Subject Area: Criminology
Smale and Gounko study twelve men who dropped out of school early, and wound up in juvenile delinquency. While many studies have suggested a link between early school leaving and delinquency nobody has done a study from the perspective of the criminals using dissimilar populations. The directional causality between criminal behavior and dropping out of school has yet to be established, and this study brings researchers one step closer to fully understanding which one happens first. The authors outline a long list of factors that contribute to early school leaving, and they insist that educators can play a role in impacting the in school environment to create positive outcomes for students on the fence about dropping out.2009 0-7734-4802-0
This in-depth study of a juvenile institution in Alaska explores the issues of power, resistance, treatment, and culture. Based on original research it seeks to establish the mediated place of culture, in this case of Alaska Native cultures, within the examination and assessment of the workings of the institution2011 0-7734-1596-3
This study provides the only available chronologically complete history of Alcatraz
Island. It challenges many commonly held assumptions about Alcatraz as a prison
for dangerous criminals.2002 0-7734-7157-X1999 0-7734-7965-1
Part I provides a unique analysis of the public's perception of organized crime, discusses common myths, describes the most important attributes, addresses issues related to definition, and provides an in-depth look at contemporary global criminal enterprises. Part II is a unique history of organized crime in the Untied States from colonial America to the present day. It includes descriptions of the principal enterprises American organized crooks operate, and stresses the evolving nature of the phenomenon and the integral part played by political and economic elites. Part III focuses on theoretical issues. Provides a description of the sociological foundation and the development of organized crime theories and major organized crime paradigms.1994 0-7734-2248-X
The first part of the study investigates an area in criminology that has not been scrutinized scientifically -- discretionary as well as systematic police actions in domestic disputes. The second part tackles the controversial issue of the dangerousness of enforcing domestic disturbances, and identifies conditions which are most likely to result in police assaults and injuries. The empirically identified risk factors are subsequently used to provide recommendations on police training and occupational safety.1991 0-88946-979-2
A treatise on the medieval and Christian foundation of common law. Argues that intellectual sources for the concept known in criminal law as intention or mens rea owe a debt to various Christian writings and philosophy.1997 0-7734-8428-0
This book summarizes evidence about the state's experience with sharply curtailing juvenile institutionalization by closing the Montrose Training School. It examines the effect of this decision on the residential placement pattern, attitudes, experiences, and behaviors of juvenile offenders in Maryland. It reports the results of an empirical study, based on data collected from nearly 1,000 youths over a several-year period. The study examines three primary questions: a) What immediate effects did the policy to deinstitutionalize have on placements and services provided to the youths released during the transition time and later; b) what effects did the closing have on subsequent offending behavior; and c) what effects did the closing have on subsequent schooling and work experiences, family processes and arrangements, peer influences, and psychosocial adjustment of the juveniles. The first question is of particular interest to others considering closing an institution. The second and third are of particular interest to those grappling with the policy decisions regarding the use of institutions or community-based placements. The study helps to focus the debate by providing objective information about the costs and benefits of institutionalizing juvenile offenders.2001 0-7734-7643-12007 0-7734-5539-6
This work clearly renders, through selected interviews, the visions of police leaders, regarding the causes and approaches to be taken by police to the most pressing current events in the world. The freedom conferred to interviewees to probe into a series of topics and to voice their opinions supported by personal examples derived from their professional lives, is present throughout each interview. Transcriptions are reported in full, with supplied comments and notes.2004 0-7734-6347-X
Politics being what they are give rise to the dynamic changes that appear to be constant. These political changes reflect the desire for structural change as well. Basic to the structure of any nation is its commitment to a fundamental set of principles. This usually takes the form of a written Constitution. Outside research combined with unfulfilled expectations mesh with one another. The citizens must be convinced that the new government is indeed superior to that which was displaced. This work can be an example of how two very successful political systems provide stability within their populations.
The Constitution of the United States has experienced over two hundred years of peaceful changes in leadership. Great Britain bears witness to a similar history of stability. This is because the citizens of both these countries respect and trust their governments. The trust is warranted because protections from abuses of government are proscribed by law. This work is but a small example of what is possible if the government and the citizens have a clear and defined framework within which to exist. Exhaustive research was conducted and has been combined with a writing style that enables one to fully understand the underlying legal principles presented.
The purpose for this collection of essays is to influence the development of prison education programs and to sway educators and researchers to see the possibilities of working together through consistent, rational public policy for successful rehabilitation. Opening educational opportunities for those people in prison has been proven successful, and yet our society and lawmakers refuse to see the corollary between recidivism rates and education. Without an effective dialogue, we cannot begin to address the problem. The men who have written for this book do so with the hope that they can participate in a national debate about the causes and the effects the prison culture has upon the incarcerated. They hope their experiences with education can speak for the hundreds of thousands of other prisoners who do not have access to a public forum, who are intimidated into silence by the prison machinery, who are not literate enough to express themselves. They hope that their offerings here can, in some small way, contribute to reducing the suffering and frustration that hamper the rehabilitation of others in the system and to educate the public community about the prison culture of America.
This study examines the social science research which describes the occupational environment of correctional officers. Abandoning common popular misconceptions of “prison guards”, the authors analyze who correctional officers are, how they are trained, and the common problems that they share while maintaining security in America’s prisons. This study examines the role of prisons in society today, how that role has changed over time, and how correctional officers have been required to change as well. Not only is the formal structure of prisons explored, but a wide-ranging discussion of the interpersonal problems encountered by correctional officers is presented, including their interaction with inmates, the psychological problems that may result from this interaction, and the manner in which correctional officers adapt to these pressures. Rather than a monolithic stereotypical group, correctional officers are shown to be an increasingly diverse group of trained professionals, sharing many commonalities, yet also differing in many significant ways.2000 0-7734-7801-9
This study explores the social disorganization of the Yup’ik community in Western Alaska, examining the degree to which they had been absorbed into the so-called Western legal traditions. With illustrations.2006 0-7734-5715-1
This book provides an examination of the major criminological perspectives on the presence of crime and disorder in residential communities. The perspectives are examined within a framework of two central dimensions, social and physical capital. The rationale is that the level of social and physical capital in communities can influence the amount of crime. Communities are conceived as varying across positive, weak, or negative levels of social and physical capital. Negative social and physical capital produce higher levels of disorder and crime. Conversely, positive social and physical capital enables residents to lower social problems in communities. Weak social and physical capital allows more disorder because the community’s defenses against crime and disorder are not strong enough to combat these problems.
The general perspectives, which are examined in this book, include broken windows, defensible space, hot spots, collective efficacy, social disorganization, underclass gang communities, the post-industrialized communities and routine activities theory. The ameliorative programs, which are discussed in the book, include the weed and seed program, the moving to opportunity program, community policing, and empowerment zones.2001 0-7734-7661-X
This study attempts to shed light on the scope of crime and the fact that we have been misled by politicians and the media into thinking that our nation is about to be overrun by criminals. It begins with an overview of crime and discusses the amounts of crime in terms of numbers and rates. The figures do not add up to a crime wave. Succeeding chapters discuss economic considerations. All chapters attempt to acquaint the reader with the criminal justice system and how it works. How to rationally approach crime policy receives a front seat in the final discussion, and the reader is educated on the policy process to be able to work with elected officials and assist in the initiation of effective crime policy.2006 0-7734-5860-3
Within the federal government, nearly sixty investigative agencies exist. Except the multi-faceted Federal Bureau of Investigation, the majority hold jurisdiction over only a specific area of law, such as mail, income tax, or public lands. This myriad of civilian investigative agencies is in sharp contrast to the investigative agencies of the U.S. Armed Forces. Each branch relies on only one general agency to meet all of its investigative needs, while the federal civilian government relies on numerous specialized agencies. The central question addressed in this thesis is why or how has that contrast developed. Before addressing this central question, however, it is necessary to explore the history of investigations within the armed forces to determine the impetus for these agencies’ creation.
Despite a lack of published scholarship, enough data are available through government documents not only to trace the lineage of these agencies, but also to draw strong conclusions concerning their organizational structures, which are in contrast to those of the civilian investigative agencies. First, the gradual accruement of responsibilities by the federal government has resulted in numerous civilian agencies being created to meet specific investigative needs. Conversely, the Armed Forces’ investigative agencies were created to meet multiple investigative needs in the immediacy of war. Second, centralization was clearly a prerequisite for investigative autonomy within the military chain of command. Centralization affords organizational independence, which in turn severely limits the possibility of malicious interference with investigations from persons in positions of authority.
This study adds to the existing body of academic knowledge by exploring a previously untouched subject, one that, given the expanding role of the U.S. Armed Forces in criminal matters, is critically important to the discipline criminal justice science.
