Hinkle, William G. Books
Dr. William G. Hinkle is currently an Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Chowan University in Murfreesboro, North Carolina. From 2003 to 2007 he was Chair of the Criminal Justice Program at Ivy Tech State College, in South Bend, Indiana. He worked in the criminal justice system for 15 years, before obtaining his doctorate in sociology from Western Michigan University in 1995. In 2006 he published A History of Bridewell Prison: 1553-1700 (Mellen Press). He and Dr. William Hartley (St. Joseph's College) are currently working on a second book on the history of the Elmira Reformatory (1877-1900), and on a book tracing the history of the rehabilitation movement in American corrections from 1930 to 1970.2012 0-7734-2579-9
The Elmira Reformatory was without question the first prison in American penal history to employ the indeterminate sentence, good-time, and parole. For that distinction alone, Elmira represented a sea change in penal philosophy and practice. However, the Elmira Reformatory also lays claim to the first attempt in penal history to institute prison educational and vocational programs in a systematic fashion. The reformatory system at Elmira, distinctively so-called, was based on three great moving or controlling influences – labor, conduct, and education. According to its insightful founders, “if these influences were placed in the order most significantly to illustrate their powers over men upon whom they operated, they would stand in this relation to each other: Education, conduct and labor.” The factor that in most cases transformed men from hopeless felons to a comprehension of the possibilities of release and success in free society was the school room. Naturally following this perception and expansion of intellectual activity, came obedience to the rules, improved demeanor, and successful performance at work. In a word, the educational features of the Elmira system constituted the ground-work of the process of reformation. To it, all else was subservient, without it, expectation of improvement and reformation could not be reasonably entertained. Notwithstanding the late 19th century and early 20th century criticism of pathological reform, the educational program represents Elmira’s real legacy, and contribution to the evolution of penology.2016 1-4955-0438-7
This study encompasses the full history of the Elmira reformatory model that was based on a highly structured disciplinary penal program designed to instill, in the offender, behavioral changes that would help to develop socially and morally conforming conduct within the prison population and enable the offender to reintegrate productively back into society upon his release from prison.2006 0-7734-5786-0
London’s Bridewell Prison was the location of many “firsts” in penology. For the first time in world history, imprisonment at hard labor was substituted for corporal or capital punishment, which is the very definition of a penitentiary. In this connection, Bridewell should be regarded as the very first step in the development of the modern penitentiary. Indeed, its influence on the penitentiary system in America was enormous. Moreover, Bridewell still provides lessons in our own time as a reminder of how far we have not come relative to crime and punishment. Currently, in the United States, we are using the penal system to “warehouse” the poor, an idea that is not without historical precedent and predictable outcomes. Although Bridewell was a revolutionary experiment in penal reform, it ultimately failed to deliver what its proponents promised. Among some of the “firsts” to be found at Bridewell were a system of classification and treatment; trade training and education for all inmates; full-time paid prison staff (wardens, work supervisors, administrators, teachers, chaplains, and a prison doctor); trade training and education for young offenders (apprenticeship programs); and cell and solitary confinement.