Subject Area: Philosophy

diamonds?tra’s Logic of Not and a Critique of Katz’s Contextualism
2006 0-7734-5807-7
The “logic of not” proposes a holistic way of understanding things, which is contrasted with Aristotelean either-or logic, while “A Critique of Katz’s Contextualism” examines Katz’s contextualist’s position from the point of view of the logic of not. The “logic of not” is a careful philosophical examination of the Diamons?tra, a Mayahana Buddhist sutra, which has influenced the formation of Zen Buddhism, while “A Critique of Katz’s Contextualism” critically investigates various philosophical issues Steven Katz mounts in order to build his contextualist’s position.

Aesthetics of the Critical Theorists Studies on Benjamin, Adorno, Marcuse, and Habermas
1990 0-88946-368-9
Essays which attempt to communicate to the reader some of the major contributions of Frankfurt School critical theory to aesthetics by means of secondary studies of such figures as Benjamin, Adorno, Marcuse, Lukács, Collingwood, Foucault, and Habermas. Essayists include Eugene Lunn, Douglas Kellner, Sabine Wilke, Barry Katz, Richard Wolin, Rainer Nägele, Lambert Zuidervaart, Thomas Huhn, Ronald Roblin, Janelle Reinelt, David Ingram, Margaret Rose, Stephen White, and Thomas Dumm.

Aesthetics of the Mind - After MallarmÉ
1996 0-7734-8763-8

Albertelli’s Parmenides: A Translation of Pilo Albertelli’s Annotated Italian Version of Diels-Kranz
2016 1-4955-0487-5
One of the virtues of Pilo Albertelli’s work on the Presocratics is that it gives us an insight into the state of Eleatic studies, especially in Italy and Germany, in the years preceeding WWII. It also provides those not fluent in Ancient Greek, but who understand Italian (now English) a ready access to all of the documents dealing with Parmenides in Diels-Kranz, Die Vorsokratiker. - Translator’s Preface

American Women Philosophers, 1650-1930. Six Exemplary Thinkers
1993 0-7734-9266-6
This text introduces six American women (Anne Bradstreet, Mercy Otis Warren, Mary Whiton Calkins, Judith Sargent Murray, Frances Wright, and Ednah Dow Cheney), and discusses their works as philosophy. This anthology presents a number of works never reprinted and difficult to locate. The works are of interdisciplinary interest: philosophy, feminist philosophy, women's studies, political science, and history.

An Approach to the Sacred in the Thought of Schopenauer
1992 0-7734-9818-4
The purpose of this study is to systematically determine whether the question of the Sacred has any relevance in Schopenhauer's analysis of the human condition. In light of his metaphysical and anthropological claims, this study proposes that the question of the Sacred remains open given certain "unanswerables" to which Schopenhauer himself alludes in his treatment of the denial of the will-to-live, as specifically manifested in aesthetical and ethical praxis.

An Aristotelian Approach to Ethical Theory - The Norms of Virtue
2004 0-7734-6306-2
The project of this work is to combine an interpretative study of Aristotle’s thinking about the foundational elements of ethical theory with the formulation of a theory of ethical normativity that is based on those same elements, but that is independently formulated and analyzed. In particular, the book argues that virtue ethics, of an Aristotelian type, can provide a coherent and satisfying theory of normativity, although this has sometimes been denied in modern scholarship. Normativity is sometimes thought to require a theory of a deductive type, in which ethical norms are derived from the principle of universalization (Kant’s view) or from a universal principle, such as, in Utilitarianism, the maximization of human happiness. The claim here is that normativity can also, and more plausibly, be established inductively through an examination of human nature—as understood through a variety of means, including the ethical agent’s own sense of what human nature consists in and scientific psychology—and the interrelated Aristotelian ideas of virtue, happiness, and particular relationships. The suggestion is that, if norms are grounded in this way, we can establish a normative framework that corresponds to the reality of human shared and individual experience and that is, therefore, more cogent than one that depends (deductively) on abstract, universal principles. This Aristotelian, inductive, theory is offered as embodying a cogent account of ethical normativity, which represents a contribution to current philosophical debate on the nature and basis of ethical norms.

An Integrated Psychological and Philosophical Approach to Justice Equity and Desert
2001 0-7734-7406-4
The first part of this volume critically reviews modern philosophical approaches to justice, charts the rise and fall of equity theory in psychology, and describes the conceptual turmoil that has resulted since its decline. The second part of the book argues that by combining the results of modern psychological research into justice and sociobiology with our knowledge of the ancient philosophical traditions of justice, and tracing some of the historical development of these traditions, it is possible to define fundamental, unifying, core principles of justice, and to gain a unique insight into the roots of problems that now confront theorists and researchers. It is not only a unique treatise on the nature of justice, it also serves as a valuable integrated interdisciplinary reference source in an otherwise fragmented area.

An Interpretation and Assessment of First-Person Authority in the Writings of Philosopher Donald Davidson
2003 0-7734-6545-6
First-person authority is the thesis that subjects have a privileged non-evidence-based form of epistemic warrant for self-ascriptions of psychological concepts that does not attach to third-person evidence-based ascriptions of the same concepts. Davidson thinks the fact that we do have first-person authority over self-ascriptions of psychological concepts gives rise to two connected philosophical problems. The epistemic problem: How can non-evidence based self-ascriptions of psychological concepts be more justified than third-person ascriptions that are evidentially based? The skeptical problem: Why are we warranted in thinking that the psychological concepts we ascribe to ourselves without appeal to evidence are the same as the corresponding psychological concepts others ascribe to us on the basis of evidence?

An Introduction to the Process-Understanding of Science, Society, and the Self a Philosophy for the Modern Man
1988 0-88946-336-0
Draws out the implications of the process-rational vision in its understanding of the self, society, politics, psychology, the natural sciences and education.

Anglo-Ukrainian Studies in the Analysis of Scientific Discourse Reason and Rhetoric
1993 0-7734-9284-4
This study examines two aspects of science that have become important in the post-logicist period. It shows how the organization of scientific discourse is more clearly disclosed when we analyze it as a persuasive rhetoric. Logic itself shifts from being taken as a universal grammar to being seen as one among several devices for securing the conviction of one's readers or audiences. Provides a formal characterization of aesthetic criteria, and an awareness of the influence of social factors from outside the scientific community. Explores several ways in which their mutual influence can be identified.

Anselmian Approach to God and Creation
1997 0-7734-8668-2
Contemporary philosophers of religion frequently cite the medievals with approval. The school of analytic philosophers who aim to unpack the notion of a perfect being even label their method 'Anselmian'. Often, though, contemporary philosophers misunderstand or even ignore key aspects of the medieval system of religious philosophy, the upshot being that contemporary criticisms and even defenses often miss the mark. In this series of essays, the author sets out the traditional views on certain questions in the philosophy of religion, and to defend these views in the contemporary idiom. Some essays deal with doctrines like divine simplicity and eternity which are frequently rejected today, but which were held almost universally by medieval philosophers in the latin west. Many concentrate on the work of St. Anselm (including a long and daring piece on his idealism).

Anti-Hegelian Reading of Economic Theory
2002 0-7734-7275-4
This book examines political economy through the eyes of a philosopher. The framework for analysis is a materialistic and naturalistic one based on logical considerations, identified with a Western philosophical tradition which stretches from Epicurus to Aquinas to Rousseau to the contemporary anti-Hegelian reaction of Feuerbach, Marx and Della Volpe. It builds an original philosophical approach, analyzes economic doctrines from the point of view of their logical shortcomings, producing a highly original view of the relationship between capitalist culture and political economy, and sketching an alternative political economy, concrete-based, historical and taxonomic.

Apuleius' Debt to Plato in the metamorphoses
2003 0-7734-7012-3
This book argues for a Platonist approach to the novel Metamorphoses, and shows that Apuleius forms his own theory of discourse in his philosophical work. This study of Apuleius’ late Roman novel is also a response to the scholarly debate about the unity of the text. The author shows that the Metamorphoses is a perfect illustration of the very Platonic notion of an inferior discourse that is captivating, persuasive, and suited to dealing with inconsistent or ephemeral subjects.

Aristotelians of Renaissance Italy
1991 0-7734-9697-1
This study contends that Aristotelian currents in Italian Renaissance philosophy are complex, distinctive, and significantly relevant to a complete history of philosophy for the period from the 14th to 17th centuries. Provides detailed expositions of some of the central philosophic portions of the most significant Aristotelian authors.

Aristotle and Christianity
2016 978-1-4955-0508-9
This monograph is the closing work in a series of ten titles by Dr. Paul Berry. The collection began with an initial study, The Christian Inscription at Pompeii. This work traced the line of cultural, philosophical and theological inheritance that extends from the philosophy or Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) to the theology of Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274 A.D.)

Aristotle and Style
2005 0-7734-6194-9
This book examines what Aristotle has to say about style, metaphor, the figures of speech, and other less recognized stylistic elements within his corpus. Proceeding from the texts themselves, this study argues that Aristotle's discussion of style in the Rhetoric is conceptually consistent with his treatment of invention in that text. By applying Aristotle's theory to his own intellectual practices in the Nicomachean Ethics, this study also illuminates the way that Aristotle's thinks through his intellectual and rhetorical practices. As such, Aristotle offers to contemporary readers a relatively coherent understanding of what style is and how it contributes to successful and appropriate persuasion in more than the traditional decorative sense. He also demonstrates the range of his own theoretical statements. In these ways, Aristotle provides us with a fresh perspective on ancient and contemporary concerns with language.

Aristotle Versus the Atheists: on the Existence of God and the Immortality of the Soul
2009 0-7734-4899-3
This work argues for the restoration of Aristotelianism to the college curriculum to countervail the prevailing focus on modernism and to counteract the twenty-first century proliferation of atheist tracts.

Aristotle's Organon in Epitome, the Poetics, the Rhetoric, the Analytics Aristotle's Tool-Kit
1996 0-7734-8884-7
This volume brings together Aristotle's interrelated views of poetry, speech-making, and inference, so that they create the equipment needed by students of the arts and sciences for the pursuit of their inquiries in the disciplines and the study of the histories of these disciplines and their landmark texts. Aristotle's poetics emerge from the book's analytic summaries as responsive to the expressiveness of Greek tragedy, while his rhetoric is brought into a closer relation with the logic of inference, made necessary by the persistence of sophistic reasoning in philosophy, literary criticism, and the discourse of our public sphere.

Augustine and the Phenomenological Question of Time / Augustinus Und Die PhÄnomeologische Frage Nach Der Zeit
2008 0-7734-5131-5
In this work F.-W. von Herrmann, Professor Emeritus of Freiburg Universität im Breisgau, demonstrates the direct influence of Augustine of Hippo on the thought of Husserl and Heidegger. The importance of the translation lies in its presentation of Augustine as a phenomenological thinker on the question of time to an audience unaware of his influence on the contemporary age.

Being Awake, Being Asleep, and the Meaning of Being in Heidegger’s Thought: The Phenomenological Access to the Ontological Question
2005 0-7734-6074-8
What is the relationship between the phenomena of being asleep and being awake and Heidegger’s formulation of the question of the meaning of Being as presented in Sein und Zeit? Careful and meticulous thought and research must precede even an initial answer to such a question. Two major difficulties stand in the way of anyone who wishes to become involved in such a query. First, the paucity and neglect of both information and research on the phenomena of being asleep and being awake, in general, leaves one bereft of an initial direction(s) to follow, let alone to compare another method of investigation with Heidegger’s own. Second, internal to Heidegger’s own work, there is little reference to the phenomena of being asleep and being awake. Indeed, as will be found, there is direct evidence that shows that a phenomenology of being asleep (and thus indirect evidence of a phenomenology of being awake) has never been done. Consequently, although these two major difficulties present themselves, there must also be a recognition of the rich potential analysis of the phenomena of being asleep and being awake as well as the undoubted acknowledgement of the originality of such research. If our present thesis is seen in this light, we must understand such a thesis is but a prolegomenon to future work. A detailed study must be instigated that will enable us to lay a firm basis from which other Heideggerian texts will be analysed. Such an approach will hopefully also open investigations into other disciplines of thought. More specifically, the present thesis, in attempting to lay such a foundation, not only will endeavour to define the relationship between asleep and being awake with Heidegger’s thought, but also will begin to bring to light major questions with which to confront Heidegger by way of asking whether Heidegger has defined those basic phenomena which go into the making of Dasein’s structural wholeness and overall unity. This will allow us, in future work, to discern if Heidegger had indeed been able to ask the question of the meaning of Being to the degree that he deemed possible.

Bernard Lonergan’s Macroeconomic Dynamics
2004 0-7734-6413-1
While there has been growing interest in Lonergan’s economics among scholars of his work, there has been relatively little published on those writings, partly because they have not been widely available before their publication in the Collected Works. This work contributes toward Lonergan studies, situating Lonergan’s economic analysis in terms of his early and more mature philosophy of history. This book examines Bernard Lonergan’s essays in terms of his reflections upon human history and society and as contributing to the discussions regarding the free and democratic constitution of exchange economies. It aims to contribute to the wider discussion among moral and political philosophers and theologians concerning the responsible direction and constitution of economic life.

Bibliography on East Asian Religion and Philosophy
2001 0-7734-7318-1
This comprehensive research bibliography compiles, annotates, indexes and cross-references resources in the principal Western languages of English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish which focus on East Asia (principally China, Japan, and Korea) in the primary areas of philosophy and religious studies, with supporting resources in theology, history, culture, and related social sciences. The bibliography is organized both thematically and geographically, and the index gives not only author’s and subject’s names, but includes a wide range of topics and sub-topics as well. A notable additional feature of this bibliography is the inclusion of extensive Internet-based resources, such as a wide variety of web-sites, discussion lists, electronic texts, virtual libraries, online journals and related material which allow for easy further research. “Of particular interest are subsections on current subjects of interest (business and economic ethics, human rights, etc,). Bretzke’s inclusion of annotated East Asia Internet Resources is also extremely useful.” – Philip L. Wickeri

Bioethical and Ethical Issues Surrounding the Trials and Code of Nuremberg
2003 0-7734-6608-8
Interdisciplinary essays on the ethical issues which encompassed the trials and Code of Nuremberg have been collated from researchers from various countries in fields as diverse as medicine, bioethics, psychoanalysis, history, philosophy, Jewish thought, law, and ethics. The book focuses on five main areas: the juridical originality of the Nuremberg trials; the scientific, epistemological, and psychoanalytic backgrounds of racism and anti-Semitism; the biomedical and bioethical issues of the Nuremberg Code; a post-Nuremberg historical, ethical, and philosophical study of the notion of a ‘crime against humanity’; and the Jewish perspective on purity, impurity, race, and the universal ethical expectations of mankind. The goal of the interdisciplinary study is to outline the necessary components of a bridge between science ethics, and ethics and law.

Bouwsma's Notes on Wittgenstein's Philosophy, 1965-1975
1995 0-7734-8885-5
Bouwsma's notes focus on sections of the Philosophical Investigations and Blue Book with the aim of helping a reader understand the unique insights which Wittgenstein brought to philosophy. Wittgenstein's writing is indirect, fragmented, and presupposes an occupation with specific philosophical problems. Established philosophers argue over the simplest interpretations, such as whether he was an empiricist, nominalist or skeptic. Bouwsma's work helps the reader appreciate Wittgenstein's insights. Bouwsma understands and can demonstrate how to apply Wittgenstein to the theories of other philosophers such as Descartes, Plato, and St. Augustine. This volume will be useful as a reference for philosophers and students working with the Philosophical Investigations and Blue Book.

Bradley's Moral Psychology
1987 0-88946-306-9
An in-depth look at the moral philosophy of F. H. Bradley with a view to comparing his grounding of morality with the dominant positions of his time and ours.

Brain, Mind and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive Science
2007 0-7734-5315-6
This book engages a range of currently debated issues in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science, challenging certain cognitivist positions in contemporary neuroscience. In addressing each topic, an effort is made to illuminate the historical-philosophical origins of the problems confronted, exposing a central the way in which various forms of philosophical materialism are often uncritically invoked to buttress ‘scientific’ claims about the human mind/brain and behavior. The authors conclude that a radical reorientation is required if the confusion that permeates the field is to be eliminated.

Brain, Mind and Soul in the Theological Psychology of Donald Mackay, 1922-1987
2008 0-7734-5519-1
This work seeks to present a Post-Cartesian metaphysical anthropology that is consistent with both contemporary philosophy and Reformed Evangelical Christian Theology. It does so by examining the intellectual legacy of Donald M. MacKay, arguing that his concept of complementary descriptions leads us to a deeper understanding of both modern neurophysiology and the Christian hope for personal life beyond the grave. Covering a wide range of topics from the history of philosophy and theology to logic, the philosophy of language, information theory, freedom and determinism, and the philosophy of mind, this work attempts to present an updated form of the school of thought Donald MacKay founded and ambitiously named ‘Comprehensive Realism’. This book contains 5 black and white photographs.

Brouillon Zur Ethik/notes on Ethics (1805/1806) Translated and Edited by John Wallhauser
Notes on the Theory of Virtue (1804/1806)
translated with Introduction and Notes by Terrence N. Tice
2002 0-7734-7156-1
During 1804-05 and 1805-06, while teaching at the University of Halle, Friedrich Schleiermacher lectured twice on philosophical ethics. From the first lectures only his notes on the theory of virtue are extant. In 1805-1806, however, we have his own dense notes covering 98 hours of lectures. He planned to revise this (Brouillon zur ethik) for publication, a project which was never completed. But these Halle lectures reveal for the first time the details of his distinctive approach to ethics as a philosophy of culture. In these lectures he presents ethics as the critical examination of reason embodied in selves in community. He unfolds the web of relations of selves within the diverse communities of formative action, communication and language, art, the state, friendship, knowing, and transcendence. This translation makes available in English the first systematic presentation of his ethics as an inclusive vision of cultural goods, virtues and duties. His emphasis on the idea of the highest good leads to a recovery of the teleological principle in which morality consists in the formation of structures, i.e., the goods of the moral life which he calls cultural organs. These organs, in turn, are used in the exchange of ideas and goods. His critical philosophy – against the stream of the prevailing transcendental philosophy – is dialogically open, and thus resists a speculative absorption of differences and opposes the subordination of the individual to a totalizing whole. His ethics confronts issues that still reach into today’s questions of pluralism, language communities and communication, and the individual in relation to community.

C. L. Lewis and the Social Theory of Conceptualistic Pragmatism the Individual and the Good Social Order
1992 0-77349800-1
The purpose of this book is to provide a detailed examination of the social theory present within the ethics of C. L. Lewis. To date, no one has devoted sustained attention to Lewis' conception of the good social order. This volume utilizes previously unpublished manuscript materials. It presents his ideas from within the framework of his pragmatic philosophy as a whole, growing out of its positions on knowledge and value. Lewis' philosophy emerges from this study as a consistent and cohesive whole possessing a profoundly pragmatic core. This volume is a complement and supplement to the literature currently available on this important American pragmatist.

Catholic Supporters of Same- Gender Marriage: A Case Study of Human Dignity in a Multicultural Society
2009 0-7734-4854-3
This work presents the emerging theory of transcendent pluralism and its application in a study of Catholic supporters of same-gender marriage. Transcendent pluralism is an emerging knowledge and values-based theory of human dignity for addressing contemporary social issues rooted in human devaluation such as group bias, social injustice, health disparities, human rights violations, violent conflict and genocide. Transcendent pluralism is grounded in a philosophical explication of human dignity and has been influenced by the writings of twentieth-century philosopher and theologian, Bernard Lonergan. The legalization of same-gender marriage in Massachusetts brought the issue of bias against gays and lesbians into public discourse. During this controversial time, many of the theoretical constructs of transcendent pluralism were manifested, particularly among Catholics who support same-gender marriage. In order to investigate and refine the theory, a study was conducted of Catholic same-gender marriage supporters, using a qualitative research method adapted from Lonergan’s transcendental method. The study results reflect personal and community development involving mutual transformation with progressive understanding and realization of human dignity. This work will appeal to people who are interested in cultural pluralism, group relations, philosophy, Lonergan studies, humanities, social justice, human rights, gay and lesbian studies, Catholicism, ethics, research methods, nursing and health disparities.

Certainty and Surface in Epistemology and Philosophical Method
1991 0-7734-9711-0
A collection of articles by distinguished philosophers from the US and Europe on two central topics in epistemology, certainty and surfaces. Four of the ten articles discuss Avrum Stroll's Surfaces (1988), and the collection as a whole is intended to honor Stroll's work.

Children’s Rights, State Intervention, Custody and Divorce: Contradictions in Ethics and Family Law
2005 0-7734-6049-7
This book is about four philosophical problems that arise from consideration of the legal relationship of the state to the family and the ethical relationship of individuals within families: Do children have the same rights enjoyed by adults under the United States Constitution? What are the conditions under which the state is justified in intervening in the family in order to protect children and other family members? What standards should the state adopt to resolve disputes between parents and others over child or embryo custody? Can traditional ethical theory be used to resolve moral problems arising within families? Several solutions to each of these problems are presented and subjected to critical examination. Emerging from this study is a foundation for the development of a consistent theory of family law and family ethics that will stimulate and advance scholarship in the philosophy of law and social ethics

Classical Rhetorical Thought: Selected Highlights
1991 0-7734-9914-8
Studies the development of rhetorical theory within the framework of the definitive questions: what is rhetoric; what constitutes a good speaker; how should truth be defined; what is knowledge; and what is involved in audience analysis. Examines the how these questions are treated by Plato, Isocrates, Aristotle, Cicero, Quintilian, St. Augustine, Peter Ramus, and John Locke. Begins with the preface that man's desire to understand himself and the world in which he lives is founded in a study of history; that it is through an understanding of an era's social organizations and behaviors (which are revealed by its rhetoric and rhetorical theories) that insight can be gained into the manner in which the leaders of that time perceived two concepts: the nature of man, and the interrelationships of man and his world. Contemporary exercises and projects invite the reader to apply the concepts explored to modern issues.

Classics of Arab Moslem Philosophy. Volume One
1999 0-7734-3206-X
For the first time this unique two-volume set collects together the translations of the outstanding Russian philosopher-Arabist and brilliant translator A.V. Sagadeev. Presented are the works of the following well-known Arab-Moslem thinkers of the Middle Ages : Al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), Al-Kindi, Ibn-Badji (Avempace), Ibn-Rushd (Averoes), Ibn-Rushd, Ibn-Tufeil, As-Suhravardi. Being one of the top achievements in the translation of the complicated philosophical texts, this book provides the most complete access to the scientific interests and theories of the mentioned medieval philosophers.

Classics of Arab Moslem Philosophy. Volume Two
1999 0-7734-3192-6
For the first time this unique two-volume set collects together the translations of the outstanding Russian philosopher-Arabist and brilliant translator A.V. Sagadeev. Presented are the works of the following well-known Arab-Moslem thinkers of the Middle Ages : Al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), Al-Kindi, Ibn-Badji (Avempace), Ibn-Rushd (Averoes), Ibn-Rushd, Ibn-Tufeil, As-Suhravardi. Being one of the top achievements in the translation of the complicated philosophical texts, this book provides the most complete access to the scientific interests and theories of the mentioned medieval philosophers.

Cock for Asclepios Continuing Dialogues with Socrates, in Extremis
1991 0-7734-9916-4
Explores the logic of not-knowing, dramatically presented in the middle-period dialogues of Plato. Contends that Plato first perceived such a logic of not-knowing in the person and behaviour of the man Socrates. Argues that Plato developed the same logic in the literary character Socrates in his dialogues and presented it to his contemporaries as a model of human excellence, as the new arete designed to supplant precedent and then contemporary contenders to model status. Challenges the traditional interpretation of Plato. Offers a new interpretation of Plato as the elaborator of the hypothetical method, termed "Erotic-hypothesizing", which speaks of human possibility and human limitation.

Collapse of Philosophy and Its Rebirth
2006 0-7734-5594-9
This monograph can be called a forensic study of the lethal effects of the First World War on the European cultural tradition. Philosophy was considered as the foundation of that tradition. The monograph describes this metamorphosis taking as the case study of the problem of the individual, this “nucleus of genuinely German thought” (Troeltsch). The monograph contains a critical analysis of the problem of the individual as it was treated in the 1900s by the pure phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and the transcendental axiology of Heinrich Rickert. Mikhail Bakhtin creates a new approach to the problem of the individual bringing together and transforming the ideas of Marx and Stirner, Lotze and Nietzsche, Simmel and Windelband, William James and Max Weber. The present study may be the first step to demonstrate the potential of Bakhtin’s early work which remains largely undiscovered.

Commentary of Conrad of Prussia on the De Unitate Et Uno of Domenicus Gundissalinus
1990 0-88946-302-6
Bobik's comments on Conrad's commentary extract whatever is of philosophical value in the De Unitate et Uno. An account of the work and thought of Gundissalinus is provided to serve as a useful background in understanding the philosophical value of the work

Communitarianism, Liberalism, and Social Responsibility
1992 0-7734-9656-4
Papers selected from the International Social Philosophy Conference in Vermont, 1990. The papers provide a continuing discussion of the issues related to liberalism, communitarianism, and distributive justice among scholars in social philosophy, and for class reading and discussion in college and university courses on social philosophy and politics. Headings include: The Foundations of Liberal Moral Theory; Liberal Morality in Practice; Liberalism in a Conservative Society; Philosophy and Community.

Companion to the Works of Philosopher Thomas Reid (1710-1796)
2000 0-7734-7648-2
This work is a systematic organization of resources for study of the three central works of the Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid, An Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principles of Commons Sense (1764), Essays on the Intellectual Powers (1785), and Essays on the Active Powers (1788). Comprehensive subject and name indices allow the reader to quickly access and organize the full range of passages on specific topics and historical figures. The first ever glossary of Reidian terms references their definitive occurrences in the texts. A concise biography describes Reid’s personal life, publishing record, and scholarly role as the founder of the Scottish School of Commonsense Philosophy. In a general introduction, the author presents the essential elements of Reid’s theory of perception and epistemology, which anticipated modern perspectives in philosophy and psychology. There is also a detailed, critical summary of the Inquiry, followed by the most extensive bibliography of works relevant to Reid scholarship published to date.

Comparison of Judeo-Christian Theism and Philosophical Naturalism as Explanatory Worldviews
2007 0-7734-5322-9
This book seeks to make the case that philosophical naturalism serves as a better explanation of the range of human experience than Judeo-Christian theism. ‘Naturalism’ is defined as the view that all substantial or concrete entities are physical in nature; further, the physical world does not exist for a purpose or reason. Avoiding the usual naturalist approach of criticizing theistic arguments, this study first defines the nature of explanation and what makes one explanation better than another before producing an argument that naturalism serves as a better explanation of all things.

Concept of an Atom From Democritus to John Dalton
1992 0-7734-9649-1
THE CONCEPT OF AN ATOM FROM DEMOCRITUS TO JOHN DALTON This is an investigation into the ages-long discussion about whether primary indivisible bodies exist, from Democritus in the fifth century BC, to John Dalton in 1802. Investigates Aristotle's opposition to the first and whether the Democritean atom is the same as the Daltonian atom.

Concept of the Individual in Eighteenth-Century French Thought From the Enlightenment to the French Revolution
2007 0-7734-5275-3
This interdisciplinary study explores the concept of the individual human being as it evolved within the philosophies of the French Enlightenment and how notions of the individual reached a turning point during the French Revolution. The author draws on the thought of French philosophes and revolutionaries concerning the individual within nature and society and examines them within the framework of Michel Foucault’s thought.

Concepts Used to Analyze “culture”: A Critique of Twentieth-Century Ways of Thinking
2010 0-7734-3795-9
This study is devoted to the stratified description and analysis of the unconscious mechanisms of culture: the mechanisms that form the human being, as an empirical subject in its actual existence.

Conceptual Understanding of Beauty
2003 0-7734-6718-1
This book brings a new approach to the category of beauty, defining it as a predisposition to development. Predispositions occur as an isomorphic structure in any disjointed system where ‘time is out of joint’ and where it is possible to create conditions that can influence the unknown future. A predisposition contains as independent variables material and relational components weighted in partly conditional values. This study contributes to the manifold of different approaches to beauty and brings to it some fresh blood. It introduces a new version of an analytical approach to beauty that allows dissecting the whole in such a way as to make possible its synthesis and the clarification of its meaning.

Conceptually Distinguishing Mirth, Humor, and Comedy: A Philosophical Analysis
2015 1-4955-0287-2
This book opens a new dialogue for philosophical treatments of humor and comedy. It traces their history from the Dionysian Performance Tradition and brings a fresh perspective to the issue as it recasts standard interpretations of the Aristotelian theory in broader terms that offer new grounds for distinguishing ‘humor’, ‘comedy’ and ‘mirth’.

This book is written to open new avenues for philosophical treatments of humor and comedy. In doing so, it traces a history of conflating ‘humor’ and ‘comedy’ to a standard interpretation of the Aristotelian theory of comedy and humor – an interpretation that continues to inform the main strains of contemporary philosophical theories of humor. The author makes a suggestion for recasting Aristotle’s position. The suggestion offers grounds for distinguishing ‘humor’, ‘comedy’ and ‘mirth’. In addition to outlining the grounds for recognizing this conceptual distinction, the book explores and distinguishes two theoretical strains informing understands of humor.

The author argues that the tendency to conflate ‘humor’ and ‘comedy’ is prompted by a domination in humor studies by what is termed the “Dionysian Performance Tradition”. The author brings forward a possibility that the Dionysian Tradition has had a silent competitor, the “Mirth Tradition,” which seems to inform our thinking about humor and humor-related concepts in everyday living and with which Aristotle may have been familiar. This silent competitor distinguishes ‘humor’ and ‘comedy’ and, in contrast to the Dionysian Tradition, casts humor in an ethically positive light.

Consolation of Boethius an Analytical Inquiry Into His Intellectual Processes and Goals
1992 0-7734-9976-8
Using methods from the study of the history of consciousness, this study analyzes symbols such as "philosophy," "participation," and the various images Boethius employs to describe his intellectual process and goal. Its triple argument -- from its internal symbols, from sympathetic readers, and from opponents -- confirms the arguments for the meaning of the Consolation as the attempt of a Christian thinker to avail himself of philosophical thinking as a divine gift in which his own mind participated. It offers to medieval scholarship patterns of analysis which illuminate the patterns of medieval consciousness, and the shift to early modern ways of seeing and thinking. Crosses fields (history, philosophy, theology, literature) and periods (late antique to early modern), and relies on interpretive methodology.

Constructive Postmodern Perspective on Self and Community From Atomism to Holism
1994 0-7734-9075-2
Argues that a kind of thinking which this study calls "atomistic" has come to predominate in western culture, and describes four assumptions of modernism: atomism, foundationalism, dominionism, and "Mind as Reason". Traces the origins of these ideas and their implications, and then describes a transition from atomism to holism and the increasing emphasis on relational thinking in a number of areas, from politics to science and ethics.

Contribution of Socratic Method and Plato’s Theory of Truth to Plato Scholarship
2001 0-7734-7361-0
In Plato’s early dialogues, Socrates typically draws from his interlocutors definitions of moral terms, then demonstrates that these positions or their consequences are inconsistent with the definitions they have offered. On numerous occasions in the early dialogues, Socrates claims that this method will yield truth. This study argues that Plato entertains a theory of truth according to which consistency is sufficient for truth, rescuing him from the charge of having confused consistency with truth, and solving the puzzle of Socratic ignorance. It also suggests a new theory of Plato’s philosophical development: Middle and Late Plato did not abandon Socratic philosophy; rather, he sought to secure its foundations. The late Plato returns to Socratic method in the penultimate work of the corpus, Philebus.

Contributions of Gabriel Marcel to Philosophy: A Collection of Essays
1989 0-88946-346-8
Articles by the best Marcel scholars in America attempt to capture Marcellian thought never before treated in literature.

Contributions of Walter J. Ong to the Study of Rhetoric History and Metaphor
1995 0-7734-2277-3
This volume examines two of Ong's contributions to the study of rhetoric: history and metaphor. His definitive work on Peter Ramus (1515-1572) filled a large gap in the history of rhetoric and established Ramus' work as a pivotal force in the division of the five parts of classical rhetoric. By using "interfaces of the word" as a metaphor for modern rhetoric, Ong reestablished the discipline of rhetoric as essential in all knowledge and communication. The study examines his work on Peter Ramus and analyzes Ong's book Interfaces of the Word and how the metaphor evolved in Ong's early, middle, and late work. Ong's work culminates in a paradigm of human history and consciousness: primary orality, writing, print, and secondary orality, and how rhetoric operates at each interface of these phenomena.

Creating a Global Dialogue on Value Inquiry: Papers From the XXII World Congress of Philosophy (rethinking Philosophy Today)
2009 0-7734-4702-4
This work examines the range of work in which value theorists are engaging in the first decade of the twenty-first century. The essays illustrate the ways in which value theorists from different parts of the world draw on an increasingly broad range of intellectual thought, including Chinese, European and African traditions.

Creation, Nature and Political Order in the Philosophy of Michael Foster (1903-1959) the Classic Mind Articles and Others, with Modern Critical Essays
1993 0-7734-9207-0
The present volume fills a gap in scholarship in three ways. First, it provides the reader with a concise introduction to Foster's life and thought, by means of a biographical essay and a complete bibliography of Foster's published work. Second, it contains unabridged reprints of the seven Foster articles (including the classic Mind trio) which are most concerned with the relations between religion and science. Third, and perhaps most important, it contains a number of responses to Foster by contemporary scholars representing a wide range of academic disciplines and theological persuasions. Stanley Jaki, Francis Oakley and others have contributed lively critiques and further theoretical explorations, stimulated by Foster, concerning nature, creation, science, Christianity, and modernity. This volume is an absolute prerequisite for all further work on Foster. It also makes a vital contribution to the areas of theology, philosophy, and intellectual history, especially regarding the concepts of `creation' and `nature', two notions which have become increasingly important to serious philosophical and religious discourse about the human situation today.

Critical Appraisal of Sir Isaiah Berlin's Political Philosophy
1989 0-88946-105-8
A defect in Berlin's moral theory of "pluralism" is shown to undermine his defense of "negative liberty"; an alternative theory of moral reasoning, described as a "weak hierarchy of values," becomes the foundation for a theory of liberty that is neither negative nor positive but purposive. This thorough and critical appraisal of Berlin's thoughts on the nature of reality, of humanity, of values, and of politics and liberty describes Berlin's views _ one of this century's most compelling visions of life _ as unwaveringly modern and empiricist.

Critical Madness Theory: A Way of Interpreting Irrational Behavior as Political Action
2012 0-7734-4049-6
In philosophical and economic traditions it is common place to discuss agency as rational and self-interested. This book examines how therapeutic practices in bi-polar support groups actually contradict this baseline presupposition. Can irrational people whose behavior does not correspond to their own personal interests be viewed as political agents, and this book argues yes. How does the madness inherent in mental illness factor into political organizing in radical groups like anarchists, and how can a new existential-phenomenological philosophy, which Dr. Kaye creates, help us to better understand grassroots organizing. The chapters progress from a discussion of transversality as the panacea to disciplinary power, which opens up agency, on to a discussion of existential-phenomenological intentions. It then moves to advocacy for this new philosophical system. It finishes in the final chapter on the art of living. The main goal of the book is to advocate for a new, postmodern view of political agency by looking at how it relates to previous incarnations of modernism from continental philosophy from Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, onwards to contemporary postmodern theories by thinkers ranging from Deleuze, Foucault, Derrida, Lyotard, and Butler.

This book was an attempt to create a totally unique philosophy utilizing continental thinking. The goal was to wed postmodernism, which has fallen out of fashion due to what constitutes a total misunderstanding of its main concepts, with canonical philosophers in the continental tradition, namely Hegel, Nietzsche, Marx, and Heidegger. The philosophers whose work I utilized as exemplary of postmodernism, and mind you, they sometimes dismiss this classification due to its misuse, are Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Jean-Francois Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Judith Butler, and Felix Guattari. The overarching concern of this book is to view irrationalism in their work as a method of political agency, which I backed up with field observations in local bi-polar support groups in the Binghamton area. The point was to fuse continental philosophy with real therapeutic praxis, which culminates in an aesthetic conception of living, and ethics, which I view as ongoing processes that change as times change. The theme that runs through the whole book is a certain material-mortal approach to death whereby the extremely miniscule time one has to live, if examined authentically, compels the subject to take political and ethical actions, precisely because life will appear precious, and that this approach to death has a radically therapeutic effect on some people.

Critique and Social Transformation: Lessons From Antonio Gramsci, Mikhail Bakhtin and Raymond Williams
2009 0-7734-4778-4
This scholarly work is a project of historical-materialist critique of themes, theories, and arguments in contemporary cultural politics. It examines the contradictory actualities and potential of a class-conflicted world system from the radical perspectives of Antonio Gramsci, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Raymond Williams. It endeavors to forge a transformative praxis useful for understanding the current crisis of global capitalism.

Critique as a Modern Social Phenomenon: The Critical Society
2012 0-7734-4548-X
What are the origins and purposes of social critique? Rather than use critique as a mode of investigating social phenomenon, this book analyses critique as a social phenomenon. Critique is both constitutive of modernity and exceedingly diverse, and not only that but widely taken for granted in scholarly communities. Herein, the resources of historical sociology and anthropology are used in order to gain perspective on critique as something culturally specific to modernity. Based on this, I analyze critique as moving force in history, part of the dynamic of capitalism and consumerism, a recurring trope in the media from all any political positions, and finally as a common-place even of popular culture. Finally, I turn to some key literary writers who have explored critique as a social phenomenon within their work, thus providing a reflexive perspective on critique as a lived experience.

Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of Mind
2007 0-7734-5266-4
This book aims to provide arguments to substantiate that John McDowell’s rejection of an approach to the philosophy of the mind which he, in his Mind and World, termed ‘bald naturalism,’ which is an attempt to construe mental relations in terms of the law-like structure of nature. The first part of the book defines the bald naturalist position distinguishing between to forms of the philosophy with regards to their acceptance or criticism of folk psychology. In the second part of the book, a more sophisticated bald naturalism is considered in relation to a study of the practice of interpretation utilized to reveal features integral to the structure of mind. Having demonstrated that the rational constraints on interpretation are open-ended, it becomes apparent that bald naturalism, which is unable to deal with this fact, is unable to properly understand interpretation or the mind.

Critique of the Liberal Idea of a Person: The Contradiction Within Equalitarian Ethical Theory
2010 0-7734-1394-4
This study argues for the essential link between objectivity and personhood. How personhood is understood dramatically affects social formations and how individuals are treated.

Deconstruction of Baudrillard: The “ Unexpected Reversibility” of Discourse
2005 0-7734-6057-8
Jean Baudrillard (1929- ) is one of the outstanding representatives both of French poststructuralism and postmodernism. Because of radical criticism it was not possible for him to establish a logically coherent theoretical system; the philosophical aspects of his work are specifically merged, therefore, into a critical asystematic fragmentarism, which is the subject of this work. From the critique of the political economy of the sign, through critiques of rationalism, reality, progress, truth, history to the theory of simulation, Baudrillard’s specific para-concepts (fatal strategy, symbolic exchange, seduction, hyperreality, pataphysics, etc.) are constantly fragmentarily present in the development of his thought. These “concepts” are Baudrillard’s attempt at disengagement from modern philosophy and his new, unsystematic postmodern view of reality in general. In the analysis of binary metaphysical oppositions (reality-simulation, subject-object, knowledge-seduction, history-end, radical-irradical nihilism, metaphysics (God)-pataphysics), Baudrillard is radically exclusive through the arbitrary preference of one over the other “concept”. It seems that contrary to this author, however, by the “deconstruction” of his ideas, it is possible to conclude that these dualistic antagonisms are also paradoxically compatible in his “system”: this compatibility is very close to the irrational mysticism of this thinker.

Descartes' Principles of Philosophy
1990 0-88946-308-5
This translation of 327 articles omitted by the Haldane and Ross edition (taken from the Latin Principia Philosophiae) is based upon Les Principes Philosophie, published by Henri Le Grade, Paris, 1647.

Development of Cognitive Synthesis in Immanuel Kant and Edmund Husserl
1995 0-7734-9127-9
Presents a close textual examination and critical analysis of the major works in which the concept of synthesis is presented. Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and the Inaugural Dissertation, and Husserl's Experience and Judgment, Ding und Raum and The Phenomenology of Internal Time Consciousness are examined. It demonstrates the manner in which Husserl formulated his theory of passive synthesis through his analysis of Kant's discussions of synthesis. It advances the understanding of two major philosophical figures and provides a ground for understanding the development of the theory of consciousness and cognitive theory.

Development of German Aesthetic Theory From Kant to Schiller a Philosophical Commentary on Schiller's Aesthetic Education of Man (1795)
1995 0-7734-9511-8
This book is the first in English to provide a detailed philosophical study of Schiller's major work in aesthetics, the Letters on the Aesthetic Education of Man (1795). The introduction surveys those books in English with chapters on the treatise and concludes with an outline of Kant's critical system and a summary of this theories of aesthetic judgment, art and beauty. The main body of the work consists of an exegesis of Schiller's text. In part one (Letters 1-9), we follow Schiller as he describes the afflictions of civilization and their cure. In part two (Letters 10-17), we follow Schiller as he considers the essential nature of man and beauty. In part three (Letters 18-27), we follow Schiller as he describes the psychological development of the individual and species from a sensuous to a rational condition, through the mediation of the aesthetic.The exposition is accompanied by assessment and criticism. The conclusion commences with a recapitulation of the main arguments in each Letter. This is followed by an evaluation of the Aesthetic Letters, identifying those specific theories of contemporary relevance, and with the potential for further theoretical development.

Dilemma of Ethnic Identity
2005 0-7734-6020-9
This book discusses the nature of culture in a global era. In our era of increasing disjuncture and disparity, a new understanding of culture is needed to aid us in bridging ethnic and religious gaps. Alain Locke (1885-1994) believed that it was possible to attain world peace and order without one group of people imposing itself on the others. To achieve this, he gave a new definition of culture and society, which the author calls transcultural. This book explores Alain Locke’s ideas and how he anticipated transcultural societies as a means of attaining world peace and order. Transculturality describes primarily the process through which cultures intermix with and borrow from one another; it describes the latent, steady transformation of an idea from place of birth to elsewhere until it no longer recognizes or belongs exclusively to that place of birth. It is Elvis Presley taking Rock and Roll out of the Black ghetto, or Eminem “whitewashing” rap; it is Dave Brubeck handling jazz as ingeniously as Seiji Ozawa conducts Beethoven’s Ode to Joy; it is the Apostle Paul taking Christianity out of its Jewish origins unto the Gentile world. Whenever an idea is denaturalized, taken out of its nativity, it no longer belongs specifically to that place; it crosses boundaries, aiming to become universal. Transculturality is a relatively new term in cultural discourse. Alain Locke never used it, yet his life and his works all point to and derive their force from the believe that cultures are not tied to some form of life that already exists and is always defined by reference to some kind of essence. Races and cultures are not constants. Rather, they are variables; they are ‘important aspects of human society.’ Races and cultures originate in time and are born out of continuous interpenetration into and merging with others.

Discussion and Commentary on Kant's Critiques
1996 0-7734-8905-3
These four essays focus on various aspects of Kant's philosophical writings: first an explication of important features of the first Critique; a critical discussion of the relationship established between substance and time in the First Analogy; Kant's theory of morals and deontological ethics, its merits and demerits; and the final essay claims that in the Critique of Judgment, the concepts of imagination and judgment have been enlarged and altered in meaning to accommodate a new synthesis that must now be acknowledged in Kant's epistemology to account for human experience in its entirety.

Do Rights Derive From Justice or Does Justice Arise From Rights?: A Philosophy of the Prime Inherent Law
2010 0-7734-3661-8
This work demonstrates that Power is prior to Rights and introduces a concept of a Power-Responsibility relationship which affects non-legal moral questions such as the treatment of animals.

Edmund Husserl’s Phenomenological Theory of Judgment: The Sole Logically Coherent Epistemology in the History of Western Philosophy
2016 1-4955-0435-2
This study of the perceptual foundation for the theory of categorial judgment of Edmund Husserl possesses two objectives. First, clarification of the confusion concerning the purpose of his last major phenomenological treatise, Experience and Judgment. Secondly, a presentation of his theory of categorial judgment. The first objective is achieved by responding to an apparent logical dilemma between the analysis of prepredicative experience and predicative thought in Experience and Judgment. It is also accomplished by demonstrating that Husserl does not have the epistemological problem of the ego-centric predicament. He offers the only logical coherent theory of epistemology in Western intellectual history.

The second objective of the presentation of his theory of categorial judgment is approached by focusing upon the problem of the relationship between perception and judgment in Husserl’s theory of judgment.

Emily Dickinson as Philosopher
1981 0-88946-546-0
The first book on Emily Dickinson as philosopher to be published in the USA. Relates the similarities of Dickinson's philosophical themes to those of famous philosophers.

Empirical Evidence for the Non-Material Nature of Consciousness
2004 0-7734-6557-X
A challenging work that founds a theory of knowledge on the mathematical insights of Kurt Gödel and Roger Penrose. This is a study on the dual (material and non-material) nature of consciousness. It is an answer to the tremendous problems materialism faces when trying to define consciousness, a recent phenomenon called the ‘incompleteness’ of sciences, and the philosophical urge to unify common-sense causality and quantum causality. The study also treats four examples of incompleteness (mathematics, physics, biology, and ethology) and shows that only the postulate of a non-material human mind can account for these empirical data. Judging the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics inconsistent, it uses a quantum-adapted version of Aristotle’s hylemorphism for defining causality as a strictly transcendent relation. The resulting essay is accessible to a large academic audience interesting the philosophical problems raised by scientific advance.

Empirical Intelligence - The Human Empirical Mode Philosophy as Originating in Experience
1988 0-88946-337-9
Shows how human intelligence starts from observable properties of things and moves to unobservable realities, especially causes. Language and mythology then reflect the characteristics of this mode. Also argues against innate ideas and a priori concepts by showing the empirical character of philosophy and contrasting its foundations and explanatory method with the natural sciences.

English Edition of Bruno Bauer’s 1843 Christianity Exposed: A Recollection of the Eighteenth Century and a Contribution to the Crisis of the Nineteenth Century
2002 0-7734-7183-9
Bruno Bauer wrote scores of scholarly books which were widely quoted. He was a mentor to Marx and an elder mentor to Nietzsche, and his controversial theology impelled the Prussian government to ban him from lecturing. This remarkable work, first banned, and then ignored contains historical clues into the temper of the time. He advanced Hegel’s theological phenomenology, especially with his treatment of the moment of transition from Stoicism to Christianity.

Entities and Individuation Studies in Ontology and Language
1989 0-88946-341-7
Essays devoted to the work of the late Neil Wilson, Canadian philosopher and significant contributor to the field of semantic analysis that emerged from the fusion of logic, pragmatism, and ontology. Many take their initial inspiration from Wilson's seminal work Substances Without Substrata.

Epicurean EthicsKatastematic Hedonism
1994 0-7734-9124-4
The fundamental problem of Epicurean philosophy is understood as the problem of being human in a mechanical universe, which brings out the philosophical importance of Epicurus and guards against treating him as a museum piece. A new interpretation of Epicurean ethics is developed against the background of a critical discussion of earlier interpretations. Although the whole range of the tetrapharmakos is covered in the book, as well as the Epicurean social philosophy of justice and friendship, the argument focusses on Epicurus' understanding of the nature of pleasure and pain and on the distinction between kinetic and katastematic pleasure.

Equality of the Two Sexes
1989 0-88946-303-4
In this excellent example of Cartesian rationalism, Poullain expounds a remarkably modern feminist position: that sexual inequality is not rooted in nature, but is the historical result of custom, ignorance, and prejudice. The first English text printed since 1677, with the original French text of 1673 included.

Esoteric Composition of Kafka's Corpus
2006 0-7734-5805-0
This book provides a survey of Kafka’s entire oeuvre and its themes. It is a positive refutation of present-day regnant critical approaches to Kafka in order to retrieve the works themselves and thereby revivify our primitive experience of the world as nihilistic and accidental, making of literature something all-important for our lives.

Essays in Philosophical Zoology by Adolf Portmann the Living Form and the Seeing Eye
1991 0-88946-323-9
Of interest not only to philosophers but also to marine biologists, students of natural history, those involved in the life sciences, zoologists, zoo managers, wildlife preservationists, and ethicists. With interpretive essay.

Essays on a Philosophical Interpretation of Justice the Virtue of Justice
1999 0-7734-8180-X
A coherent set of essays regarding the study of justice and taking into consideration the needs and obligations of the individual as a ‘member of society'.

Essays on Heidegger and European Philosophy Meridian of Thinking
2003 0-7734-7022-0

Essays on the Philosophy of Fred Sommers in Logical Terms
1990 0-88946-322-0
Integrates various parts of Sommer's theory on logic and the philosophy of language and extends it in a variety of ways (e.g., semantics, modal logic).

Essential Ideas of Islamic Philosophy
2006 0-7734-5848-4
This book presents Islamic philosophy from within the Islamic tradition and on its own terms. The ideas of the Muslim philosophers based on the primary texts are analyzed, and then the arguments are structured, rather than just tracking their ideas in a traditional historical method. This presentation is necessary and helpful not only to the understanding of Islamic civilization, but also to the very understanding of the roots of modern western philosophy.

Essential Tie Between Knowing and Believing: A Causal Account of Knowledge and Epistemic Reasons
2011 0-7734-1495-9
This book offers a causal-explanatory account of knowledge as true belief caused by the worldly state of affairs that explains its existence. It also presents a contextual theory of epistemic

Ethical Considerations: Basic Issues in Moral Philosophy
2015 1-4955-0279-1
The present book is a further contribution to the ageless and ongoing discussion about basic philosophical problems such as the nature of ethical standards, and grounds of moral objectivity, and prospects of moral progress from eminent philosopher and well-known author, Nicholas Rescher. He examines a group of classic philosophical issues, relevant to this present age of moral ambiguity, and shares his reflections and opinions with his usual captivating analysis.

Ethical Decision-Making From a Consequentialist Perspective: A Study in Philosophical Ethics
2009 0-7734-4879-9
This book presents an account of ethical decision-making from a consequentialist perspective where a fairness constraint is placed on a utilitarian ethical theory. The work begins by analyzing both the perspective and descriptive content and the concepts of ‘what is fair’ and ‘what is best.’ The concept of ‘fairness’ is then analyzed along completely consequentialist lines and a constraint, based on this analysis, is placed on a version of negative cooperative utilitarianism which is developed in detail.

Ethical Dilemmas in Modern Medicine a Physician's Viewpoint
1986 0-88946-133-3
A series of essays, written by a practicing physician, on a wide variety of topics in medical ethics: clinical uncertainty; moral pluralism; paternalism; AIDS; organ procurement; physicians' involvement in executions; abortion; age as a factor in medical decision-making; sustaining life in a permanently acognitive patient; dementia; disagreement among patient, family, and physician; withholding nutritional support for the hopelessly ill; and the matter of who decides to write a DNR (do not resuscitate) order.

Ethical Discourse of Chinese Children: A Narrative Approach to the Social and Moral Intricacy of Lying About Good Deeds
2010 0-7734-3632-4
This study identify differences in youngsters’ concepts and practices of lying about good deeds are rooted in variations in the way they react to authority figures, socio-cultural rules, peers, and personal feelings.

Ethical Issues in Third World Development: A Philosophy of Social Change
2011 0-7734-1377-4
This book constitutes a pioneering project aimed at constructing a conceptual framework for integrating the normative, conceptual, theoretical, and applied aspects of development within mainstream philosophy. The goal is not just to provide a morally sound code of ethics for the guidance of professionals, but to provide ethical justification for social and economic development in Third World countries.

Drawing on ancient and contemporary ethical theories, this book discusses how to improve the lives of people suffering from poverty, undernourishment, and underdevelopment. The goal of the book is to transform the Third World and the world at large into a more charitable, giving community of concerned and ethical citizens who take care of each other. The author attempts to lay the groundwork for a new philosophical sub-field - the Ethics of Development. He does this by turning to Kant, Aristotle, Plato, Rawls, Dewey, and Popper, who have all started to approach this subject in their work.

Ethics of Ernst Troeltsch a Commitment to Relevancy
1990 0-88946-843-5
It is frequently assumed that Troeltsch's real contribution lies in the field of the science of religion. This study proposes that Troeltsch's ethics is a vital component of his theological agenda.

Ethics of Timelessness
1994 0-7734-2295-1
This major philosophical discourse covers topics as diverse as time, causality, ethics, metaphysics, utopianism, politics, poetics, medicine, immunology, and theology. Its central thesis, that metaphysics is a science of immunology for the human spirit, reunites philosophy with its roots. Jacques Derrida has created a metaphysical virus, differance, which deconstructs the philosophical immune system, undermining the metaphysician's ability to defend the system against rhetorical attack. This work is an attempt to construct a superimmune system, consisting of a number of immune systems all operating in tandem, to defend both the physical and metaphysical systems against infection.

Ethics, Metaphysics and Religion in the Thought of F. H. Bradley
1996 0-7734-8767-0
Essays by some of Canada's leading scholars on various aspects of Bradley's thought. Essays include: The Unity of Moral Principle and Bradley's Absolute (Leslie Armour) The Uses of Bradley's Absolute (H. S. Harris) Process and Historical Crisis in F. H. Bradley's Ethics of Feeling (James Bradley) Metaphysics and Ethics in Bradley's Idealism (Don MacNiven) The Self and the Social Order (Elizabeth Trott) Bradley's Critique of Mill's Utilitarianism (Philip MacEwen) Feeling in Bradley's Ethical Studies (David Crossley) F. H. Bradley and the Presuppositions of Critical History (Lionel Rubinoff)

European Travel Diaries of Albert Brisbane 1830-1832. Discovering Fourierism for America
2005 0-7734-6070-5
In the past half-century, scholars of many different disciplines have produced an expansive body of literature on utopianism in America. Albert Brisbane, as the original propagandist of Fourierism in nineteenth century America, owns a significant place in this literature.

Brisbane’s 1830-1832 travel diaries offer a useful contribution at several levels. First, he diaries furnish us with a picture of the society in which Saint-Simonianism and Fourierism took shape. Second, the diaries further our understanding of the impact and dissemination of these ideas – where they were discussed and how they were discussed. Finally, and perhaps most intriguingly, the diaries offer us an opportunity to “listen in” on the thinking of an impressionable young man as he came to be attracted to utopian theories while moving in elite European intellectual society. Brisbane made strong personal friendships within this intellectual community, and continued to correspond with several significant individuals while in Europe and following his return to America.

Brisbane was an earnest and precocious young man – and very human. Beside his intellectual wonderings, the diaries give us a sense of his adolescent sensibility and openness to new experiences and ideas. In the end, we have a much better picture of who this person was who brought the complex social model of the Phalanx to America.

Evaluating the Scholarly Achievement of Professor Elvi Whittaker: Essays in Philosophical Anthropology
2010 0-7734-1308-1
This interdisciplinary anthology examines the relation between fieldwork, knowledge, values and regional identities from a wide range of angles and perspectives. It contains 12 essays that discuss and develop understandings of the relationship between metaphysics and ethics.

Evaluation of Alvin Plantinga’s Free Will Defense: Whether Our Power to Do Bad is Something Good
2008 0-7734-5129-3
This work is an attempt to solve incompatibility between horrendous evil and the God of love. The case study which is criticized and analyzed is Alvin Plantinga’s free will defense. Putting too much value on freedom, Plantinga obviously did not recognize the importance of the extreme phenomenon of individual horrendous sufferings and possibility of God’s love for this particular person. Critique of free will defense and other theodicies is based on the meta-ethical uncertainty that affirms impossibility of final definition of good and evil in God’s dealings with horrendous evil, and on the necessity of morally sufficient reason since the problem is basically ethical and not metaphysical. The alternative solution is founded on two basic assumptions: first, there is a “mysterious whole” in the relationship between God and personalized evil, namely Satan, a kind of “grudging domestication” between God and Satan, never fully comprehensible. Second, God in his eternal wisdom allows Satan to unleash his plan, not using evil as it is in instrumental suffering approach or felix culpa, in order to secure the eternal good of the universe, that is impossibility of using our free will for sin and evil.

Evil, God, the Greater Good and Rights
2007 0-7734-5414-4
This study examines key thinkers who have offered influential accounts of the implications of specific belief about the nature of reality, including Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Aquinas, Kant, Locke and Nietzsche. It also addresses interpretations of these accounts by influential figures with the social sciences such as Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, Max Weber, Emile Durkheim, John Dewey, Frederick Hayek, John Rawls, H.L.A. Hart, Ronald Dworkin, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Hannah Arendt, Zigmunt Bauman and Richard Rorty. The aim throughout is to highlight the centrality of past and present ‘metaphysics’ to present day debates about moral community, jurisprudence, human rights and the relationship between the individual and collective good.

Existence of God Essays From the Basic Issues Forum
1989 0-88946-339-5
Essayists' intercultural, interdisciplinary responses to the issue "The Existence of God" proposed by the Basic Issues Forum of Washington and Jefferson College. Essays include such topics as "Is `Existence' a Desirable Attribute of a Real God?" by Robert F. Streetman, "Jungian Archetypes and the Transcendent Image" by Nancy Tenfelde Clasby, "The Universe as `Controlled Accident'" by Conrad Hyers, and "The Ethics of Unbelief: Philosophy, Responsibility, and the `Ratio Anselmi'" by G. Scott Davis.

Expanding Universe an Introduction to Philosophy
1993 0-7734-1933-0
A new and accessible anthology designed to introduce students to some of the central issues of philosophy, including the nature of philosophy, perception and knowledge of the external world, as well as the relationship between mind and body.

Explaining the Growth of Scientific Knowledge Metaphors, Models, and Meanings
1997 0-7734-8721-2
This study explains scientific progress through analogical cross-fertilization of ideas between distinct physical systems. In many cases progress can be generated from a radically new juxtaposition of apparently incongruous physical systems, producing original horizons of intellectual vision. The work will be of interest to philosophers who examine issues related to the study of metaphor and analogy, and those who study the conditions and limits of scientific knowledge, the relationship between instrumental findings and theoretical progress, and the realism/antirealism debate. It will also interest those who explore the science/religious interface. Chapter headings include: What is a Scientific Model?; The Semantics of Scientific Metaphors; Analogical Modelling and Metaphoric Discourse in Science; The Epistemology of a Spectrometer; The Nature of a Scientific Prototype; Property, Symmetry, and Analogy; and an Appendix - Computational Models of Analogical Reasoning.

Exploring the Work of Leonardo Da Vinci Within the Context of Contemporary Philosphical Thought and Art
2003 0-7734-6564-2
This study explores the work of Leonardo da Vinci with the aim of developing a concept of creative production, It argues that the conditions of a truly creative practice require an imaginative re-working of the real so that new and unforeseen realities can emerge. Studying Leonardo’s notebooks and sketches, where a cross-pollination of theory and practice abounds, it shows that creativity is critical power that operates in between the real and ideal, confounding the clear-cut distinction between them. This understanding of power in terms of an enabling and productive capacity is taken from Deleuze and Nietzsche’s work in this area. Leonardo, although he was interested in mimesis and the principles of one point perspective, actively brought the real and ideal into relations with one another in innovative ways. Although it focuses on the work of one Renaissance artist, the conclusions are not historically restricted.

Faith and Philosophy in the Writings of Paul Ricoeur
1991 0-88946-737-4
A comprehensive introduction to Ricoeur, including full background information on all areas of his work and a bibliography. Includes chapters on: The Human Questions; The Challenge of Faith; The Christian Tradition; The Crisis of Society; A Theory of Symbol; Biblical Research; Ricoeur, Language, and Interpretation Theory.

Foucault’s Antihumanist Historiography
2001 0-7734-7608-3
This study introduces antihumanism as the pivotal element in Foucault’s work, and reads his work from an Althusserian, structural Marxist perspective.

Foundational Problems in Philosophy
2006 0-7734-5587-6
These volumes collect and introduce the major writings of the British/South African philosopher Arthur Ritchie Lord (1880-1941). Regarded as one of the finest minds in South African philosophy in the early twentieth century, Lord nevertheless published little during his lifetime part from his The Principles of Politics (1921) and a few short essays. The editors of these volumes bring together not only Lord’s published work, but almost all of his previously-unpublished lectures and essays.

Lord was one of a number of South African philosophers, little known outside of their own country, who had a remarkable influence not only on their students, but on social and cultural life. This volume provides critical introductions to, as well as extensive annotations on, a number of Lord’s essays, most of which were previously unpublished. The editors bring together writings that show the extent of Lord’s interests and present some of his original ideas on political philosophy, aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, and the philosophy of history. Drawing on a rich tradition of thought rooted in Kant, Hegel, and the British Idealists, Lord provides a distinctly idealist approach to philosophical issues.

Foundations for a Phenomenological Theology
1988 0-88946-335-2
An original development of themes in Husserl and a magisterial contribution to the discussion of omniscience. Effectively commingles phenomenological and analytic themes.

Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Ch?ndogya Upanisad
2006 0-7734-5713-5
This two-volume work, first published as one volume in 1987, is the product of a 14-year collaboration by the authors in developing a method for the reading of ancient religious tests. Their method is derived from the work of Leo Strauss and Robert Sacks, who had pointed out that the liberal-democratic philosophers were careful commentators on Genesis. The method taught by Dr. Combs and Dr. Post is to begin with the religious text and make the assumption that it is written carefully and deliberately – do not interject an interpretation unless it is in conformity with the details of the text; only reject that assumption when the text fails to make sense as written. This method is shown to be warranted by the careful structure and order of each text. Such careful attention illuminates an inherent comparative structure to each text, which in turn warrants a comparison with the other text, which in turn reveals deeper philosophical and theological issues latent with these texts.

Foundations of Rational Argument
1992 0-7734-9191-0
The main emphasis of this book is on the application of logic to ordinary language, on practice rather than theory. Although intended primarily as an academic textbook, the first half of the book is designed to be largely accessible to the non-specialist. Part I discusses how the precision of formal logic can be reconciled with the vagueness of natural language. Part II offers for assessment a selection of passages which constitute actual cases of drawing conclusions from premises in a variety of subjects. The procedure used in assessing them takes account of the need, not always recognized, indeed sometimes emphatically denied, for the logic critic to involve himself in the subject-matter of the argument. This meticulous analysis also makes it abundantly clear that what counts in practice as `well-argued' is, although faulty from the strictly formal point of view, nevertheless open to reconstruction as formally well-arguable. The question of logical, and often very practical, interest is what the proponent of the argument would have to add for the conclusion actually to follow. This book will sensitize the reader to logical `wool-pulling'. Guidance on the answers to selected exercises is given in an appendix.

Four Archetypal Orientations of the Mind: Foundational, Experiential, Organizational, and Actional
2014 0-7734-4314-2
The first application of the theory embracing an integration of the metaphysical with empirical science allowing for an examination of archetypal orientations, that provide meaningful comparisons and profiling for a range of topics and scholarly endeavors, in one book. This work examines and reflects upon the meta-theoretical and cross-disciplinary nature of this approach. It represents a follow-up on the author’s first volume “The Four Types of Knowing – Metaphysical, Scientific, Narrative and Pragmatic: A Meta-Epistemology of Mind”.

Four Elements in Plato’s Timaeus
2000 0-7734-7771-3
This work explores a puzzling aspect of Plato’s treatment, in Timaeus, of the geometry of the four elements. The claim that the elements are connected by a geometric proportion has been variously interpreted as either playful or obscurantist, but there has not yet been a treatment which both takes the claim seriously and grounds it in the essential structure of the elements, conceived in the Timaean manner as consisting of atoms of the same shape as four of the five regular solids. The intention of the study is to go as far as one can in the direction of a detailed explanation of how the claim might be justified. Although it becomes clear that it is not possible to generate a definitive interpretation which underwrites a geometric proportion, it makes plausible that Plato’s meaning is captured by the approach taken. This approach calls upon the Pythagorean roots of the dialogue to assign specific numerical values to the polyhedra which the character Timaeus associates with the elements. Attached as an Appendix is the author’s translation into English of a significant article in literature on Timaeus: “The Chemistry of the Timaeus” by E. M. Bruins. This will be of value to Timaean scholars who cannot easily read the French original, and thus allows them to gain access to the work of an important ad ingenious commentator.

Four Types of Knowing - Metaphysical, Scientific, Narrative, and Pragmatic: A Meta-Epistemology of Mind
2011 0-7734-1524-6
This book provides a fundamental and integrated framework of human thought, beyond the confines of any particular knowledge discipline or tradition. It serves to highlight the intellectual strengths and limitations of each modality and is therefore useful for comparative purposes.

Francesco Giorgio’s deharmonica Mundi
2011 0-7734-1582-3
A translation from the original Latin of Francesco Giorgio’s DeHarmonica Mundi that establishes its connections to Christian Cabbala in the early Renaissance. This book includes a CD.

Awarded the Adele Mellen Prize for Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship

Freedom, Dharma, and Rights
1993 0-7734-9363-8
Essays in this volume were selected from those presented at the ninth international social philosophy conference held in Dec.1991 at Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India. The conference brought together thinkers from sixteen countries, discussing basic rights and the corresponding responsibilities that living in social communities involves. The conference was an especially valuable occasion for Westerners, who tend to think primarily in a "rights" mode, to discuss social issues with Indians, whose moral thinking tends to commence from the concept of "dharma" (duty or obligation). The papers here were chosen to be of the widest interest to readers, and to represent as much diversity of thought as possible.

Freedom, Equality, and Social Change Issues in Contemporary Social Philosophy
1989 0-88946-103-1
Thirty-two essayists provide scholarly insight and opportunities for constructive dialogue on social philosophical theory regarding freedom, equality, and social change. Social Philosophy Today No. 2

Friedrich Schleiermacher's essay on a Theory of Sociable Behavior (1799)
2006 0-7734-5623-6
Awarded the Adele Mellen Prize for Distinguished Contribution to Scholarship

This book addresses the question of why Schleiermacher never completed the two final parts of his work, Essay on a Theory of Sociable Behavior, the first two parts of which were published in the 1799 January and February editions of Berlinisches Archiv der Zeit und ihres Geschmacks. The author’s argument is persuasive that it was never completed because Schleiermacher made the move from an understanding of sociability that was secular to a much fuller understanding of sociability as religious. Schleiermacher’s new religious understanding of sociability was included in his ground-breaking work, On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, also published in 1799.

From Radical Empiricism to Kant's Critical Idealism
1986 0-88946-304-2
The history of epistemology from Hume to Kant, written by Justus Hartnack, who is universally recognized as one of the most distinguished philosophers of our time.

From the Polarizing Mind-Set to Productive Discussion of Public Policy and Intercultural and Interfaith Relations
2003 0-7734-6589-8

Future of Human Civilization Vol. 1
1999 0-7734-7945-7
This wide-ranging book focuses on why the global spread of formal rationality contributes to a critical spirit which undermines human values and beliefs (including the scientific ones themselves), be they ancient, medieval, modern and now postmodern. This is so in special relation to the model presented here of the seven major dimensions of human existence: the True (knowledge), the Holy (religion), the Good (morals), the Just (justice), the Everyday (consumeristic culture), the Technological (technophilic culture), and the Beautiful (arts and literature). This not only has happened in the Western world, but is spreading to the civilizations of the non-West as well. When carried to its logical conclusion, this undermining will yield what the author refers to as the post-human consciousness after postmodernity, in that humans are nothing in the end, to be someday superseded by post-humans.

Future of Human Civilization Vol. 2
1999 0-7734-7901-5
This wide-ranging book focuses on why the global spread of formal rationality contributes to a critical spirit which undermines human values and beliefs (including the scientific ones themselves), be they ancient, medieval, modern and now postmodern. This is so in special relation to the model presented here of the seven major dimensions of human existence: the True (knowledge), the Holy (religion), the Good (morals), the Just (justice), the Everyday (consumeristic culture), the Technological (technophilic culture), and the Beautiful (arts and literature). This not only has happened in the Western world, but is spreading to the civilizations of the non-West as well. When carried to its logical conclusion, this undermining will yield what the author refers to as the post-human consciousness after postmodernity, in that humans are nothing in the end, to be someday superseded by post-humans.

Future of Post-Uman Consciousness
2004 0-7734-6517-0
This study argues that human consciousness will not last, to be superceded by post-human forms of consciousness (unto the direction of post-capitalism and post-democracy). The current obsession with the question of how human consciousness can emerge out of something physical is very much like asking how many angels can stand on the head of a pin in medieval scholasticism. The obsession obscures the need to transcend the debate. To this end, Dr. Baofu proposes methodological holism, which is to examine the issues of human consciousness (and other mental states), and its evolution into other forms in the future with a comprehensive analysis of all major theoretical dimensions which have been proposed in the literature. Eleven of them are classified in this project: physical, chemical, biological, psychological, organizational, institutional, structural, systematic, cultural, cosmological, and the rest. The study concludes that the current debate between reductionism and emergencism in the literature has reached a dead end and needs to be transcended.

G. E. Moore’s Ethics: Good as Intrinsic Value
2004 0-7734-6262-7
This work offers an important and critical analysis of Moore’s conception of good and right. It aims to show how contemporary moral philosophy is still concerned with intrinsic value, at least insofar as the concepts of good and bad lie at the heart of ethics: they are at work when we assess whether a person is virtuous or vicious, an act is right or wrong, a decision defensible or indefensible, a goal desirable or undesirable.

The central thesis of the book is that, for Moore, intrinsic value has a specific and unique identity ; it is different from all the other properties an object possesses or may possess; it depends on the intrinsic nature of things, but it is nor reducible to any intrinsic property, nor to a number of them; it is not dependent on its being the object of any psychological attitude. In this way, the author wants to show that Moore was not only the first analytical philosopher, but also the first one to theorize the possibility of a third moral view between reductionism and dualism, a view capable of guaranteeing autonomy to Ethics and at the same time of maintaining a link between Ethics and the natural world.

Genealogy of Our Present Moral Disarray an Essay in Comparative Philosophy
2000 0-7734-7800-0
This monograph examines the origins of modern and modernist moral confusion, deterioration of the Judeo-Christian values and contemporary boundaries between Right and Wrong, tracing the ethical shift to the ideas of Hobbes and Bentham, the peculiar universes of Schopenhauer and Dostoevsky, the new religion of Tolstoy and the destroyed God of Nietzsche, ending with the psychoanalytical commandments of Freud and the mire of sexual identity of Foucault and Paglia. It is a contribution to the history of ideas and represents an anatomy of modern ethics as wells a critique of modern and postmodern philosophy. It also deals with the moral irresponsibility of the thinkers whose casual experimentation with values and ideas about human relationships has brought onto the pathway of moral confusion.

George Grant's Platonic Rejoinder to Heidegger Contemporary Political Philosophy and the Question of Technology
1987 0-88946-715-3

God, Immortality and Freedom of the Will According to the Church Fathers
2006 0-7734-5640-6
The purpose of this study is to offer the “philosophy” of the Greek and Latin Fathers without the parochial biases of Western scholarship. From the Latin Middle Ages, when the Masters or Scholastics ruled the intellectual world of the occident, until the present day, the work of the Fathers has been characterized as a synthesis of Christian and Hellenic thought, not unlike the philosophical theology of Thomas Aquinas, a synthesis anticipated by Augustine of Hippo, who, along with several other famous Christian writers (Tatian, Clement and Origen of Alexandria, Tertullian, etc.) cannot be numbered among the Fathers without negating the consensus patrum. In other words, we must look upon the Greek and Latin Fathers as holy men, sharing a common faith, fellows of the same theological tradition, witnesses to, not creators of, “the Faith once delivered to the saints.” To demonstrate this thesis, this book examines not only the patristic conception of philosophy, but also its treatment of those three grand philosophical problems (if we may believe Immanuel Kant) in terms of their “philosophy”: God, immortality and freedom of the will. This work will appeal to scholars of church history and patrology.

Gramscian Analysis of the Role of Religion in Politics: Case Studies in Domination, Accommodation, and Resistance in Africa and Europe
2010 0-7734-3754-1
This study employs Gramscian theory as an interpretive grid in examining the use of Christianity by European colonizers to facilitate their oppression of Africans on the continent and in diaspora. The work clarifies how the western powers utilized their religion in North America, Ghana, South Africa, and Kenya to justify their exploitation of Blacks and how many Africans, as Christian converts, assisted them to accomplish their imperialist goals. In addition, this research explains how other Blacks, in these same locations, interpreted their own religious tradition or revised western Christianity to form liberatory ideologies that legitimated their struggle for freedom and inspired their communities to oppose subordination.

Hegel's Philosophy of History Theological, Humanistic, and Scientific Evidence
1979 0-88946-023-X

Hegel's Philosophy of Mind and Will
1991 0-7734-9773-0
The book's introduction provides brief introductions to Hegel's methodology, philosophical system, and concept of Spirit. The book is then divided into 2 parts, the first concerned with Hegel's philosophy of Subjective Spirit, the second with his philosophy of Objective Spirit. It closely follows Hegel's chapters in the Philosophy of Spirit on Anthropology (the Soul), Phenomenology (Consciousness), and Psychology (Mind), which comprise Hegel's treatment of the cognitive ego in Subjective Spirit; and then follows the development of the volitional ego in Objective Spirit, through Hegel's chapters on Abstract Right (concerned with the rights and duties of the Person),Morality (which exposes the emptiness of individualistic morality),and finally Ethical Substance (which makes explicit the ethical character of the family, civil society, and the State.). The conclusion, after a brief recapitulation, focuses upon the relationship between Morality and Ethical Substance, viewing it in terms of limited fulfilled volition, respectively. The principle of Absolute Spirit is also briefly discussed in order to put Subjective and Objective Spirit in their overall developmental context. An appendix containing important passages from Hegel's Logic, a select bibliography, and a full index are provided.

Hegel's Science of Logic and Global Climate Change
2007 0-7734-5280-X
This study renders Hegel's Science of Logic intelligible through clear, empirical illustrations, and brings Hegel's complex philosophical ideas to life in a visceral, level-headed manner. It does so by elucidating the conceptual structure of Hegel's Science of Logic with concrete examples from global climate change. One can read the Science of Logic as a treatise on relations. Since climate change is brought about through a system of relations, this work plugs in the appropriate examples to illustrate Hegel's philosophical concepts, and shows how the nuanced account of relations found in Hegel's Science of Logic can be seen at work, empirically, in various facets of climate change. In turn, Hegel's Science of Logic provides a framework for addressing features of climate change such as understanding how it works, assessing its risks and impacts, and providing ethical arguments for mitigating climate change. This book contains 11 black and white photographs.

Heidegger on Heraclitus a New Reading
1987 0-88946-305-0
Aims at presenting Heraclitus as Heidegger read him and offers an acount of the discussion generated by this newly discovered Heraclitus.

Heideggerian Phenomenological Investigation of Money
2002 0-7734-7329-7

Heresy of Oedipus and the Mind/ Mind Split. A Study of the Biocultural Origins of Civilization
1995 0-7734-8854-5
The nature/nurture controversy, sometimes known as the evolution/environment controversy, seems to have trickled down into the information systems of the vernacular world as an unfortunate rift between duelling scholarly camps. The Biocultural Paradigm is offered as a model that transcends both camps, by recognizing the neuro-biological origins of human development and by delineating exactly how and when sociological influences can and cannot affect those neuro-biological invariants. The Biocultural Paradigm is established by using existing discoveries in evolutionary neuro-biology and Selection Theory. It is composed of five proto-cultural models ("biocultures") which correspond to the five evolutionary centers of our neurological structures. Each bioculture then is formed by the cultural manifestation of the primacy of certain neurological traits over others, eventually (through the habitual repetition of the primacy of certain neurological links at the expense of others), these individual traits become societal ones; thus forming the socio-biological basis for the Biocultural Paradigm. The sociological evidence is founded primarily upon sociolinguistic grounds, by analyzing the relationships between the literary remnants of certain cultures and their corresponding social, political, and religious structures. The literary evidence is examined as it elucidates a neural map of cortical activity (thereby offering clues as to the biocultural slant of the group), while the social, political, and religious systems are examined for evidence of neurological predispositions that manifest externally as cultural substitution systems.

Herman Dooyeweerd and Eric Voegelin: A Comparative Study
2005 0-7734-6119-1
This study provides an introduction to two of the twentieth century’s most significant philosophers, Herman Dooyeweerd and Eric Voegelin. Dooyeweerd and Voegelin provided a new, deeper understanding of history and philosophy. They were early interpreters of the crisis of modern humanism, exposing its contradictions and uncovering its fundamental, spiritual problems. They both re-described philosophy itself as depending upon something deeper than human autonomy.

Despite their significance, Dooyeweerd and Voegelin are largely unknown in part because there are few introductions to their works and no introductions to both of them. The purpose of this book is to provide an introduction to these two significant philosophers.

Hermeneutical Studies Dilthey, Sophocles, and Plato
1990 0-88946-370-0
Represents a series of hermeneutic studies unified by two main concerns: to sort out and reconcile the varying claims of the text and the interpreter's perspective, and to urge reorientation of hermeneutic inquiry.

Hermeneutics in the Philosophy of Giambattista Vico a Revolutionary Humanistic Vision for the New Age
1993 0-7734-1939-X
This book was conceived as a "Vichian hermeneutical conversation" with its readers, to explore the origins and horizon of our common humanity. A corollary purpose is to acquaint the educated non-specialist with Vico's relevancy for a post-modern cultural paradigm which best preserves humanistic modes of thought. It adopts a straightforward, demystifying, colloquial language able to demonstrate how Vico helps to answer crucial questions such as: What does it meant to be human, or How do we live humanely in a rationalistic technocratic society?

Hidden Doctrine of Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed Philosophical and Religious God-Language in Tension
1988 0-88946-253-4
Reveals the "hidden doctrine" of Maimonides' Guide for the Perplexed by viewing it as a parable and exploring the means by which Maimonides both concealed and revealed his meaning.

Historical Development Toward a Non-Theistic Humanist Ethics: Essays From the Ancient Stoics to Modern Science
2015 1-4955-0426-3
This book is a collection of essays written over the years on various philosophical approaches to ethics. It opens with an introduction that surveys the current status of investigations by natural scientists, biologists, and psychologists on the moral behavior of humans, comparing it with the behavior of higher animals. The remainder of the book is subdivided into seven parts, which treat development of moral theories.

Historical Understanding in the Thought of Wilhelm Dilthey
1992 0-7734-9240-2
This study sketches the historical framework (the development of Dilthey's thought) and the systematic framework (his views on other, related topics) that together shed a revealing light on a number of statements from various writings.

History and Interpretation of the Logic of Hegel
1992 0-7734-9509-6
The aim of this work is to outline a systematic historical account of the developments of Hegel's logic, both in his own works and those of his most significant followers, and on the basis of that, to outline a coherent interpretation and internal criticism (where this is needed) from a consistently `idealistic-transcendental' philosophical perspective.

History of Galileo’s Inclined Plane Experiment and Its Philosophical Implications
2011 0-7734-1481-9
The book is a history and philosophy of Galileo's inclined plane experiment. It deploys an integrated historical pragmatist methodology to reflect on what we can learn from those events and their significance for our understanding of experimental practice in science.

History of Philosophy From Decartes to Hegel Arthur Ritchie Lord
2006 0-7734-5589-2
These volumes collect and introduce the major writings of the British/South African philosopher Arthur Ritchie Lord (1880-1941). Regarded as one of the finest minds in South African philosophy in the early twentieth century, Lord nevertheless published little during his lifetime part from his The Principles of Politics (1921) and a few short essays. The editors of these volumes bring together not only Lord’s published work, but almost all of his previously-unpublished lectures and essays.

This work provides a survey of philosophy from Descartes to Hegel, found in unpublished manuscripts of the British/South African philosopher Arthur Ritchie Lord. These studies focus on what Lord called ‘logic’ – what would be considered today as metaphysics and epistemology. He adopted a strong historical approach to these issues, with extensive discussion of Hegel’s contributions. This work not only provides readers with a uniquely idealist reading of the history of modern philosophy, but helps to explain a much-misunderstood perspective on epistemology and metaphysics.

History of the Quest for Philosophical Clarity From Descartes to Wittgenstein: “we Can Only Understand What We Ourselves Have Made”
2011 0-7734-1563-7
This work examines the philosophical positions of the canonical thinkers of the Western tradition from Descartes to Wittgenstein. It argues that philosophical discourse becomes confused whenever it has no explicit semantic basis.

How Do We Create a Philosophical Cosmos for Acting Socially and Being Happy?
2007 0-7734-5513-2
In this work the focus is on the cyclical structure of the patterns of social change. According to the Wave Principle, patterns of five waves move in the direction of a trend and three waves move against it. The author presents a theory of agency and sociality that serves as a basis for the wave-like character of social change and the individuality of the component waves of the pattern.

How Do We Deal with Conflicts Between Different World Views, if They are Based on the Same Evidence? the Philosophical Problem of Underdetermination in the Thought of W.v. Quine and Donald Davidson
2010 0-7734-1353-7
This book examines both Quine’s and Davidson’s views on underdetermination and language and argues underdetermination provides an epistemological basis for pluralism by justifying alternative world views or conceptual schemes in science.

How Early Muslim Scholars Assimilated Aristotle and Made Iran the Intellectual Center of the Islamic World: A Study of falsafah
2010 0-7734-3716-9
This work demonstrates how falsafah(which linguistically refers to a group of commentaries by Muslim scholars associated with their readings of the Corpus Aristotelicum) in Iran has been always closely linked with religion. It also shows that after the introduction of Islamic falsafah (and the onset of the Corpus Aristotelicum in Baghdad in 899 AD), the blending of the new natural theology and the vibrant Iranian culture gave birth to a new making of intellectual sway which soon made Iran the center of falsafah (and sciences) in the Medieval world.

How Kant's Conception of Reason Implies a Liberal Politics
2008 0-7734-5234-6
This work examines the relation that exists between Kant’s critical philosophy and his mature political doctrine. The author argues that Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason contains an account of the faculty of reason and the way it shaped his liberal political theory of The Metaphysics of Morals and of his later essays on politics. In so doing, this study fills a gap in the current secondary literature on Kant – the relationship between Kant’s first Critique and his political philosophy is rarely explored by contemporary Kant scholars and by political philosophers.

How Language is Used to Do Business:essays on the Rhetoric of Economics
2008 0-7734-5143-9
This edited volume of papers on rhetoric and economics grew out of an interdisciplinary conference held at Millikin University in the summer of 2005. Drawing on economist Deirdre McCloskey’s pioneering work, The Rhetoric of Economics, the essays seek to integrate the analytic study of language use in economic theory with an appreciation for its effect on the material culture that supports social life.

How Memory Shapes Narratives a Philosophical Essay on Redeeming the Past
1992 0-7734-9575-4
This is an original exploration of how the narratives people construct as they go about everyday living are shaped by certain limitations and regular patterns at work in individual memory. The book draws on themes in Walter Ong's analysis of memory and orality. It also explores the relations between memory aids/supports and memory itself. The recognition of records as playing a role in memory adds a collective dimension and raises questions about the nature of historical truth. The ethical theme is based on the thesis that the past can be redeemed or changed not just on the level of narrative but also on the level of additional actions that can be related to prior actions in such a way as to justify a new narration of the events taken together. This means that the past can be changed, and this notion of redeeming the past is inspired by Christian thought.

How Plato’s Theory of Truth Explains the Socratic Method: Consistency is the Test of Truth
2010 0-7734-3701-0
This book argues that Plato’s Socrates subscribes to a coherence theory of truth, and according to that theory, there is only one fully consistent set of beliefs: the set which contains all and only true members. Thus, not only does inconsistency between two beliefs indicate that at least one of them is false, but the consistency of a belief with the other beliefs in the system suffices for its truth.

How the Images in Plato’s Dialogues Develop a Life of Their Own
2011 0-7734-3934-X
An attempt to explain how Plato’s use of imagery in his dialogues affects his philosophy.

How the Materiality of Paint is Intrinsic to the Work of Art: Explanation of the Meaningful Placement of the Medium of Painting in Contemporary Art Theory
2013 0-7734-4463-7
With the invention and ascendance of photography, film and telematics art, has the art of painting become redundant? This book centers on the argument that oil painting, as art-making, remains viable and necessary as a contemporary medium. It does so by examining the materiality present in paint and how it contributes to a viewer’s engagement with a painting. Materiality is, literally, the embodiment of the painting’s ontology, distilled from the characteristics of the paint, the painter’s experience with the paint, and its presentation to the viewer in such a way as to evoke a visceral response.

How War Makes Politics Impossible
2007 0-7734-5378-4
This book provides an English translation of philosopher Heimo Hofmeister’s book, Der Wille zum Krieg, oder die Ohnmacht der Politik, which traces the connection between war and the individual or group awareness of differences among ‘others’ which leads to inevitable and serious disagreement. Analyzing the relations of strength, force and power on the one hand and state, politics and war on the other, Hofmeister shows that while conflict is inevitable, war is not. Ironically, the same diversity that exists among humanity and the conflicts that arise from the awareness of such are just as much the foundation of harmony, friendship and love as they are that of war and hate.

Human Being and Morality in Ethics of Social Consequences
2003 0-7734-6578-2
This study explores issues concerning the moral agent and one’s moral rights. The first part deals with issues related to fundamental moral values and principles of ethics of social consequences, and makes essential differences between ethical theory as a kind of non-utilitarian consequentialism and utilitarian forms of consequentialism. Based on this difference, the study explores such moral values and principles as positive social consequences, humanity, legality, justice, responsibility, tolerance, and moral duty.

Human Dignity and the Common Good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic Tradition
1995 0-7734-2279-X
This volume compares the writings of Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, Jacques Maritain, and Charlis De Koninck on the dignity of the individual and the common good, topics fundamental to Catholic social teaching.

Human Rights Freedom, Justice, and Equality
1992 0-7734-9483-9
This book presents a cogent set of explications of the nature of government, democracy, ideology, law, the place of violence, criminality, merit, poverty, property - in fact, nearly the gamut of concepts seminal to the political universe of discourse and its position in the grid of moral concepts: good, duty, freedom, value, etc.. A thoroughgoing categorical objectivism is presented and defended, which is still articulate enough to declare roots and methods in liberal tradition, analytical philosophy, as well as in Hegelian dialectic. Produces a consistent argument, uniting a diverse philosophical heritage while maintaining political integrity. This is a first rate study by a mature philosopher, and should gain standard stature.

Idea of a Reason for Acting a Philosophical Argument
1989 0-88946-344-1
Examines a series of defenses of the view that there can be no reasons for acting which are not connected to the agent's motives. The author argues that all such accounts fail owing to a failure to distinguish deliberation from the explanation of the action.

Idea of the Museum Philosophical, Artistic, and Political Questions
1989 0-88946-334-4
A collection of fifteen essays addressing the nature and purpose in today's society of the museum: "one of the few cultural institutions with an indisputable future," a cultural force in itself that exhibits general characteristics of human understanding and values.

Immediate Distant Action and Correlation in Modern Physics
2005 0-7734-6064-0
This book advances and extends the debate on unmediated instantaneous action and correlation at a distance. It is a coherent collection of contributions, by an international group of science scholars, resulting from a series of workshops held at the University of Wales, Swansea, in 2001 and 2002. The editors of this book share a common view that action or correlation at a distance is simply a fact of nature. From that starting point, it offers a number of different arguments, analyses and theoretical perspectives. The book does not represent the end of the debate, but rather a beginning, which could lead to a new physics and a more accurate view of nature.

In Defense of Mystical Ideas Support for Mystic Beliefs From a Purely Theoretical Viewpoint
1989 0-88946-340-9
Proposes that the most serious modern objection made to mystical beliefs - not that they are false, but that they are meaningless - is far too simplistic; and provides arguments for certain distinctively mystical doctrines from the point of view of contemporary analytical philosophy.

Index to the Three Works by Ioannes Lydus (de Mensibus, De Ostentis, De Magistratibus)
2012 0-7734-4528-5
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

Indoctrination and Self-Deception or Free and Critical Thought?
2001 0-7734-7407-2
This study operates on three levels. First, it illustrates the contemporary pervasiveness of indoctrination and ideology. Second, it correlates the successful resistance to them with the intensity by which persons affirm not simply ideas, but experiences of self, freedom, love and critical thinking. Third, its approach, which is philosophical, differs from conventional studies by creatively examining the affective and ‘conversational’ dynamics.

Influence of Augustine on Heidegger
2006 0-7734-5689-9
This book on Augustine and Heidegger represents the single most important contribution to the study surrounding the historical and philosophical influence of St. Augustine of Hippo on Martin Heidegger’s early thought and on his magnus opus, Being and Time. This work sets the record straight about the profound influence of Augustine on Heidegger’s work, Being and Time, which promises a renaissance in phenomenology, the emergence of a new field within this discipline, and the restoration of religion to phenomenological speculation.

Influence of Boethius “ Consolation of Philosophy” on Milton’s paradise Lost
2016 1-4955-0517-0
This study makes a compelling case for solving problems in Paradise Lost. Emphasis is well founded on Boethian providence from which flows the radiant seeing of God’s awareness of, and concern of, the world. The loving watchfulness of the Divine Vista does not pre-determine good and bad decisions. God’s providence is ameliorative. The work relies on the optimism of the “Consolation of Philosophy” as exemplified in Milton’s usage of divine providence in foreknowing but not necessitating human choices.

Influence of Boethius “ Consolation of Philosophy” on Milton’s paradise Lost

Influence of Boethius “ Consolation of Philosophy” on Milton’s paradise Lost
2016 1-4955-0517-0
This study makes a compelling case for solving problems in Paradise Lost. Emphasis is well founded on Boethian providence from which flows the radiant seeing of God’s awareness of, and concern of, the world. The loving watchfulness of the Divine Vista does not pre-determine good and bad decisions. God’s providence is ameliorative. The work relies on the optimism of the “Consolation of Philosophy” as exemplified in Milton’s usage of divine providence in foreknowing but not necessitating human choices.

Influence of Daoism on Asian-Canadian Writers
2009 0-7734-4810-1
The first English monograph to focus on the impact of Daoism/Taoism on Asian North American writers. The book focuses on four areas: aesthetics, poetics, politics, and moral-cosmological visions.

Influence of Marsilio Ficino (1433-1494) on Elizabethan Literature: Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare (two Book Set)
2013 0-7734-4549-8
These two volumes are the first extensive study of the influence of Marsilio Ficino on major English poets. Ficino lived in Florence, Italy from 1433 to 1499. He introduced Plato to the Renaissance by his translations of the philosopher’s complete works with detailed commentary. He wrote important works on astrology, a multi-volume work on Platonic Theology, and hundreds of brilliant public letters on a variety of subjects. This fascinating study initiates Professor Jones’ comprehensive multi-volume investigation of the influence of the Florentine scholar and priest, Marsilio Ficino on important English poets. Ficino was a translator who brought all of Plato’s writings to the attention of the Renaissance, an astrologer, and the founder of Renaissance magical philosophy.

Influence of the French Revolution on the Lives and Thought of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Edmund Burke, Mary Wollstonecraft, Immanuel Kant, and Pius VI. The End of Conservatism
2012 0-7734-2645-0
Langan discusses the French Revolution from a variety of perspectives given by influential thinkers of the late 18th century. His thesis is that conservatism was forever changed by the French Revolution, and that conservatism’s modern origins are in direct response to the revolution and its ideals as they were critically examined by Edmund Burke. As Langan argues, conservatives tend to adopt intellectual categories which if taken to their natural conclusions lead to liberal results.

Inquiries Into Values the Inaugural Session of the International Society for Value Inquiry
1992 0-88946-338-7
Fifty-five essays by eminent contemporary philosophers on such topics as "The Devaluation of Value," "The Rationality of Pleasure-Seeking Animals," "Goethe's Moral Thinking," "The Second Death of Jean-Paul Sartre," "The Significance of Human Life after Auschwitz," and "What Can You Do with Art?" Complete with an appendix giving the history of the American Society for Value Inquiry and two additional appendices.

Inquiry Into Human Nature and Other Basic Assumptions
1991 0-7734-9933-4
A challenge to our most basic assumptions about human nature, taking into consideration our individual and collective behavioral patterns. Reflects on ways in which a new world view can end present difficulties, both personal and world wide, to create a more utopian society.

Intellectual Background of the French Revolution
2007 0-7734-5472-1
This work’s contribution to scholarship derives principally from the presentation of sixty-eight texts, written by fifteen authors known collectively as the Idéologues, an influential group in late 18th and early 19th century French thought. Unlike previous studies of the Idéologues which either focused on the group as a whole or on particular individuals, the present works offers the reader direct access to examples of their work; the reader is able to appreciate the different styles of argumentation and nuances of approach and emphasis among writers who present a remarkable unanimity of purpose and outlook. The texts themselves are diverse in nature and cover a wide area of subject matter, illustrating the Idéologues’ conviction that philosophy represents the science of those relationships which unite all sciences in one synthesis. The direct presentation of material which, in some instances, is not readily available is complemented by the introduction, which places it in a clearly defined context. The introduction is centered upon the texts and makes constant reference to them, emphasizing both continuity of thought as well as diversity and development. In this way, it offers an analysis of both specific areas of study (language, political economy, education, etc) and the interrelation between them. The volume is designed both to stimulate further interest in an area which has in recent years been relatively neglected, but which is essential to an understanding of the transition between the Enlightenment and the social thinkers of the 19th century, and to provide an introduction to the period for those whose specialisation lie elsewhere.

Intentional Systems Theory as a Conceptual Framework for Religious Studies: A Scientific Method for Studying Beliefs
2010 0-7734-1412-6
This book investigates the philosophical assumptions in religious studies, especially in ethnography of religion. The central claim is that religious studies treats its study object as an intentional system. This system’s behaviour can be described, explained and predicted on the basis of its internal representations.

Interpreting Aeschylus’ Agamemnon Through the Categories of Aristotle: How Greek Tragedy Shaped Ethical Citizens
2011 0-7734-1521-1
This work demonstrates that Aeschylus utilizes the Chorus in his play Agamemnon to demonstrate a growth in moral competence according to free moral action, parallel to the philosophy of Aristotle’s Nicomachaen Ethics.

Interpreting Sophocles’ philoctetes Through Aristotle’s Theory of Tragedy: How Do We Educate People to Be Wise?
2008 0-7734-5185-4
This book applies many of the categories in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, Poetics and Rhetoric to the three main characters in Sophocles’ play, Philoctetes: Neoptolemus, Odysseus and Philoctetes. All three characters act at extremes in relation to the virtues of courage, anger, truthfulness and shame. Their relationships to each other are also flawed in various ways, and each character commits injustices as they abuse the power they have over each other. They all have good reasons for their actions but still make the wrong decisions. Their happiness is determined by their actions and choices not by their opinions. Aristotle’s list of the prominent character-traits in young people, middle-aged people and the old in the Rhetoric are applied in this book to Neoptolemus, the youth, Odysseus, the middle-aged ruler, and Philoctetes, an old man. Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy in the Poetics are applied to Sophocles’ play as a whole. Both Aristotle and Sophocles believe there exists universal standards for a well-lived life and universal patterns in the ways people fail to live well. Both Aristotle and Sophocles believe that the purpose of tragedy is to educate audience members, with the ultimate goal of this kind of education being practical wisdom (phronesis).

Introduction to the Philosophic Works of F. S. C. Northrop
1995 0-7734-9051-5
This volume presents an analysis of all the major works by F. S. C. Northrop, an outstanding thinker, teacher, scholar, and author of nine books and a list of articles and book reviews that fill a 16 page bibliography. It reveals the breadth of his mind by showing the progression from his first book on the philosophy of science, to subsequent books on logic, East-West philosophy, political science, sociological jurisprudence, philosophical anthropology, legal and and ethical philosophy, etc.. Northrop had original things to say about symbolic logic, art, jurisprudence, the is-ought problem, philosophy of language, theology, history of philosophy, mathematics, science, world peace, anthropology, cybernetics, neurophysiology, religions of the world, and even baseball. It also contains the most complete bibliography of Northrop in print, and a short and loving reminiscence by one of Northrop's most famous pupils, Adolf Grünbaum, Andrew Mellon Professor of Philosophy, Research Professor of Psychiatry, and Chairman of the Center for Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh.

Introduction to Western Esotericism: Essays in the Hidden Meaning of Literature, Groups, and Games
2008 0-7734-5019-X
This work functions as an introductory text for those new to the discipline, but also presents more advanced-level studies of literary works that will appeal to a more specific critical audience. The interdisciplinary diversity of the work enhances the presentation of certain hitherto unexplored academic vistas of Western Esotericism. This book contains thirty black and white photographs.

Inversion of Consciousness From Dante to Derrida: A Study in Intellectual History
2004 0-7734-6437-9
This book is an examination of the phenomenon the author calls “inverted consciousness”. This phenomenon is prevalent in the Western world and has arisen from a variety of sources which the author traces through primary texts. It has resulted in egocenteredness and a loss of a sense that anything other than the Self matters, engendering a spiritual malaise that has been widely recognized and discussed. The author traces the evolution of this inversion from Dante in the fourteenth century to Derrida in the twentieth century.

Investigating the Biological Foundations of Human Morality an Interdisciplinary Perspective
1996 0-7734-8843-X
The central question of this volume is: To what extent is evolutionary biology a necessary and sufficient explanation for human morality? Biologists, psychologists, anthropologists, theologians, and philosophers address this question from their respective disciplines. Four main issues are addressed: Is human moral behavior unique? To what extent can it be explained using models of animal behavior? Does biology provide us only with a description of how morality has evolved, or can it also provide us with a prescription for what morality should be? If the latter, do we seek to prescribe moral behavior as that behavior which our biology has programmed, or is morality a culturally-designed resistance to our biological propensities? Can morality be adequately explained by a demonstration of natural selection operating at the individual level, or are we forced to consider natural selection operating at the level of the group or species? To what extent can humans make autonomous moral choices (i.e., choices not predetermined by biology or environment)? This volume will interest scholars, students, and academic libraries in the areas of sociobiology, ethics, religion, and social philosophy. It will serve as text for courses in ethics or sociobiology at the graduate level and as a supplementary text for courses in ethics, philosophy, psychology or anthropology at the undergraduate level.

Investigations in European Philosophy: A Translation of Heimo Hofmeister’s Philosophisch Denken
2005 0-7734-6268-6
One of the most significant figures in contemporary German philosophy and ethics, Heimo Hofmeister has recently published landmark works in medical ethics and the nature of warfare. A Russian translation of this book has already been published in 2000 and a second edition in German came out at the same time, and is almost sold out. This is the much awaited, first English translation of Dr. Heimo Hofmeister’s groundbreaking work.

Iris Murdoch’s Contemporary Retrieval of Plato: The Influence of an Ancient Philosopher on a Modern Novelist
2010 0-7734-3824-6
This book analyzes the work of Iris Murdoch as a thinker concerned with conceptions of human good in contemporary Western cultures. Until now, Murdoch’s contributions to literature and the relationship between her philosophical work and her novels have received little comprehensive examination.

Is There a Global Right to Democracy?
2012 0-7734-2593-4
This is an expansive study of what we call “The Global Right to Democracy.” The idea gestates from a late 20th century reading of Immanuel Kant. This book is the first comprehensive look at the intersection of neo-Kantian theory and democratization programs undertaken by international organizations and non-governmental bodies in post-conflict and fragile states. The features of this new, assumed right, seem to graft onto international law---and thus hand over to international agencies—methods of protecting and effecting ‘democracy’ in its broadest definition. The consequence seems to be an alteration of traditional notions of international behavior and a challenge to the primacy of state sovereignty.

Isaac Newton's Philosophy of Sacred Space and Sacred Time
2007 0-7734-5406-3
This book provides an analysis of the concepts of space and time in the thought and writings of Sir Isaac Newton, attempting to illustrate his portrayal of both of these as sacred, not merely material entities. After analyzing Newton’s principal texts, the author proceeds to consider his understandings in relation to the philosophical and theological work of American critical conservative Paul Elmer More, demonstrating their agreement concerning the havoc wrought in the modern world by the illegitimate extensions of hypothetical science into philosophies of life and society. Finally, the book considers the implications of viewing space and time, with Newton and others, in a sacred manner, and the resulting limitations on human knowledge. This book offers an interesting contribution to current debates concerning the relationship between science and religion, and will appeal to those who study the philosophy of religion, theology, and the history of science.

John Locke's Philosophy of Science and Metaphysics
2007 0-7734-5468-3
Locke’s account of the problem of cohesion reflects a serious difficulty in his philosophy because of the way in which he relates it to the problem of substance in his search for something that not only underlies all properties in the traditional Aristotelian sense, but also holds the constituents of matter together. Contrary to common interpretation, this book argues that Locke did not have in mind a metaphysical entity which underlies qualities. Rather, he was more inclined to think that something like a cohesive power is what functions as the “bond” that hold holds together, not only the qualities of a substance, but its individual corpuscles, and on a deeper level even the parts of the corpuscle. In order to prove this, the study seeks first to clarify the nature of qualities in Locke’s thought; then moves on to address Locke’s account of substance in its relation to the concepts of real essence and cohesion; next the problem of cohesion is examined in detail before, finally, a explanation is offered of why cohesion cannot be described in terms of an act of divine superaddition in Locke’s philosophy.

Judah Abrabanel's Philosophy of Love and Kabbalah
2012 0-7734-3054-7
This book shows how Judah Abrabanel’s writings are philosophical, and not merely religious. It examines the Renaissance belief that Love should know more than Wisdom, which is something Abrabanel taught. The ultimate mystical union with God for Abrabanel is beneficence towards one’s fellow human beings. His view is that love is the affirmation of both God and human individual experience. Knowledge of man and God are both dependent upon the experience of love.

Jules Lequyer’s Abel and Abel Followed by “incidents in the Life and Death of Jules Lequyer”
1999 0-7734-7934-1
The first part of this book, Abel and Abel, is a story written by Breton philosopher Jules Lequyer which explores the questions of divine justice and human inequality. This is the first published English translation of this work. The second part is Donald Wayne Viney’s biography of Lequyer, which uses Prosper Hémon’s biography of Lequyer (Notice Biographique de Jules Lequyer) written in the late 19th century as well as a number of sources unavailable to Hémon. It is the most complete biography of Lequyer currently available.

Kant and Mathematics Today Between Epistemology and Exact Sciences
1997 0-7734-8511-2
This study will lead to a picture of Kant and his first Critique quite different from most if not all earlier versions. It examines the first Critique as a whole, without becoming stuck in a quagmire of microscopic topics, and limits the study strictly relative to mathematics. The greatest emphasis is on the relevance and compatibility between Kant's epistemology and mathematics proper in the mainstream, yesterday, today, and tomorrow. This study draws the boldest line of demarcation between mathematics and meta-mathematics.

Kant's Critique of Pure Reason an Abridged Translation for College Students
1992 0-7734-9167-8
This readable new version of this classic work is now reduced for the first time to a manageable size. Kant's own words, but without the qualifications and repetitions. The text is meant for readers and students who wish to discover what Kant has to say without attending lectures on it first. Presents a general overview of the entire text, enabling the student to go on to more detailed study of particular points and passages. Also available at a special textbook price.

Kant's Critique of Teleology in Biological Explanation Antimony and Teleology
1990 0-88946-275-5
Presents an example of the interconnections between philosophy and the history of science. Kant's "Critique of Teleological Judgment" is read as a reflection on philosophical methodological problems that arose through the constitution of an independent science of life, biology.

Kant's Philosophy of Language Chomskyan Linguistics and Its Kantian Roots
1993 0-7734-9366-2
This volume demonstrates the incontestability of the historical, as well as conceptual, linkage between (a) the theory of generative/transformational/universal grammar associated with Noam Chomsky and (b) the philosophical synthesis achieved by Immanual Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason. Specifically, it also traces a clear line of theoretical development regarding that topic from (1) the Essay on Language by J.G. Herder; through (2) the massive contribution of Kant in the Critique to (3) the pioneering terms of W. von Humboldt in On the Structural Difference of Human Language and, hence, to (4) its computer-age culmination at the hands of Chomsky.

Kantianism of Hegel and Nietzsche
2005 0-7734-5996-0

Keywords of Martin Heidegger
2006 0-7734-5617-1
This book fills an important gap in the literature of Heidegger through its extensive, detailed “key word analytic” of keywords in Heidegger’s 1927 Sein und Zeit, a central philosophical work of the last century. This expository and critical analytic focuses on foundational terms in Sein und Zeit: their semantic role, clarity and coherence, requiring verbal and conceptual translation. Included are detailed discussions of over 100 key terms (the most extensive analysis of which is the term ‘Dasein’), each of which has been carefully defined with convincing arguments for the English translations provided. The work contains a list of abbreviations and an extensive bibliography.

La ThÉorie Du Langage De Pierre-Simon Bellanche
2000 0-7734-7456-0
This book analyses for the first time the complex and wide-ranging theory of language which lies at the heart of Ballanche’s philosophical system. His sporadic, fragmentary passages, scattered throughout his works, are gathered together here, and presented with a detailed analysis of the theory, both in the context of the historical, religious, social and political system it supports, and also in relation to the earlier and contemporary philosophies of language which it seeks either to uphold or to disprove. In French.

Language of Reason
1993 0-7734-9305-0
This book on clear thinking is untypical in its emphasis on constructive criticism, as opposed to the purely negative approach often associated with logic. It examines the difference between valid and invalid arguments, and steers the reader through some actual and interesting passages of extended non-technical reasoning. In this respect, it prepares the ground for the semi-formal approach to the subject made in the author's recent companion volume Foundations of Rational Argument.

Le Bizarre and le DÉcousu in the Novels and Theoretical Works of Denis Diderot: How the Idea of Marginality Originated in Eighteenth-Century France
2009 0-7734-4663-X
This book examines the background of our modern concept of marginality by focusing on Diderot’s materialist philosophy and his search for the origins of genius, and locating it within the French Enlightenment quest for truth.

Les Visages Du HÉros Dans Les Romans De ChrÉtien De Troyes
2008 0-7734-5049-1
This work utilizes an approach based on parallelism and juxtaposition to provide an analysis of Chrétien de Troyes’ romances, and to interpret the recurrent motifs and patterns, which lend the hero an archetypal dimension. In French.

Liberalism, Oppression, and Empowerment
1996 0-7734-9091-4
The papers selected here (from the Tenth International Social Philosophy conference, held in Davidson, North Carolina, summer 1992) work toward understanding and consensus concerning the meaning of the key concepts in current use, and how the most pressing social issues may be constructively addressed. Papers are by some of the leading social philosophers, lawyers, political scientists and other social thinkers from North America, Europe, Asia, Israel, and Africa. The editors selected essays which in their judgment were likely to be of widest interest and enduring value. Social Philosophy Today No. 10

Life and Philosophy of J. E. Mctaggart, 1866-1925
1991 0-7734-9692-0
This biography reveals the development of a mystic philosopher of great power who worked persistently throughout his life to reveal his view of the true nature of existence, a universe constructed of timeless immortal selves who know each other increasingly through love.

Life and Thought of Henry Nelson Wieman (1884-1975): An American Philosopher
2010 0-7734-3710-X
This work examines the contribution of Henry Nelson Wieman to nineteenth-century religious philosophy.

Life and Thought of Siger of Brabant, Thirteenth-Century Parisian Philosopher an Examination of His Views on the Relationship of Philosophy and Theology
1998 0-7734-8477-9
This study represents the first in-depth reexamination in any language for over twenty years of the life and works of Siger of Brabant. Siger might well be described as the first academic scholar to oppose the claims of the Church hierarchy for total overall control of intellectual study and teaching. Initially, he saw his teaching role as explaining the position of the so-called authorities in the area of philosophy. Subsequently, as one of the very few academics of this time who did not move on to Theology, Medicine or Law, he fought for the independence of his faculty and his domain of academic investigation without direct external interference. This brought him into conflict with the Church authorities, leading to his citation in 1277 for alleged heresy, followed by exile and death in Italy.

Limits of Language: A Comparative Study of Kant, Wittgenstein, and Lao Tzu
2011 0-7734-1547-5
Prof. Shen utilizes ideas from the Tao, Kant, Wittgenstein and the transcendental to move beyond the a priori, a posteriori and the limits imposed by language. The contribution of this book cannot be stated in mere words.

Line Diagrams for Logic Drawing Conclusions
1999 0-7734-8190-7
This book makes two important contributions to philosophical scholarship. It presents a number of reasons for the reinstatement of a traditional terminist logic, contributing to the ongoing debate concerning the proper connections between formal logic, natural language, artificial reasoning, and mathematics. This debate touches of number of crucial areas in logic, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence research, and linguistics. As well, the system of linear diagrams for logic presented here allows for the first time ever the diagrammatic analysis of all the kinds of inferences (in particular, those involving relationals) within the scope of modern standard logic. The system permits the diagrammatic analysis of a very large variety of logical inferences. Classical systems of logical diagrams are limited in the kinds of inferences they can analyze because they tend to rely on closed curves for the depiction of sets. The system presented here avoids these limitations by relying on line segments (for sets) and vector arrows for relations. Consequently, the linear diagram system has a number of advantages in terms of both power and simplicity over classical systems such as Euler, Venn, and Peirce. Underlying the system of linear diagrams is a view of logic in general, which the system is meant to reflect. That view of logic is one developed in recent years by F. Sommers and the author. It is a traditional terminist view, taking statements to be logically analyzable as a pair of terms joined by a logical copula. Various elements of this kind of logic are presented and exploited throughout the book and an appendix summarizing the main syntactical theory is included.

Linguistic Christ- Understanding Christ as the Logos of Language: The Metaphysical Etymology of Heideggerian Linguistics
2011 0-7734-1567-X
This study begins by drawing attention to assumptions that are made about language, which it seeks to question. Whilst continuing the line of Christian tradition that marries Jewish religion with Greek philosophy, this study also aims to reinterpret that tradition in the light of more recent thought on the Logos that comes from Martin Heidegger.

Logic of the Believing Mind
1995 0-7734-9068-X

Logos and Language in the Philosophy of Plotinus
1991 0-88946-288-7
Examines how Plotinus relates language not only to philosophical reasoning, but to noesis, the intuitive and comprehensive act of intellection, and how he relates language to Union with the One, a union "beyond speech and beyond noesis."

Major Metaphors of European Thought - Growth, Game, Language, Drama, Machine, Time and Space
2002 0-7734-7232-0
This work documents the six major European metaphors that constitute Western thought, and examines the theoretical foundations of metaphors and what roles they play in epistemology, history of ideas, and sociology of culture. Will interest scholars in the fields of sociolinguistics, sociology of knowledge, post-structuralism, critical rhetoric of inquiry, and social studies of science.

Man’s Ascent to Reason - The Secularization of Western Culture
2003 0-7734-6956-7

Marquis De Sade’s Veiled Social Criticism: The Depravities of Sodom as the Perversities of France
2008 0-7734-5111-0
This work aims to separate de Sade the individual from his image in order to better understand his philosophy regarding the “libertine” status quo on the Ancien Régime in France. By doing so, his prophetic magnum opus, The One Hundred Days of Sodom, is parted from the accretions of misapprehension which have surrounded it and shown as the author intended it to be: a philosophical mirror by which France would recognize its foibles and its errant ways.

Martin Heidegger's Interpretations of Saint Augustine
2005 0-7734-5965-0
Augustine and Heidegger, the sixth volume in the Collectanea Augustiniana series, is an analysis of Heidegger’s interpretation of Augustine of Hippo. The first part deals with Heidegger’s phenomenological analysis of Confessions X from the perspective of both Augustine and Heidegger. The second part treats various themes common to both authors. This book is timely since there is presently no in-depth study of the relationship between Augustine and Heidegger on either side of the Atlantic.

Material Hermeneutics in Political Science: A New Methodology
2013 0-7734-4486-6
An intriguing look at how the utilization of material hermeneutics can augment the social and political scientist’s capability to interpret social events beyond the traditional parameters that textual hermeneutic and linguistic models would generally present.

Medical Theory About the Body and the Soul in the Middle Ages
2007 0-7734-5208-7
This study examines the cross-cultural transmission of medical knowledge and theory between Jewish, Christian and Muslim communities in the Medieval period. The monastery of Monte Cassino in Southern Italy became the pivotal center for the transfer if Arabic medical science into the Latin West at the end of the eleventh century. Special attention is given to the debates over the precise relationship of the body and soul, one of the central concerns of contemporaneous philosophy and theology.

Medieval Animal Trials: Justice for All
2012 0-7734-3081-4
In Europe as early as the thirteenth century and as late as the sixteenth century, non-human animals including rats, pigs, horses, and dogs were tried for criminal activities. Such trials were not sacrificial in nature; neither were they mock trials for entertainment. Rather, such trials were undertaken with great seriousness with appointed legal counsel for prosecution and defense, at some times before a judge and at other times before a judge and jury. This phenomenon would strike modern sensibilities are being somewhere between eccentric and completely mad, and no one today believes that animals are capable of forming criminal intentions. This book answers the question of how this rather arcane practice is to be understood because it is true that today no animals are formally prosecuted for crimes in courts of law.

Medieval Debate on Jean De Meung's Roman De La Rose
1992 0-88946-318-2
This book supports the theory that all the participants in the early 15th-century debate on Jean de Meung's Roman de la Rose were members of the French Humanist movement. It also proposes that the dispute reveals considerable divisions within that movement, illustrated by the acrimonious tones adopted by both sides. Outlines the fortunes of the Roman de la Rose during the period of over 100 years between the time of its completion and the initiation of the debate; discusses the general preoccupations of the protagonists in the debate: the views of Christine de Pizan, Jean Gershon, et al.; and the contents of the debate itself.

Menace of the Sublime to the Individual Self in Kant, Schiller and Coleridge the Disintegration of Identity in Romanticism
1996 0-7734-8752-2
Exploring theories of the sublime from Neoclassicism to the Postmodern, this study questions the widely-accepted view of the sublime as an aesthetics that glorifies the self. It argues that the aesthetics of terror that pervaded 18th and early 19th-century Europe was part of a generic movement toward the dissipation of the unity underwriting conventional concepts of identity. Closely analyzing the divisiveness underlying the sublime in Burke's Enquiry, Kant's third Critique, Schiller's ten years of aesthetic essay, and Coleridge's scattered aesthetic writings, the study moves beyond such leading scholars of the sublime as Thomas Weiskel, Frances Ferguson, Jean-François Lyotard, and Neil Hertz, offering a perspective on the sublime that breaks new ground in our understanding of romantic identity and its relation to the postmodern self.

Metaphysics of Explanation: An Inquiry Into the Nature and Philosophical Limits of Explanation
2004 0-7734-6406-9
Dr. Whitaker’s book represents a highly important contribution to philosophical scholarship. It is not only a sustained analysis of the metaphysical questions of existence and the world, it is also a thorough analysis of the important theories of explanation over the past century and an overview and generalized theory of the essential nature of all types of rational explanation (including convincing resolutions of traditional problems of induction and free will).

It is a thorough analysis of the concept of total explanation and its relation to concepts of sufficient reason, necessary being, axiarchism, explanatory self-subsumption, existence, concept, object, sense, and reference. There are interesting and significant analyses of some of the age-old proofs of the existence of God. There is also a rigorous explication of the philosophical limits of explanation and the incoherencies that result when those limits are ignored.

This study also contains a detailed review and analysis of theories of divine creation and their relation to theories of scientific cosmology. There are exhaustive analyses of arguments for the spatial and temporal extent of the world as a whole. There is a careful and extensive consideration of the various meanings which have been attached to the term “space” by both scientific as well as metaphysical thinkers, and important distinctions between the major concepts of space that have been hopelessly confused in most treatments. Last but not least, there are interesting and novel analyses of concepts of the spiritual and the noumenon.

Metaphysics of George Berkeley (1685-1753), Irish Philosopher
1992 0-7734-9561-4
This study of Berkeley's metaphysics, with his insistence on the existence of God and importance of the human spirit, takes account not only of Berkeley's treatment of his contemporaries and English critics, but also of his great influence on contemporary French philosophers. The approach is not analytic but phenomenological.

Michael Polanyi’s Philosophy of Science
2001 0-7734-7465-X
This is a study of Polanyi’s theory of tacit knowledge, specifically his description of its nature, structure and function, and the all-important post critical framework which gives rise to it. it is an excellent orientation for those unfamiliar with Polanyi’s work, and of essential value for students of Polanyi’s thought.

Michel Foucault an Introduction to the Study of His Thought
1982 0-88946-867-2
A comprehensive survey and introduction to the range of Michel Foucault's thought dealing with philosophy in general, sociology, political science, art, literature, and history in particular.

Michel Foucault and the Freedom of Thought Thinking Otherwise Between Knowledge, Power and Self
2001 0-7734-7573-7
This volume offers a map of the underlying movements of Foucault’s thought. Detailed and comprehensive, it demonstrates that Foucault is a philosopher of complex spaces, territories and architectures of thought across the range of his work, and includes analyses of lesser known texts (Magritte, Pierre Riviere, Brisset) that are hardly mentioned in the secondary literature. It also presents new and original readings of his major texts that will interest a wide audience. The primary sense, direction, and force of Foucault’s thought is shown to reside in the connections established between a new conception of space-time and freedom, an open system of relations that shows how he thinks the ‘present’ differently, designating this effort the ‘thought from Outside’. This is the freedom of thought in Foucault – a potentially dangerous or joyful yet necessarily endless effort to connect and reconnect with the Outside that is uniquely Foucauldian.

Mind of Leibniz
2003 0-7734-6893-5
This volume attempts to resolve the century old dispute between Newton and Leibniz over the discovery of the calculus, and also explores both the mind and the life long research of Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, documenting his phenomenal mathematical and philosophical research, as well as the apparent nature and possible origins of genius and human intelligence.

Modern Technology in the Heideggerian Perspective
1995 0-88946-345-X
A groundbreaking study, containing a landmark inquiry into structural coherences pervading Heidegger's thinking.

Modern Technology in the Heideggerian Perspective Vol. 2
1995 0-88946-269-0
A groundbreaking study, containing a landmark inquiry into structural coherences pervading Heidegger's thinking. "This two volume work provides current Heidegger-scholarship with invaluable resources for considering the multi-faceted discourses and themes that are strewn along Heidegger's path to thinking. A work of many years of painstaking investigations and sustained wrestling with difficult texts, this is a work that all serious students of Heidegger's philosophy will need to confront and to which they will need to respond." - Calvin O. Schrag

Montaigne and the Ethics of Compassion
2000 0-7734-7706-3
This study establishes that the Essais are the vehicle of a coherent ethical system whose principles generate valid and genuinely innovative ethical conclusions, expounded in the body of Montaigne’s text. It also suggests that certain features of Montaigne’s ethics have much to offer our own age. “Gauna’s study is challenging and manages to be both provocative and persuasive. His range of reference to both pre- and post- Montaignean ethical thought is impressive as also are the vigour and clarity of his expression. . . It is a contribution to Montaigne studies which deserves to find its way onto many booklists and bookshelves, both public and private.” – Pauline M. Smith

Montesquieu’s Vision of Uncertainty and Modernity in Political Philosophy
1999 0-7734-7976-7
"The text considers Montesquieu as a thinker within a broad historical, social and philosophical context. As such the text is both about Montesquieu and uses Montesquieu to consider a range of broader issues. In particular the text focuses on questions of philosophical certainty and uncertainty and relates Montesquieu's work to historical, literary and social changes. This approach not only provides a wide ranging and multifaceted analysis of Montesquieu but also provides his work with a significant contemporary relevance . . . an interesting and well written text." – Gerald R. Taylor

Moral Case for the Free Market Economy a Philosophical Argument
1989 0-88946-343-3
Places on record a brief, accessible statement for the case for the free market system of economics, based on a view of human beings as moral agents and the legal system of a good community as designed to nurture this moral agency.

Moral Philosophies in Shakespeare's Plays
1987 0-88946-558-4
Discusses the correspondence of characterizations of human behaviors in Shakespeare's plays to actual human behaviors, a realism that lends the plays significance as examples of empirical moral philosophies.

Morphology of Russian Mentality a Philosophical Inquiry in Conservatism and Pragmatism
1993 0-7734-9863-X
This is a philosophical, psychological and economic analysis of the basic archetypes of mentality of the Homo Sovieticus. The "child archetype," "twilight mentality," and archetypes of worship and protection are some of the concepts the author uses to describe the phenomenology of Russian and Soviet conservatism. He analyzes the so-called "Turannian" components of the Russian national psyche, discusses the views of both traditional and modern "Eurasians". Using literature, the media, and economic data, he illustrates the emergence of the antitotalitarian spirit as the precondition for the transition to "positive pragmatism", or the emergence of a Russian version of protestant ethics.

Mountain Climbing as American Transcendental Pilgrimage
2003 0-7734-6755-6
Fifty-four 14,000-foot mountains, or 14ers, are the focal points in the cultural geography of Colorado mountaineering. Since 1920, climbers known as 14ers peakbaggers have climbed all fifty-four 14ers. Their personal narratives and literature indicate ties to American Transcendentalism, a religion promoted by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Personification of Colorado 14ers is achieved through archival, diachronic, and narrative approaches within a qualitative methodology. Two unique models developed by the author, the Transect Model and the Transcendental Ziggurat Model, assist in data retrieval and analysis. The archival approach relies upon Appalachian Mountain Club and Colorado Club literature. The Transect Model serves as an informational sieve for club literature. It identifies spatial, demographic, and narrative data of peakbaggers. A diachronic approach primarily focuses on Colorado mountaineering during 1912 to 1998 and the life span of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1803-1882. The Transcendental Ziggurat Model summarizes an analysis of both peakbagger narratives and mountaineering literature. It illustrates the transmission of Transcendental belief from ethnic religions to mountaineering clubs via Ralph Waldo Emerson and the American Transcendental Movement of the 1800s. The Colorado 14ers peakbaggers, by exhibiting Transcendental belief and pilgrimage activity, create a cultural geography supporting American Transcendental pilgrimage. Nature by Ralph Waldo Emerson is reprinted here in an Appendix.

Mystery of Hope in the Philosophy of Gabriel Marcel (1888-1973) Hope and Homo Viator
1992 0-7734-9160-0
The present work is the only work in English which exclusively explores Marcel's understanding of hope. Examines hope as it relates to many categories, among them activity-act-life, anxiety-strangeness, availability-unavailability, being-having, captivity-trials, charity, communion-intersubjectivity, concrete philosophy, creativity, death, desire, despair, faith, prayer, sacrifice-suicide, and many more. Additionally the book offers a spiritual biography of Marcel based on his two essays in autobiography, a bibliography of secondary material, and appendices which index Marcel's major passages on the themes described above.

Mystical and Buddhist Elements in Kierkegaard's Religious Thought
2005 0-7734-5856-5
Critics and sympathetic interpreters alike underestimate Kierkegaard's relevance to contemporary continental and comparative philosophy because they fail to see the extent to which his philosophy is mystical. Mysticism is often characterized by, among other things, the annihilation of the self and union with God. On a standard reading of Kierkegaard, of which David Law’s is an example, Kierkegaard’s insistence upon the absolute distinction between Creator and creation would force him to reject anything like mystical union with God. But this reading fails to take adequate account of Kierkegaard’s Journals and Papers, which assert the possibility of such a union.

For Kierkegaard, when we attempt to secure some meaning for our lives that transcends the limits of those lives themselves, we meet with utter failure because of our finitude and, ultimately, sinfulness. Thus, we must “die” to our human longing to secure this meaning on our own, and must receive it from God through grace. Kierkegaard calls this openness to the divine “becoming nothing.” Only when the individual thus becomes nothing can God “illuminate” her.

Naturalistic Theism of Henry Nelson Wieman (1884-1975): The Creator of an American Process Theology
2012 0-7734-2924-7
Henry Nelson Wieman was one of the most influential American religious figures of the late twentieth century. His work is examined here in relation to other notable thinkers such as Henri Bergson, William James, James Dewey, Alfred Whitehead, and Josiah Royce among others. He was also a mentor of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and his work set the stage for naturalistic theism. Wieman believed that creative religion constituted by self-giving individuals must always exist in relation to divine cosmic individuality. A radically individual nature of the process of change means that religion must encourage collective actions towards justice through an appeal to the individual rather than the group. What calls the subject to action is co-related to what the individual perceives as a totality of lived experiences.

Neoplatonic Metaphysics and Epistemology of Anselm of Canterbury
1997 0-7734-8622-4
Anselm is well-known for his "ontological" argument, for his discussion of the necessity of the Incarnation. This volume argues that Anselm is a Christian neoplatonist of the Augustinian variety, and thus that he is the inheritor of a powerful and systematic metaphysics and epistemology. The view that our world is an image of the divine mind and its ideas, a fragmented and temporal copy of the perfect, eternal unity which is God, leads Anselm to a strong exemplarism on the doctrine of the universals, and ultimately to a sane and sober theistic idealism. The discussion of Anselm's underlying metaphysics and epistemology concludes with a neoplatonic (and new) interpretation and defense of his most famous contribution, the Proslogion proof for the existence of God.

New Studies in Bonhoeffer's Ethics
1997 0-88946-775-7
Addresses the paradox that scholars have neglected the very work that Bonhoeffer hoped would be his crowning achievement, his study of Christian ethics. Concluding that the reason for this omission was not simple neglect but the uncertain state of the text, contributing authors offer insights and solutions for the textual problems posed by Bonhoeffer's Ethics.

Nietzsche as Educator
1992 0-7734-9962-8
Through a close reading of relevant primary and secondary literature, this study describes and evaluates Yoder's eschatologically informed critique of Constantinianism and his alternative theory of Christian social action. The study finds that the relationship between Yoder's eschatology and his view of Christian social ethics is characterized by a lack of conceptual coherence at numerous points. The conclusions are largely critical of Yoder's project, as neither his critique of Constantinianism, nor his proposed alternative, is displayed with exacting historical accuracy and conceptual precision.

Nietzsche's Zarathustra and Political Thought
2002 0-7734-6944-3

Nietzsche’s Understanding of a Good Life: Seeking More Than Happiness
2012 0-7734-2551-9
Nietzsche’s Classification of Human Types as Key to his Evolutionary Theory sheds new light on Nietzsche’s theory of free will and the concept of freedom. The book is divided into two parts. The first part of the book examines Nietzsche’s categorization of human types, which Nietzsche labels as the bound spirit, the free spirit, and the Ubermensch. The second part of the book demonstrates how Nietzsche’s categorization of human types is connected to the concepts of freedom, will, and truth. Not only does Goldsmith show the contradictions within Nietzsche’s categorization of humans as they apply to his theory of the will to power, but she also points out that within Nietzsche’ nihilistic explanation of human existence there is a sense of freedom within the will to power that drives humans to their greatest achievements. The book is a major contribution to the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the world’s greatest philosophers, and it will appeal to scholars in the fields of continental philosophy, the history of philosophy, twentieth century philosophy, and the social sciences.

Noetical Theory of Gabriel Vasquez, Jesuit Philosopher and Theologian (1549-1604)
1999 0-7734-7888-4
This study deals with the place Vasquez gives to the objective concept in its relation to the external word (speech), to truth (judgment), to knowledge (human cognition), and to being (reality). The crux of the matter lies in the relation which the objective concept of a thing has to the thing in itself. His teaching of the objective concept was opposed by his contemporary, John of St. Thomas. In this century, Jacques Maritain in his work Reflexions sur l’intelligence et sa vie propre, sees it as the source of the idealism of succeeding eras. “There are hardly any English publications on Vasquez to date. Prof. Lapierre’s work is filling a gap; therefore, it is a must for any library in the English speaking world interested in medieval studies.” – Tibor Horvath

Numerical Term Logic
2008 0-7734-5027-0
This is an edited volume of the unpublished work of numerical logic pioneer, Lorne Szabolcsi, who died suddenly at age 28.

O. K. Bouwsma’s Commonplace Book - Remarks on Philosophy and Education
2001 0-7734-7502-8
This edition of collected remarks (from the many thousands of pages of notebooks from 1950 to 1978) reflect Bouwsma’s concern with the role of philosophy in education, particularly liberal arts education and the role of reading literature in it. Entries on these and related subjects reflect Bouwsma’s engagement with Wittgenstein – his conversations with him and his reading of Wittegenstein’s philosophy. Over his fifty year teaching career, Bouwsma frequently discussed the value of teaching and studying literature, and kept track of such discussions in his notebooks. His views on this subject were always controversial and guaranteed a lively discussion. The editors have also included some additional general discussions of what a university education is, and some of his commentaries on contemporary society.

On Celestial Signs (de Ostentis)
2012 0-7734-4524-2
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

On Powers, or the Magistracies of the Roman State (de Magistratibus Republicae Romanae)
2012 0-7734-4526-9
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

On the Months (de Mensibus): Three Works of Ioannes Lydus
2012 0-7734-4522-6
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

On True and False Ideas, New Objections to Descartes' Meditations and Descartes' Replies
1990 0-88946-287-9

On Understanding Works of Art an Essay in Philosophical Aesthetics
1986 0-88946-326-3
Presents a theory of art according to which artworks represent kinds of experiences; also provides a philosophical understanding of the distinct peculiarities inherent in the experiencing of art.

Ontological Proof in Anselm and Hegel: One Proof, Different Versions?
2013 0-7734-4329-0
The central purpose of this book is to look closely at a certain feature of the ontological proof – namely, its tendency to blur the distinction between the human and the divine. The works of Anselm and Hegel, who represent two different developments of the ontological proof, are compared and expertly analyzed.

Origins and Implications of Kant's Critical Philosophy
1991 0-88946-732-3
Examines Kant's critical philosophy, focussing on its dialectical constitution and gauging its implications. Attempts to determine the meaning of the critical system more by determining the dialectical and rhetorical influences on Kant than by focussing on its manifest reasoning. Begins by taking stock of meta-physical and meta-interpretive materials; then examines the major doctrines of the first Critique; and finally draws wider morals for Kant specifically and for philosophy generally.

Origins of Epistemology in Early Greek Thought a Study of Psyche and Logos in Heraclitus
1994 0-7734-9122-8
This study contributes to scholarship in five ways. It provides a unified framework within which to view the development of Presocratic thought; it points out three aspects of Xenophanes' skepticism, and shows that (and how) Heraclitus responded to each; it summarizes key issues concerning psyche and logos, and attempts to settle certain long-standing debates concerning them; it argues that Heraclitus' concepts of psyche and logos resulted from his need to construct an epistemological theory in order to counter Xenophanean skepticism; and it make use of various traditional Greek assumptions such as the principles of "like-to-like," the analogy of microcosm and macrocosm, and the concepts of balance and measure as exemplified in the ideal of sophrosune. In doing so, it illustrates the usefulness and importance of an approach to the Presocratics which takes into account then-contemporary beliefs which may seem odd to our own time.

Origins of Scientific Learning
2007 0-7734-5369-5
The papers in this volume contribute to the interdisciplinary study dramatic transformations in a wide array of human endeavors (political, artistic, literary, scientific and technological) in Early Modern Europe. All but one of the essays presented here are revised and extended versions of papers delivered at a conference sponsored by Binghamton University’s Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies in 2004 centered on the theme of “Science, Literature, and the Arts in the Medieval and Early Modern World”. This book contains five Black and White photographs and seven color photographs.

Overcoming Metaphysics as a Problem in the History of Philosophy
2006 0-7734-5747-X
This book approaches the issue of overcoming metaphysics from a double perspective called ‘metaphysical insideoutness.’ On the one hand, acknowledging the impossibility of a complete overcoming of metaphysics, it opts for the constant overcoming of one metaphysics with another. On the other hand, it acknowledges some ways of stepping outside metaphysics from the inside. The book starts with an overview of the development of metaphysics from Aristotle to the 18th century and then interprets the modern and recent instances of overcoming metaphysics from the viewpoint of the aforementioned double perspective. Such thinkers as Descartes, Hume, Kant, Husserl, Heidegger, and others are considered, but special emphasis is given to Jacques Derrida, whose work exemplifies the position of ‘metaphysical insideoutness’ paradigmatically by means of his grammatological metaphysics as well as ways to reach outside metaphysics. The remaining and largest part of the study applies this interpretative scheme to the thought of Friedrich Schleiermacher, who also addressed metaphysical questions in the lectures on dialectic and endeavored to overcome metaphysics or speculation in theology.

Pacifism in the Social Ethics of Walter George Muelder
1995 0-7734-2283-8
This study of Muelder's pacifism and its relation to his social ethics is an important contribution to the analysis and assessment of both phenomena as they developed in this century. As dean of the leading Methodist School of Theology, Boston University, Muelder was always asking hard questions concerning the social implications of denominational doctrine. He discussed the importance of not permitting science and technology to outdistance ethical considerations. He applied the Boston Personalist tradition to contemporary social issues, sharpened his democratic socialist and pacifist approach to the resolution of conflict. He emphasized the tensional, or dialectical, unity of theory of practice, the search for emergent coherence, and the interdisciplinary nature of religious ethics.

Pedagogical Implications of Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Hermeneutics
2012 0-7734-2577-2
My work extends the studies of Hans-Georg Gadamer’s Hermeneutics, focusing exhaustively on Truth and Method as the source for articulating a hermeneutic pedagogy. My study also thoroughly defines reading and writing pedagogy as a necessary discipline in the human sciences, identifying the topics that lend themselves to pedagogical study. As a study aligning phenomenology to the teaching literature and composition, my work introduces a thorough-going philosophical dimension to these studies and provides a necessary ground for them as disciplines. This philosophical ground is rarely found in reading and writing scholarship. I hope that my work will encourage compositionists and scholars in the teaching of literature to apply phenomenology or other philosophical positions to the study of reading and writing and to pedagogically examine their classroom practices.

Penology and Eschatology in Plato’s Myths
2002 0-7734-7249-5
This work is the first to demonstrate the differences and similarities between Plato’s myths and the traditional kind of which he was critical. It also actively demonstrates the extent to which his own myths support or undermine the philosophical ideas of the dialogues in which they are set. It offers new arguments and criticism on point of detail concerning modern interpretations.

Peter of Ailly and the Harvest of Fourteenth-Century Philosophy
1989 0-88946-307-7
Describes the state of philosophy at the end of the fourteenth century by examining the teaching of Peter of Ailly (1370-1420), who used the theological teaching of God's omnipotence to remove certainty concerning the physical order, the moral order, and the supernatural order. Many quotations, with Latin on facing pages.

Philosophical and Legal Concept of War
1994 0-7734-9256-9
This book demonstrates that, under contemporary principles of international law, war is an illegal institution in the international relations between States. War myths and fallacious doctrines meant to show the necessity of war are refuted and their falsehood and absurdity demonstrated. Also, it is established that the distinguished philosophers, political and social thinkers as well as statesmen, Eastern and Western, ancient and modern, consider war as a calamity or as a crime. All the documents concerning war from the establishment of the League of Nations to September 30, 1992 are also analyzed.

Philosophical and Religious Conceptions of the Person and Their Implications for Ethical, Political and Social Thought
2002 0-7734-7025-5

Philosophical Defense of Affirmative Action
1999 0-7734-8263-6
This volume gives a scholarly review of literature on affirmative action, examines key legal cases, depicts Wilson's theory of cycles, provides the most advanced philosophical arguments on affirmative action from the writings of Aristotle, Wasserstrom, Beauchamp, Blackstone, Greene and the author. It offers a list of additional legal cases, an index, and a detailed and extensive bibliography.

Philosophical Dialogue with Children: Essays on Theory and Practice
2010 0-7734-1430-4

Philosophical Essays on the Ideas of a Good Society
1988 0-88946-102-3
Essays arising from the first International Conference on Social Philosophy, which addressed some of the most important issues facing humankind at the end of the 20th century: justice; freedom; power; equality; privacy; conscience vs. law; technology and changing values; population; business ethics; nuclear war; violence; terrorism; and peace. Social Philosophy Today No.1

Philosophical Examination of the History and Values of Western Medicine
1993 0-7734-9210-0
The study's central thesis is that medicine reflects better than any other discipline the ethical crises of our age and that these are the natural result of the schism between "facts" and "values" brought about at the time of the scientific revolution. It offers a brief introduction to the philosophical history of medicine, argues that current ethical theory rests upon a fallacy of abstraction, calls for a more realistic appraisal of ethical responsibility, and challenges the notion that ethics is necessarily more "subjective" than science. Examines the role of ethics in medical education, managing ethical issues in health-care delivery systems, medical economics, abortion, and sexually transmissible diseases, giving special attention to the realities of ethical responsibility in each case.

Philosophical Foundation of Miki Kiyoshi's Concept of Humanism
1995 0-7734-9145-7
This monograph traces an historical, Western influence on Miki's formation of humanism, and then moves to clarify his idea of life as formative. It analyzes his concept of self-awareness as a way of overcoming the standpoint of ego-consciousness. Miki was a student of Nishida Kitaro, and a student of Martin Heidegger in his youth. Other Western philosophers most influential on Miki were Aristotle, Pascal, Marx, and Nietzsche.

Philosophical Mathematics of Isaac Barrow (1630-1677): Conserving the Ancient Greek Geometry of the Euclidean School
2009 0-7734-4772-5
Isaac Barrow largely responsible for that preservation and promulgation of the Euclidean tradition which, on the one hand, invigorated the physical science and mathematics of Newton and others, and on the other hand, allowed for an ongoing engagement with classical Greek mathematics, which continues down to the present day. Barrow’s philosophy of mathematics remains relevant to many key issues still at the forefront of modern philosophies of mathematics.

Philosophical Reflections on Physical Strength: Does a Strong Mind Need a Strong Body?
2010 0-7734-3825-4
This collection of essays philosophically examines strength, considered in its brute, physical sense. This is the only book of its kind solely dedicated to physical strength. Each contributor has expertise in strength sports, three at the world-class level, or in an area of philosophy of sport, related to strength.

Philosophical Study of T. S. Eliot’s Four Quartets
1999 0-7734-8176-1

Philosophical Study of the Criteria for Responsibility Ascriptions Responsibility and Personal Interactions
1990 0-88946-786-2
Explores the interpersonal basis of the practice of responsibility ascriptions. Formulates a clear and precise set of criteria for responsibility ascriptions. Demonstrates how the proposed criteria help to solve all the key problems connected with responsibility in moral and legal philosophy. Chapters include "Personal Attitudes, Personal Interactions, and the Practice of Responsibility Ascriptions," "Is It Irrational to Hold People Responsible for Their Behavior?" "Forced to Behave in Spite of Oneself," "Culpable and Non-Culpable Ignorance," and "Mental Abnormality and Responsibility."

Philosophy and Ethics of the Virasaiva Community
2003 0-7734-6734-3
This important book presents the quintessence of the Virasaiva philosophy as revealed in the dialogues of the Virasaiva philosophers and revolutionary mystics of the twelfth century. These spiritually stimulating and intellectually challenging discourses are reminiscent of the Dialogues of Plato. Virasaiva thinkers proclaimed and practiced a monotheistic ideal, and values associated with human rights, gender equality, liberty and fraternity, a strong work ethic, social justice, community service, cultural diversity, non-violence, environmental protection and sustainable development. This landmark volume is an indispensable authoritative resource for scholars and educated readers interested in religion, philosophy, and culture.

Philosophy and Miracle the Contemporary Debate
1986 0-88946-327-1
Presents an assessment of recent discussions of the concept of miracle that have taken place within the analytic tradition.

Philosophy of Baseball
2006 0-7734-5889-1
Western philosophy began with two monumental aspirations: to unravel the mysteries of the universe and to construct the best recipe for living the good life. Today, sports play a major role in the lives of many people. A striking correlation exists between the noblest virtues of baseball and discussions of living the good life by the greatest thinkers in the history of philosophy.