This book details the findings of a study into the operation of advance disclosure in the UK, where defective disclosure has been a central feature of many of the most notorious miscarriages of justice. It is widely accepted that the procedures for disclosure of ‘unused material’ have never operated as intended and that material which should be disclosed is routinely ignored. Furthermore, the criminal justice system appears incapable of adequately recognizing and correcting defective disclosure, with potentially disastrous consequences. The criminal justice system is increasingly dependent on the administrative construction of ‘cases’ – the paper form which forms the basis for all subsequent stages of the prosecution process. However, control of unused material remains very much in the hands of police and, therefore, the attitudes and working practices of officers are central to assessing the effectiveness, or otherwise, of the provisions. This study examined Criminal Procedure and Investigations Act (CPIA) disclosure in two regional police forces in an attempt to identify those factors, both cultural and institutional, which have acted to impede the effective operation of the disclosure provisions. This work illustrates the strategies used by investigators to circumvent the due process safeguards of the disclosure regime and, as such, is of interest to anyone concerned with the criminal justice system and the protection of human rights.2010 0-7734-1418-5
This book examines challenges to jury reforms in the transitional justice systems
of the post-Soviet countries. It also provides an analysis of the historical, political
and social contexts criminal justice reforms in the former Soviet Union. This book contains six color photographs and 1 black and white photographs.2001 0-7734-7606-7
The foundation of this analysis is that child sexual abuse is a form of communication that stems from, and perpetuates, the power hierarchy of the social structure. The study asks the questions: What do the stories of survivors and perpetrators tell us about the nature of child sexual abuse? What do these stories tell us about the power relations between the survivors and perpetrators as well as the society that breeds sexual abuse. It identifies rhetorical strategies and uses them to identify patterns in the discourse of survivors and abusers. The ultimate goal is to analyze the discourse surrounding sexual abuse in an attempt to shift the rhetorical emphasis from misunderstanding and blame to understanding and affirmation.2002 0-7734-7282-7
This work is based on real-life cases from courts relating to how justice is applied to Black men and women. It illustrates how the law works differentially to fulfill the aims of the greater society as opposed to those it is purported to serve. The demographic features of race and class undermine the specified purposes of the law and interfere with its original functions when invoked to protect the African-American female. When directed at the African-American male, it serves a divisive function which further alienates him both from society and family.2012 0-7734-2579-9
The Elmira Reformatory was without question the first prison in American penal history to employ the indeterminate sentence, good-time, and parole. For that distinction alone, Elmira represented a sea change in penal philosophy and practice. However, the Elmira Reformatory also lays claim to the first attempt in penal history to institute prison educational and vocational programs in a systematic fashion. The reformatory system at Elmira, distinctively so-called, was based on three great moving or controlling influences – labor, conduct, and education. According to its insightful founders, “if these influences were placed in the order most significantly to illustrate their powers over men upon whom they operated, they would stand in this relation to each other: Education, conduct and labor.” The factor that in most cases transformed men from hopeless felons to a comprehension of the possibilities of release and success in free society was the school room. Naturally following this perception and expansion of intellectual activity, came obedience to the rules, improved demeanor, and successful performance at work. In a word, the educational features of the Elmira system constituted the ground-work of the process of reformation. To it, all else was subservient, without it, expectation of improvement and reformation could not be reasonably entertained. Notwithstanding the late 19th century and early 20th century criticism of pathological reform, the educational program represents Elmira’s real legacy, and contribution to the evolution of penology.2004 0-7734-6402-6
This work covers the development of modern police and their history in the United Kingdom and the United States; the nationalization or centralization of the police function in the UK, the localization of police in the US and the police strikes in both countries in 1918-19 and their effects on the developing institutions. This work examines and explains the effects of the police strikes of 1918-1919 on the development and emergence of policing in both of these countries.
The background of the Diggs-Caminetti Case, involving prosecutions under the White Slave Traffic (Mann) Act. Treats dramatis personae, their families, and the post-conviction history of the principals, among other issues.2002 0-7734-7245-2
This work discusses the distinction between the ‘legal moral’ and ‘non-legal moral.’ It examines the work of several leading legal idealists: Fuller, Llewellyn, Finnis, Kelsen, Kant, Beyleveld, and Brownsword. It argues that the legal point of views is the point of view of enforcement. The non-legal moral point of view is that of rightness of a behavior abstracted from the issue of enforcement.2009 0-7734-3830-0
This book is an edited compilation of selected primary source documents (articles, reports, letters, court cases, speeches, newspaper accounts, governmental findings, and excerpts from memoirs and contemporary books) pertaining to health, medicine, medical education, disease, crime, and related areas in the United States from 1860 to the early years of the twentieth century. Due to early-twenty-first century interests in American health, diet, alcoholism, vaccinations, contagious diseases, and treatments, readers should find especially helpful an understanding of how an earlier generation of Americans coped with some of the same issues during a crucial period in the development of the foundations of modem America.1999 0-7734-3182-9
This is the first documentary investigation of the most crucial period of GULAG history --the 1930s--when this repressive body became a powerful component of the economy of the USSR. This book provides the base to substantiate the accusatory works of A. I. Solzhenitsyn, V. T. Shalamov and other writers who revealed the very grave crimes of the Soviet regime. This unique book is prepared by the most competent specialists from the Institute of Russian History and edited by historian Professor M. Khlusov.2003 0-7734-6887-0
This book examines the evolution of the concept of community policing and the theory of broken windows (introduced by James Q. Wilson and George Kelling in a 1982
Atlantic Monthly article). The work makes policy recommendations for the future
of policing in a post-September 11 world.
From the Foreword:
“. . . a substantial contribution to the public policy debate . . . Readers,
be they front-line police officers, those occupying leadership positions
in police departments, elected or appointive city officials, academic
researchers, or simply civic-engaged citizens, will profit enormously from Professor’s Weiss’s thoughtful, integrative, and challenging conclusions.”
