Denote Sense of Death

Blood to Denote Defilement/Purification

Blood to Denote Family Relationship

(?Í??)in Rabbinic Literature

Blood, Figurative/Superstitious Use

Blood in Cultic Use

Blood and Ritual Defilement

(?Í??)in the Greco-Roman World

(?Í??)in the New Testament

Blood as Death/Murder

Blood as a Designation for Humanity

Symbolic Use of Blood

Physiological Meaning of Blood

Blood Signifying the Vicarious Death of Christ

Possible Roots of the Blood Debate

Summary and Conclusion

(?Í??) IN THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS

Overview of the Argument of Hebrews

Paraenetic Passages

Protreptic Passages

(?Í??)Passages in Hebrews

(?Í??)as a Designation for the Human Family: Hebews 2:14

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

The Earthly High Priest Gained Access by Blood

Hebrews 9:7

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ Obtained Eternal Redemption by His Own Blood

Hebrews 9:12

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ’s Blood Is Superior to That of Bulls and Goats

9:13, 14

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

The First Covenant Was Inaugurated Not without Blood

9:18-22

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ’s Blood Purges Heavenly Things: 9:23

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Having Shed His Blood Once Christ Will Appear Again:9:24-28

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

The Blood of Bulls and Goats Cannot Take Away Sins: 10:4

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ’s Blood Provides Access to the Heavenly Sanctuary:10:19-25

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Punishment for the One Who Despises the Blood of the Covenant: 10:29

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Moses Observed the Blood of the Passover: 11:28

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Believers Have Not Yet Shed Their Own Blood: 12:4

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

The Blood of Christ Speaks Better Things Than Abel’s: 12:24

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ Shed His Blood Outside the Gate: 13:11,12

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Christ the Shepherd and the Blood of the Eternal Covenant: 13:20, 21

Text and Translation

Exegetical Considerations

The Significance of (?Í??)in the Text

Summary

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY