White, Garland F. Books
Dr. Garland F. White is Associate Professor of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Old Dominion University. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Washington. Dr. White has presented papers at the American Criminological Society and American Criminological Justice Sciences, and has published articles in Justice Quarterly, Social Forces, Sociological Focus, and Environment & Behavior.2006 0-7734-5715-1
This book provides an examination of the major criminological perspectives on the presence of crime and disorder in residential communities. The perspectives are examined within a framework of two central dimensions, social and physical capital. The rationale is that the level of social and physical capital in communities can influence the amount of crime. Communities are conceived as varying across positive, weak, or negative levels of social and physical capital. Negative social and physical capital produce higher levels of disorder and crime. Conversely, positive social and physical capital enables residents to lower social problems in communities. Weak social and physical capital allows more disorder because the community’s defenses against crime and disorder are not strong enough to combat these problems.
The general perspectives, which are examined in this book, include broken windows, defensible space, hot spots, collective efficacy, social disorganization, underclass gang communities, the post-industrialized communities and routine activities theory. The ameliorative programs, which are discussed in the book, include the weed and seed program, the moving to opportunity program, community policing, and empowerment zones.