– Prof. Ralph A. Rossum,
Claremont McKenna College
This is the only study that looks at female gang members in a small to medium size urban area, noting the lack of all-female gangs, conflicting views on the equal status of females in gender-mixed groups, continuing to investigate the level at which Black females are involved in the informal economy, and the possible time dimension aspects of Merton's innovator.2005 0-7734-6000-4
This book will focus on gender bias in perceptions of criminal women, using the extreme example of serial murder. Often, an examination of the extreme can show cultural biases with greater clarity. This book shows that men and women, as with more common homicide trends, carry out serial murdering in different patterns. Furthermore, this book will challenge some of the more influential explanations of serial murder put forth by noted people in the field arguing that many of these theories have failed to encapsulate the actions of women who commit these serial crimes. Lastly, this book will explore another possible definition of serial murder as well as some alternative theoretical approaches to the problem. While there have been numerous studies of male serial killers, studies of female serial killers are lacking, even though, as the statistics of this book document, there have been many over time.1999 0-7734-8175-3
Among the topics discussed are: notion of international law, relationship between international law and municipal law, basis of international law, sources of international law, subjects of international law, responsibility of States, sovereignty of States and the principle of non-intervention, etc.1997 0-7734-8669-0
When the Girls Reform School of Iowa opened, it became the first school of its kind (state funded and operated) west of the Mississippi River, and only the second such school in North America. This volume deals with the first years of the school's existence, using primary sources such as school records and journals.2006 0-7734-5696-1
Regardless of its reference to English, Spanish and Quechua, this dictionary covers a collection of international terms used by drug addicts and traffickers, terrorist organizations, law enforcement agencies, the military and secret services. It also incorporates acronyms, abbreviations and misrepresentations of the true meaning of some words. The emphasis on Latin America is presented because the players, coming from all sides of the equation, are well represented there.2006 0-7734-5786-0
London’s Bridewell Prison was the location of many “firsts” in penology. For the first time in world history, imprisonment at hard labor was substituted for corporal or capital punishment, which is the very definition of a penitentiary. In this connection, Bridewell should be regarded as the very first step in the development of the modern penitentiary. Indeed, its influence on the penitentiary system in America was enormous. Moreover, Bridewell still provides lessons in our own time as a reminder of how far we have not come relative to crime and punishment. Currently, in the United States, we are using the penal system to “warehouse” the poor, an idea that is not without historical precedent and predictable outcomes. Although Bridewell was a revolutionary experiment in penal reform, it ultimately failed to deliver what its proponents promised. Among some of the “firsts” to be found at Bridewell were a system of classification and treatment; trade training and education for all inmates; full-time paid prison staff (wardens, work supervisors, administrators, teachers, chaplains, and a prison doctor); trade training and education for young offenders (apprenticeship programs); and cell and solitary confinement.1996 0-7734-8762-X
The Fleet Prison is noteworthy for being one of the oldest of the English prisons, and one mentioned frequently in literature. This work explores the actual workings of the privately-owned debtors' prison, examining its earliest history from medieval times; the celebrated inquiry into the administration of the prison during the 1610s; the misuse of authority by the wardens in the 1680s onward; the infamous Parliamentary inquiry in 1729, based on the parliamentary reports, trial papers, etc,; to the closing by parliamentary legislation in 1842.2009 0-7734-4916-7
The majority of criminological literature focuses on male inmates using quantitative methods. This is the only work that examines black female offenders' perceptions of the etiology of crime.2013 0-7734-4330-4
The monograph is a quantitative investigation of the connection between youth employment, career-ladder positions, job stability and delinquency. Based on the empirical evidence, the findings suggest that career-ladder jobs reduce crime and delinquency by providing an environment in which youths holding future-oriented career jobs commit more in their long-term goals and may tend to associate with more pro-social associates in the workplace.
A brilliant contribution to the existing literature on adolescent employment and crime. It connects theory and research with public policy in a balanced manner and introduces the concept of career-ladder jobs as a guide to reduce crime and delinquency by looking at public policy and adolescent employment in a new way.2010 0-7734-3772-X
This book investigates the social construction of the processes of marijuana criminalization and marijuana medicalization. It is the first substantive study on the subject to include a detailed historical context in which to situate a new theoretical model for examining the contemporary U.S. drug policy debate.2006 0-7734-6008-X
African countries suffer from a serious lack in civil rights and public freedoms more than industrial countries do. This lacking, by itself, explains the low levels of reform so far attained in the criminal justice system, in general, and prisons, in particular. In many cases, the state authorities recognized formally some of the internationally-recognized fundamental rights and public freedoms via constitutional or statutory law. Some of this recognition appeared in the prison regulations of a few African nations. The authority’s negation of the right to organize trade unions, professional associations, political parties, or non-governmental human rights organizations, nonetheless, violated grossly the human rights of citizens, especially the powerless groups of prisoners, women and juveniles. Added to the urgent need to fulfill the States Parties’ obligation to the United Nations’ humanitarian law and the standard minimum rules for the treatment of offenders, the African penal institutions must be reformed by democratic methods to allow the public at large, as well as policy makers, to implement the best ways possible to reform the criminal justice, crime prevention, and the prison inmates. A full implementation of such programs, however, would be possibly enforceable only within a political and administrative system of rule that would be highly committed to the human rights of citizens, regardless of their penal status, especially the right to life, the civil and political rights, and the other economic, social, and cultural rights.1999 0-7734-8168-4
This volume focuses on the organizational dynamics peculiar to the Criminal Justice system, and how the explosion of technology has added increased complexity to critical decision-making process in an unstable environment which includes scarce public resources, community demands and court-mandated initiatives. It develops the current state of Public Safety technology, how the technology reflects dated Criminal Justice strategies and the current bureaucratic organizational structure. It examines current decision-making methodology common to most municipal law enforcement organizations, as well as the key elements of community policing as an organizational strategy. It concludes with a proposal for an Organizational Decision Support System which will radically change existing Criminal Justice Management Information systems so that modern police administrators will make quicker and more focused resource-allocation decisions that will support the agency mission, the organization, and the community it serves.2016 1-4955-0430-1
Many Americans are unaware of the rising problem of mass incarceration and its inevitable cost to the taxpayer. This study addresses this escalating issue and advises that change will only occur when we realize that applying appropriate educational resources toward this dilemma will enable inmates to receive the necessary job skills and training that will keep them from returning to our over-crowded prison systems.1997 0-7734-8671-2
A variety of approaches are included in this study of the nature, extent, and beliefs about crime in rural Iowa. Each presents a different facet of either criminal activity itself or responses made to real or imagined criminal activity within the state. Chapter headings include: Urban Bias and Rural Research; Iowa's Rural Crime; Rural Policing; Police Professionalization; State Involvement; Vigilantism; Subduing the Cornbelt Rebellion; and Conclusions2010 0-7734-3759-2
This study presents a revision of Hirschi’s social control theory that includes religion as an additional measurement arena of the social bond and tests its impact on various forms of criminality (property crime, drug use, violence, and general crime). This project also addresses the criticism that methodological problems and limited applications of the theory plague the literature by employing a longitudinal test of the theory using a nationally representative sample.2008 0-7734-4963-9
This work analyzes the interplay between the American political system and criminal justice policy, providing a comprehensive examination of the vital role politics plays in defining key elements of the criminal justice system.2012 0-7734-3081-4
In Europe as early as the thirteenth century and as late as the sixteenth century, non-human animals including rats, pigs, horses, and dogs were tried for criminal activities. Such trials were not sacrificial in nature; neither were they mock trials for entertainment. Rather, such trials were undertaken with great seriousness with appointed legal counsel for prosecution and defense, at some times before a judge and at other times before a judge and jury.
This phenomenon would strike modern sensibilities are being somewhere between eccentric and completely mad, and no one today believes that animals are capable of forming criminal intentions. This book answers the question of how this rather arcane practice is to be understood because it is true that today no animals are formally prosecuted for crimes in courts of law.2009 0-7734-4867-5
This study examines the reasons crime declined so rapidly in New Orleans following the 1996 implementation of the COMSTAT management and accountability style of policing. The author compares the results to similar efforts to reduce crime in the rest of the country by drawing on political and criminological theories of policing as well as sociological theories.
The assassination in 1986 of Olof Palme, a distinguished international statesman, remains to this day an unsolved mystery. While in some ways resembling the puzzling features inherent in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the continuing mystery has a deeper significance that the authors of this work seek to probe and elucidate. Any examination of the Palme assassination has to be conducted with reference to an extremely complex set of international factors. It is in this milieu that Palme found a special role for himself as an international statesman, seeking to mediate some of the lesser though deadly wars, in particular the Iran/Iraq conflict. Palme the Peacemaker had many enemies and a consideration of the role which may have been played by some of them is carefully examined, by a reference to a theoretical schema of the assassination phenomenon, of the motives and modalities of each of the likely candidates. There were many who had no wish to see an early settlement of the Iran/Iraq ward. Some of these were nation states with an animus against one or both of the combatants, Some hoped that hostilities would exhaust the two contenders, while others, such as international arms dealers, sought to profit. The authors see the Swedish Prime Minister as an unfortunate victim of a largely clandestine clash of forces: it is their identity that continues to elude investigators. The authors examine all the evidence, present their own case on these arcane matters, leaving it to the readers to come to their own conclusions.2005 0-7734-5980-4
This book examines the Attica Prison uprising of 1971. Specifically, it compares and contrasts five published accounts which were authored by individuals personally involved in the tragedy. After providing a brief history of prison rioting in the United States and reviewing the context of the Attica incident itself, a content analysis of the Attica stories is provided. The analysis reveals four dominant themes: military metaphors, racial friction, the underdog, and attributing responsibility. All of the narrators use these themes in their narratives, but each storyteller manipulates these themes in unique and intentional ways. These disparities stem from the varying social and occupational positions in which each narrator resides. This study suggests that prison riots are largely the result of reciprocally corrosive interchanges between those who live and work within a prison facility. For a correctional facility to function appropriately all parties within the prison system must be able to understand, accept, and negotiate various roles. When role expectations and specific interactions between inmates, guards, and facility administrators become unbalanced, a prison disturbance becomes more likely. This book provides a basic framework for creating a new approach to institutional rioting, and suggests ways research in this area might be improved.2002 0-7734-7039-5
During the 1980s and 1990s, American corporations claimed that the deployment of technology was leading to a more decentralized workplace. In fact, argues Gorton (criminology, U. of Northern Iowa) the exact opposite took place. He examines whether a similar phenomenon took place in a large prison system in Texas and
discusses whether organizational the external environment of the wider organizational world affected change in the prison. He answers both questions in the affirmative1997 0-7734-8663-1
Through the use of public documents and other primary sources, this volume offers a comprehensive review of the history and experiences of penitentiaries in the Far Southwest. While it is overall a chronological and topical examination of adult, male prisons in a specific region of the country, this study in particular addresses issues related to education and labor practices for inmates that changed over time in both format and intent. The study contributes to an understanding of penology in the present and provides a basis for informed decisions in the future. It reveals that policy for penal institutions in the Far Southwest represents reaction rather than action. It also introduces the reader to some of the harsh realities of prison life: inactivity, boredom, and frustration, culminating in devastating riots. It explores the issues of purpose and overcrowding as constant themes in penology. The situation in the Far Southwest, in most cases, reflects the national experience where politics, practices, and the question of rehabilitation versus punishment remain debated and unresolved concerns. It will be interest to scholars in sociology, criminal justice, and history, particularly in the area of the twentieth century and the American West.2002 0-7734-7237-1
This is the first full-length study of the most celebrated will in English history, a will which scandalized society, forced an immediate and rare statutory curb on testamentary freedom, precipitated a Chancery suit lasting more than half a century, and was one of the inspirations for Dickens’s Bleak House. This study, based on the records of the court of Chancery, family papers, and a wide range of official and other printed sources, will be of value to scholars in a number off fields. In business, it explores the activities of the house of Thellusson, one of the biggest firms in international trade and finance in the late 18th century. As social history it explains the place of this innovative will in the development of the law and practice of inheritance and family settlement among the new rich, and discusses the motives for and effect of the legislation hurriedly enacted in response to it. As legal history it provides an unusually detailed account of the workings of the court of Chancery in its most unpopular phase and in its most criticized sphere, the administration of an estate. Furthermore, because the entire property was directed to be invested in land, this study contributes to knowledge of 19th century agriculture by a detailed examination of land purchases and management.
This work is the first forensic science anthology to consolidate landmark primary source documents into one volume.
This two-volume work details the history of seminal penological thought and practice covering the period between 1557 and 1900. Based principally on primary source literature, the thirty-nine chapters of this anthology bring into sharp focus (1) the lives of the great European and American pioneering reformers in penology; (2) the most important pioneering experiments in prison and reformatory discipline; and (3) the histories and contributions of the major societies responsible for imparting impetus to prison reform in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The addition of endnotes and “Suggestions for Further Reading and Inquiry” sections following each chapter provides readers with a comprehensive and meticulously annotated collection of primary and secondary source materials from the rich history of penology. It is hoped that readers will be left with a just appreciation of the pioneers, institutions, and societies that constitute the knowledge base of modern penology, and that the period documents cited will inspire fresh scholarly inquiries that contribute to a more complete understanding and appreciation of the history of penological thought and practice.2004 0-7734-6256-2
This work explores the perceptions of police power by citizens and by the police officers themselves. This work is based on an extensive survey by the author. It adds to the much needed body of knowledge on the police and the public. In addition, there are recommendations on how to improve current relations. This book will be of great interest to those involved in criminology and law.
The culture of law enforcement organizations in the United States is modeled after a bureaucratic hierarchy. This envisions direction and leadership from the “top-down”. Traditionally, change does not come from the “bottom-up”. This study utilizes the Crawford Slip Method, which allowed for “Mass Interviewing and the Marshalling of Ideas to Improve Performance”. The methodology allowed this study to look at the issues of marginal employees from the lens of some of the most effected individuals, the non-management officers. Their insight provides some interesting revelations concerning their perceptions of marginal employees, supervisors and their organizations.
Using the eleven clauses of a statement of principles currently under consideration by the police service, this study discusses how members of the police service are thinking about what they actually do. The language in which these principles are phrased is examined as well as the relevance of these statements to the contemporary issues. This book introduces some of the vocabulary of philosophical ethics and discusses these ideas in relation to today's police service. The book also includes short case studies taken from the daily press with a few questions that use some of the vocabulary of ethical thinking.2005 0-7734-6037-3
This is a study of policing in six countries. These countries have some similarities but to a great extent are different. Several of these countries, India, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada have been influenced by the English approach to policing. Countries that were once colonies of the British Empire adopted the traditions and expectations of the British. Although these countries came under British rule there were differences in their culture and value system that were not eliminated by the British.2006 0-7734-5708-9
This book illustrates the reciprocal relationship between Finnish culture and Finnish policing. Cultural values, socio-economic and political backgrounds are used as the foundation to explain how the police work in Finland. Unlike many nations, the Finns consistently rank their police force as the most trustworthy among all the public institutions. In turn, the police benefit from a progressive culture in which tolerance, justice, and equality are highly practiced virtues. They act more like social change agents than those with impossible mandates. Through the lens of culture the authors focus on studying both the organization and the crafts of policing in Finland in contrast to police practices in the United States and elsewhere. The history, structure and functions of the Finnish police as well as the street practices are presented, vividly based on extensive fieldwork and personal interviews. This book will contribute to our understanding of why a society gets the police it deserves.2000 0-7734-7877-9
The tragedies of failed negotiations and tactical rescue attempts at Ruby Ridge, Waco, and the Good Guys electronic store highlight the difficulty of peacefully resolving hostage/crisis situations. The volatility of hostage-taking events, especially terrorist hostage takers, demonstrates the complicated challenges negotiators and tactical response teams face as they attempt to resolve hostage/crisis events. This text provides practical, tactical, and legal information concerning the interactive strategies of hostage negotiations. One of its major strengths is a comprehensive review of the legal perspectives related to hostage-taking incidents. The text is well-documented and draws on the experience of scholars and practitioners in an effort to provide the best information on determining the outcome of hostage-taking events. It ads to the behavioral science literature associated with the complicated process of hostage negotiations. The book is a blend of theory, research, practical, and legal discussion that makes it a valuable contribution to the literature on hostage negotiations.1997 0-7734-8564-3
Gripping first-person account of an 11-day takeover behind the walls of the Texas state prison in Huntsville in summer, 1974. Three inmates seized control of the school-library complex and took eleven prison employees hostage. It was the longest recorded instance of prison inmates holding hostages, and ended in death for several of the hostages and two of the inmates. At the time, the author was a correctional educator, and in his final year of education and training as a criminologist, and at the time was aware that few, if any, professional students of crime had the opportunity to observe a criminal event from within, from start to finish. He tried at every opportunity to study what they said, did, and how they did it. Includes illustrations.2010 0-7734-3693-6
This book argues for the importance of communication when facing problems associated with probation and parole. Based on the use of story-telling and listening as a way to influence behavior, the authors include fourteen fictionalized, reality-based narratives, which portray the reality of life within a large city’s violent urban core.
This study explores the structural, interactional and historical origins of antisystemic violence, that is violence in response to relatively stable sets of social relations and/or bureaucratized state structures, in today’s world. The study’s focus is primarily on militia groups in the Americas and Central Asia.1999 0-7734-7892-2
This work far exceeds any published work in breadth and depth on issues related to both gay and lesbian domestic violence. It includes preliminary results of two groundbreaking research projects; includes detailed information on assessment procedures and evaluation instruments, treatment modalities for gay and lesbian victims and batterers, and impact and intervention techniques for children of same-sex couples witnessing domestic violence. The chapter on ethics will assist professionals in specific fields (e. g. nurses, social workers, psychologists) to apply their ethical standards to gay and lesbian couples experiencing domestic violence.1997 0-7734-8547-3
The review begins in 1642, when the first juvenile was executed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and culminates in 1957, with the last (to date) execution. A total of 331 juveniles are included in the study. A socio-historical analysis of specific periods in history provides an explanation for the type of juvenile that was executed during the period. Characteristics of interests are the juvenile's age, race, and gender, in addition to the total number of juveniles executed during the given period. The social, political, and legal atmospheres of the era are reviewed to determine what, if any, effect these had on influencing the administration of capital punishment. Particular attention is given to the fifty years immediately following the Civil War, as juvenile executions reached unprecedented high numbers. This text is of interest to scholars of law, criminal justice, sociology, political science, philosophy, and history.2000 0-7734-7893-0
Examines the dynamics of abusive relationships and the role of firearms in violent acts, in an attempt to assist policy-makers and NCHIP in facilitating the most effective response to domestic violence. The research was conducted by faculty in the Criminal Justice Department at Marshall University as part of a continuing commitment to education, training, and research about domestic violence. Included are a literature review, analyses of primary and secondary data collected, and recommendations for policy and training.2004 0-7734-6445-X
This work provides the foundation for the study of United States Magistrate Judges and an examination of their behavior. The results presented in this work make a theoretical contribution to the literature supported by both qualitatively and quantitatively examining the roles and decisions of United States Magistrate Judges.
At the most fundamental level, this work shows that Magistrate Judges should no longer be overlooked in the public law literature and calls for more research on these, and other overlooked players in the judiciary.1999 0-7734-7902-3
This work is a collection of 78 appellate decisions in juvenile law that span the range of judicial opinion in this field during the 20th century. The work is not arranged in the typical law school casebook style by subject or topical heading, but rather by chronological date from 1905 to 1998. This arrangement gives the reader a sense of the flow of judicial opinion in juvenile justice from the court’s earliest decisions expounding the uniqueness of the juvenile court and its radical break with the criminal law and the punishing sanctions of 19th-century penology. In all, these cases reflect a century of caselaw that exhibits both contradiction and promise – a contradiction between the means-end role of juvenile law in the United States and a promise held out for a court seeking to come to grips with what many see as a rising tide of teen and sub-teen predatory criminality.2001 0-7734-7616-4
This work is an effort at understanding the various structural and organizational elements of the modern prison. The various elements of criminal justice policy and administrative s are synthesized with the emerging roles, ideologies and patterns of interactions within the modern correctional settings. Formal and informal systems of interaction are examined and analyzed with an emphasis on emerging trends of prison social organization. There are also important implications for criminal justice policy and research. It contains a lengthy overview of prison literature and a theoretical approach that is logical, consistent and easy to follow, including detailed and lengthy interactions with both correctional personnel and inmate population. The book is designed to serve a diverse audience. Its benefit is paramount to scholars of criminal justice, a field which is often hidden in thickets of ideology and rhetoric. This straightforward depiction attempts to undo the myths and misperceptions about the social structure of a penal institute.
A comprehensive outline of the current status of criminal justice education in America, this study highlights the interdisciplinary nature of the field with special emphasis on the areas of law, security, and forensic science, among others.1999 0-7734-8152-41997 0-7734-8781-6
This book is intended to fill the current gap in substance abuse prevention theory and practice. Based on what we now know in prevention research and practice, the book strongly recommends outcome-based and systems change approach.
A Systemic Analysis of Substance Abuse Prevention: Vision, Polemics, and Hope (Omowale Amuleru-Marshall)
School-Based Adolescent Drug Prevention: What Works and What Doesn't Work, What's Next? (Nancy S. Tobler)
Substance Abuse, Violence, and Crime (Albert G. Mata, Jr.)
Health Promotion: Strategies for a Generation at Risk (Richard P. Keeling, M.D., and Eric L. Engstrom)
Developing an Infrastructure for Community Prevention (Darlind J. Davis and Michael R. J. Felix)
Ethnographic Research Methods for Multicultural Community Needs Assessment: A Systems Change Perspective (Kristi O'Dell and Edith M. Freeman)
Fighting Back (Project Neighborhood) and Systems Change (Keith Brown)
Community Exchange: An Imperative in Substance Abuse Policy Development (Tamara J. Cadet)
Recommendations: Preventive Infrastructure (James Copple); Systemic Support (Janine Lee); Research and Evaluation (Mary Jo Larson)
Where Do We Go From Here? (Jacob U. Gordon)
With bibliography and appendices.2010 0-7734-3664-2
Using data from systematic social observations of police-citizen encounters, the statistical analyses demonstrate the importance of understanding the dynamics of police citizen encounters. The findings suggest how to enhance police legitimacy and improve the experiences of police citizen interactions. This book will appeal to criminal justice scholars and practitioners.
This study explores the patterns of femicide in 106 medium and large U.S. cities through the examination of the inequalities of race, gender, and economics.
The higher women climb in society, the more likely a woman will become a victim of fatal violence against women (femicide). This study explores the patterns of femicide in medium and large U.S. cities through the examination of the macro-structural inequalities of race, gender, and poverty, which contribute to femicide rates. Using path analysis, this study shows a complex view of femicide grounded in the feminist intersectionality perspective that women’s lives are shaped by the interlocking oppressions of gender, race, and class. The results describe how intersectional discrimination predicts high femicide rates for both black women and white women, but when gender, race, and class are examined separately, there are significant differences. As women gain gendered status, both black women and white women are more likely to be murdered, which can be explained by a backlash against the advances women have made in society. Moreover, black women are more likely to be murdered in a city with greater racial discrimination and white women are more likely to be murdered in a city with a lower economic status than other cities. 2011 0-7734-1578-5
This monograph examines why stalking victims are offered poor protection and little support by the police. It advocates the refinement of police methods of recruitment, training and evaluation to combat the effects of patriarchy and gender issues in university criminal justice programs.2010 0-7734-3734-7
This study documents the history and formation of a community panel drug court in Woodbury County, Iowa. This model is shown to be one of the most successful and low cost options for dealing with non-violent offenders with substance abuse problems.