The book explains the nine virtues of playing and eleven commandments of coaching baseball. These virtues and commandments are then connected to the best ways to live the good life according to the wisdom of classical and contemporary philosophers such as Camus, Epictetus, Gramsci, Machiavelli, Marx, Nietzsche, Nozick, Plato, Sartre, Schopenhauer, Socrates, and Unger.

Philosophy of Emerson and Thoreau
2007 0-7734-5351-2
This book attempts to reveal the Eastern roots of the transcendentalist thought of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. Not only modern England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain, but also ancient Egypt, Persia, India, and China were favorite hunting grounds of knowledge for Emerson. Thoreau recommended the Bhagavad Gita enthusiastically, asserting that the book deserves to be read with reverence even by Yankees. There was probably no one in the West who so ardently loved and recommended Hindu literature as Thoreau. Be this as it may, the Eastern side of both of these men’s thought is widely neglected in studies. This work seeks to mend this blind-spot in the scholarly approaches to Emerson and Thoreau.

Philosophy of Lev Shestov (1866-1938) a Russian Religious Existentialist
1991 0-7734-9662-9
Lev Shestov is a strange and, in many respects, unique phenomenon in the history of Russian and philosophic thought. His approach to philosophical problems was so different from the traditional that it created difficulties in assimilating the essence of his thought. This is an attempt to clarify Shestov's work. The sudden death of Dr. Louis J.Shein prevented the completion of this work, but the editors of the Edwin Mellen Press decided that despite the unfinished nature of the manuscript, its contribution to scholarship renders it worthy of publication as Shein left it, with only minor editing adjustments.

Philosophy of Mathematics the Invisible Art
1997 0-7734-8706-9
This book is organized around the distinction between finite and infinite. It includes a brief overview of what different philosophers have said about infinity, and looks at some of the arguments to the effect that one should adopt a pro-infinity attitude. Other chapters contain an exposition of the ontological 'schools'; interactions among these schools and various theories of truth; the relationship between mathematics and values; a history of mathematics; an analysis of mathematical knowledge in terms of some traditional epistemological distinctions; the role of mathematics in education; the implications of religion for the philosophy of mathematics; and finally, reference to mathematical objects. This is a non-technical overview of the central issues in the Philosophy of Mathematics, an insightful but broad picture.

Philosophy of Michel Henry (1922-2002): A French Christian Phenomenology of Life
2012 0-7734-2638-8
This study looks at the phenomenological work of 20th century French thinker Michel Henry, exploring Henry's work in its various dimensions: in its situatedness within the Western philosophical tradition, such as Meister Eckhart, Descartes, Nietzsche, Husserl, and Jean-Luc Marion; in its dialogue with classic philosophies of the subject and the interior life; in its relation to the question of language and the problem of representationl with regard to ethics, the problem of inter-subjectivity and contemporary philosophies of "the other"; and finally, in terms of its possible contribution to Christian theological thinking today. The author offers her own original critiques of Henry's work.

Philosophy of Moral Dilemmas
2007 0-7734-5346-6
It is largely assumed that painful self-assessing emotions, such as guilt, are appropriate responses to acting in a moral dilemma for a variety of reasons: these emotions we are committed to moral ends not reflected by our action, they are understandable byproducts of a healthy moral education, and they reflect our making a connection to the wrongness of our dilemmatic act. This study challenges these rationales and argues that a truly admirable agent would not feel such emotions because he would apprehend his moral role, if not his causal role, as marginal. The author contends that ethical theorists should stop endorsing such emotional responses, and offers suggestions to moral educators which dissuade inculcating characters which do not feel emotions in line with actions. This study will appeal to scholars interested in virtue ethics, the philosophy of emotions, and philosophical psychology.

Philosophy of Panayot Butchvarov: A Collegial Evaluation
2005 0-7734-6108-6
This anthology consists of twelve essays concerning the thought of University of Iowa Distinguished Professor of Philosophy, Panayot Butchvarov, together with his comments on each. Butchvarov’s work reveals extraordinary breadth and depth, running the gamut of metaphysics (including proto-ontology), epistemology, ethics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of mind. Unusual for contemporary philosophers, he is sympathetic both to continental phenomenology and existentialism and also to British-American analytical philosophy. Highly eclectic, he draws upon the views of Descartes, Hume, Kant, Meinong, Moore, Wittgenstein (both “early” and “later”), and Sartre as well as other classical and contemporary thinkers, but at the same time he is quite original, setting forth and defending a range of bold, often controversial, theses on identity, existence, reality, knowledge, language, mind, consciousness, goodness, and universals. Some important topics in the present volume are Butchvarov’s contentions that existence and identity are transcendental concepts that we impose on objects given to us in experience, that the most adequate response to the kind of skepticism occasioned by Descartes’ dream-argument is that we find ourselves deciding what exists and what does not, and that knowledge is the unthinkability of mistake, which is a version of the “strong” Cartesian demand for infallibility.

Philosophy of Religion in Kierkegaard's Writings
1995 0-7734-9591-6
This volume emphasizes the unity of philosophical outlook and coherence of thought in Kierkegaard's writings. Sketches the development of his thinking on the nature of faith, and identifies the decisive influences on him. Linguistic analysis clarifies his paradoxical theses concerning faith and uncertainty, and his importance, under six heads: (i) faith is not proof; (ii) rebuttal of rationalism; (iii) rebuttal of the empirical error; (iv) religious faith is the answer to a limiting question; (v) the insistence on the inclusion of the person; and (vi) the clue to the meaningfulness of religion.

Philosophy of Robert Holcot, Fourteenth-Century Skeptic
1993 0-7734-9306-9
From 1300 to 1520 perhaps the most pervasive of philosophical and theological doctrines dealt with the applications of the notion of divine absolute power. Robert Holcot applied this notion to every aspect of his thought: secondary causality, divine foreknowledge, revelation, predestination, moral law, grace, merit, beatitude, and the Incarnation. The final chapters show the extent of Holcot's influence and attack his whole enterprise. An appendix transcribes seven of Holcot's quodlibetal questions, which are used to supplement the study of his printed works.

Philosophy of Schopenhauer in Its Intellectual Context Thinker Against the Tide
1990 0-88946-787-0
In Denker gegen den Strom Hübscher elucidated the main doctrines of Schopenhauer's philosophy by tracing its development within and against the various intellectual and philosophical currents of Schopenhauer's time. Cultivates new ways of understanding Schopenhauer's philosophy and contemporary relationships.

Philosophy of Self
2000 0-7734-7887-6
This book looks into early Greek philosophy for a treatment of what is meant by the concept of soul and soulness, carrying forward the use of this term as it was defended in the third century AD by Plotinus, the founder of Neoplatonism. In the present essay, soul, self and selfhood are also placed in relationship with belief and judgment, noting that belief, with or without evidence, is more convincing to the self than simply a statement of facts, and must come before a full understanding of the manifold can be arrived at.

Philosophy of Sir William Mitchell (1861-1962)
2003 0-7734-6733-5
The subject of this work is the work of Scottish-born Sir William Mitchell, the Hughes Professor of Philosophy and Vice Chancellor of the University of Adelaide, and the first major philosopher who lived in South Australia. Mitchell worked at Adelaide University during the years 1895-1940 and died in 1962. This study argues that Mitchell’s work is surprisingly relevant to current concerns among cognitive scientists and philosophers of mind. He wrote on issues that are only today being discussed by philosophers and psychologists under the auspices of ‘cognitive science.’ His major work Structure and Growth of the Mind (MacMillan, 1907) is a major treatise on philosophical psychology. Most worthy of note, Mitchell seems to have anticipated the claims of the ‘new mysterians’ and their emphasis on subjective experience. He also seemed to have prefigured themes associated with perceptual plasticity, developmental accounts of modularity, and connectionism.

Philosophy of the Good Life
2004 0-7734-6340-2
This book explores the question “What is a Good Life?” from the perspectives of several major regulative ends characteristic of human lives. This important question tends to be neglected among contemporary philosophers or else treated merely as an aspect of Aristotle’s philosophy. The author examines relations between the ends of personal happiness, personal fulfillment, a just community, and a loving community. Drawing from a broad range of philosophical and literary sources, he argues that lives exclusively or primarily devoted to any of the first three ends would fall short of an ideally good life. A principal conclusion is that the values of a loving community include but transcend the values inherent in the other major regulative ends. This work is unusual in its systematic treatment of an important but too rarely discussed topic, in its commitment to drawing together the best from many philosophical resources, and in its critical insights regarding deficiencies in lives exclusively devoted to relatively narrow ends.

Philosophy of Time
1997 0-7734-8618-6
This is a treatment of time as it is experienced in human intuition, but also the attempt to capture time in some epistemologically significant form. Proposals to interpret time from a mathetmatical approach or from the perspective of the physical sciences are examined with reference to recent investigations by Adolf Grünbaum and W. H. Newton-Smith. In addition to a brief treatment of Kant's theory of time, main themes include: the origin of time; the nature of time; the direction of time; time and identity, time and ontology; time as principle; geometricization of time; the metric of time; and the disappearance of time.

Picture Theory of Language: A Philosophical Investigation Into the Genesis of Meaning
2009 0-7734-4829-2
This work is intended to challenge Frege’s Begriffsschrift as the foundation of philosophical work which either uses formal methods or is inspired by them. Whilst it is emphatically not a work of Wittgensteinian scholarship, it attempts the synthesis of the antithetical ideas associated with Wittgenstein, (1) the Picture-Theory, and (2) the language-game conceived as the ultimate level of explanation.

Plato's Dialogues - The Dialogical Approach
1997 0-7734-8628-3
The essays in this volume were specially planned and solicited because of their various contributions to a dialogical reading of the Platonic dialogues. Emphasis on the dialogical is a way of advocating an approach that appreciates the dialogues in their witty humorousness, their irony, their literary richness and historical allusiveness. The work also deals ultimately with the question of the compatibility, or incompatibility of the dogmatic or doctrinal approach to the dialogues.

Plato’s Self-Corrective Development of the Concepts of Soul, Forms and Immortality in Three Arguments of the Phaedo
2000 0-7734-7950-3
Scholars agree that the proofs for immortality of the soul in Plato’s Phaedo are unconvincing. Many scholars think Plato was unaware of any flaws. This study argues both that the proofs are ultimately unconvincing and that Plato was aware of the problems. Only three of the arguments for immortality include a discussion of the forms? this study argues, first, that the view of forms, soul and immortality in each argument is internally consistent. Next, each argument contains three significantly different views of forms, soul and immortality. Third, each argument is a refinement of the previous view, rather than a radical rejection of it. Even the last argument in the Phaedo, however is inadequate. The Phaedo is shown as a truly dialectical philosophical conversation about the immortality of the soul.

Plato’s Socratic Philosophy
2002 0-7734-7138-3
This study is a radical reinterpretation of the dialogues in terms of appearance versus reality. It covers wholly or in part Gorgias, Charmides, Laches, Lysis, Meno, Symposium, Phaedrus, Protagorus, Euthydemus, Republic, Phaedo, Menexenus, and the Parmenides.

Plight of Three Celtic Languages - Welsh, Irish, and Gaelic: What Can Be Done to Rescue Them?
2011 0-7734-3639-1
This study examines the current situation of the Celtic languages in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It demonstrates how, over a significant period of time, they shifted under pressure from the domination of English from monolingualism to bilingualism.

Plotinus and Freedom a Meditation on Enneads 6:8
1990 0-88946-312-3
Explicates Plotinus's doctrine of freedom by paying respectful attention to his thought, together with its background and underlying intentions.

Political Philosophy of Eric Voegelin and His Followers: A Criticism of the Voegelinians
2009 0-7734-4881-0
This work is the first book-length criticism of the political philosophy of Eric Voegelin. This book demonstrates that despite his assertions to the contrary, Voegelin harbored long-standing partisan ideological leanings. After a thorough explication of both primary and secondary Voegelin literature, the author scrutinizes Voegelin’s claims of essential agreement between Plato and Aristotle; his attacks on Marx and Hegel; and his analysis of the character of a modern ‘gnostic.’ The concluding chapter places the ‘Voegelin phenomenon’ in the context of contemporary American political cleavages.

Possibilities of Transcendence Human Destructiveness and the Universality of Constructive Relations
1995 0-7734-8896-0
This book studies the issue of whether and how, when directly pursuing the experience of ultimate reality, it is possible to spell out this authentic experience and the chief paths leading to it using the language of philosophy. It probes the central themes of spirituality such as absolute love, truthfulness of faith, etc. The outcome is an experimental verification of the viability of the original conception of the non-intentional philosophy of transcendence which functions outside the limited framework of both objectifying natural theology and anthropocentric phenomenology of religious experience. Proceeding from an independent scrutiny of the external prerequisites of philosophical theology, this study shows just how various methodologically elaborated perspectives serve to pinpoint (both practically and theoretically) the unique, unexchangeable character of a lively relationship with a transcendental God and its transforming potential. Unlike the hitherto most advanced Lévinasian philosophical rendering of this relationship, this approach has not been abstracted to mere ethical commitment, but has been thematized in its polyfunctionality. Accent is placed on its structured universal dynamics and its precise distinguishing criteria, which are given by the nature of transcendence itself.

Post-Modern Epistemology Language, Truth, and Body
1989 0-88946-324-7
Modern philosophy has been predicated on the assumption that knowledge is exclusively a function of the mind. Using the insights of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Michael Polanyi, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, the authors seek to trace out the implications of such a disembodied epistemology and critique the subject-object dichotomy that follows from these assumptions.

Potential Role of Art in Kierkegaard’s Description of the Individual
2004 0-7734-6368-2
Kierkegaard scholarship has generally focused on either existential or religious issues, interpreting Kierkegaard’s understanding of the individual’s relationship to itself and to the Christian God. As a result of his description of the stages of development of the individual in the process of that relationship, such scholarship has consistently ignored the inherent potential to articulate an aesthetic system which would describe art as a means of facilitating the development in a positive direction.

This book offers the first thorough description of a Kierkegaardian aesthetic which does not demote art to a merely sensuous and negative influence; it is an explication of the specific feature of Kierkegaard’s description of the individual (such as communication, repetition, and the self) within the context of a positive notion of art, as well as an analysis of art itself, the artist, and the fundamental value of art as a profitable means of influencing the individuals. While this book is unique for placing art into a central role within Kierkegaard scholarship, it also remains critical of such a role, maintaining the importance of recognizing the limitations which art has. The final result is that art emerges as a means of communication which urges the individual on towards a better relationship with the actual, as represented by the Christian god, but which also finds its fullest value in its inadequacy in the confrontation with the ideal.

Poverty and the Human Condition a Philosophical Inquiry
1990 0-88946-273-9
The first full-scale philosophical investigation into the meaning of poverty. A conceptual and phenomenological analysis of poverty, undertaken (1) to pose poverty as a philosophical problem in the context of a philosophy of human existence, and (2) to analyze the conceptual framework in which poverty is interpreted in other disciplines.

Pragmatism and the Rise of Religious Humanism: The Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975)
2006 0-7734-5817-4
This book primarily contains unpublished writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975). This volume includes Haydon’s doctoral dissertation, “The Conception of God in the Pragmatic Philosophy” and The Heritage of Eastern Asia (1932).

Haydon was a sophisticated researcher in the field of Religious Studies and was particularly interested in the modern trends in major religions of the world. He contented that the creative source of all religions was to be discovered in the social and physical struggle for the values of existence. Haydon stressed that the religions face the supreme test of adapting to a new age, while at the same time trying to combat the inertia of their tradition by transforming these ancient ways of thinking and acting.

In the 1920s, religious humanism as a philosophical and religious position was gaining strength in Unitarian circles, especially in the Chicago area. At the University of Chicago, Haydon taught a functional view of religion as humanly created in a variety of forms in the quest for a satisfying life. Haydon was a key contributor in writing Humanist Manifesto (1933) and was also a leader in founding the American Humanist movement. Upon retirement from the University of Chicago, Haydon accepted the role of leader of the Ethical Society of Chicago. It was in this capacity that the addresses and radio talks included in these volumes were presented.

Researchers and others interested in the history of American Humanism or the development of the Ethical movement will discover much of interest in the writings on this pioneering thinker.

Pragmatism and the Rise of Religious Humanism: The Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975)
2006 0-7734-5819-0
This book primarily contains unpublished writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975). This volume includes Haydon’s addresses to the American Ethical Culture Societies.

Pragmatism and the Rise of Religious Humanism: The Writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975)
2006 0-7734-5821-2
This book primarily contains unpublished writings of Albert Eustace Haydon (1880-1975). This volume also contains radio talks delivered on radio station WJJD, Chicago.

Preserving a Good Political Order and a Democratic Republic Reflections From Philosophy, Great Thinkers, Popes, and America's Founding Era
1998 0-7734-8487-6
Examines what the role of the state or political order should be, how the state should treat its citizens, building its analysis substantially around the reflections of great political thinkers, including papal thought, the reasoning and conclusions of realist philosophical texts, and more contemporary commentators. Analyzes not only what elements are needed to build good, stable political orders generally and democratic republics specifically, but what factors have historically caused their decline and fall.

Private and Public Ethics Tensions Between Conscience and Institutional Responsibility
1978 0-88946-993-8
Compilation of essays addressing the tensions between conscience and institutional responsibility as problems in morality and politics in American life.

Privileged Moments in the Novels and Short Stories of J. M. G. Le Clézio: His Contemporary Development of a Traditional French Literary Device
2008 0-7734-5002-5
An original study of the “privileged moment” as a key to understanding the work of Le Clézio, a 2008 winner for the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Problem of Plato's Cratylus
2007 0-7734-5425-X
This works seeks to force classical scholars to think further and differently about the Cratylus and its importance in Plato’s corpus, as well as to open the eyes of scholars working on Wittgenstein, Barthes and Derrida regarding the debt they owe to that dialogue. The study begins by assessing Plato’s role in the developing consciousness, among Greek thinkers, of “language” as an entity for study, while also exploring the more specific issue of Plato’s part in developing formal grammatical awareness and terminology. Further, the work considers Plato’s concern as exemplified by the Cratylus for the reliability of language as an instrument of philosophy. Since philosophy in Plato’s mind is centered on seeking Truth and pursuing an ethical life the Cratylus focuses on how effective words are for seeking truth and defining ethics.

Process Ethics a Constructive System
1984 0-88946-764-1
The first attempt to create a constructive and ethical system based on process philosophy, which is often considered America's distinctive contribution to philosophy. Seeks to develop a system of Christian ethics based on process philosophy, but without employing the highly technical language of that discipline.

Quest for Wisdom in Plato and Carl Jung: A Comparative Study of the Healers of the Soul
2008 0-7734-5177-3
This is an application of Jung to a reading of the texts of Plato and demonstrates how a psychoanalytic practice can provide a framework for textual analysis. This pursuit also reveals how the analysis of these thinkers has much to say about liberal arts education.

Questioning Time - A Philosophical Experiment
1996 0-7734-8775-1
This book consists of a series of philosophical questions arranged in the following areas: Containers and Contents; Going Ahead and Going Back; Subjects and Their Questions; Markings and Media; Waiting; Succession, Duration, and Continuity; Credit and Debt; Between and Among; Temporal Direction and Irreversibility; Repetition; Finer and Coarser Discrimination; Acceleration; Comparison; Timelike and Spacelike; Marking and Media Revisited; Clocks; Alternation and Repetition; Messages; Encoding and Decoding; Juxtaposing and Superimposing; Independence and Interdependency; Starting and Restarting. The uniting theme of Barnett's alternative work is to show how a pure philosophical initiative is possible, i.e., how philosophy could start from scratch here and now. The emphasis of philosophical initiative on making sense of the present, and of the time between persons, is first articulated in Concentration in the Present, the second of Two Philosophical Experiments, is further developed in Can You Tell Me . and culminates in the present work, Questioning Time. He has refined the technique of sustained questioning so as to avoid as far as possible rhetorical, leading and presupposing questions; thus providing the reader-participant with a genuine opportunity to think philosophically. Peter Barnett has spent much of his philosophical career exploring alternatives to discursive argument as a means of philosophical communication. He has used diagrams, grids, sculpture, games, and practical jokes, in addition to the technique of sustained questioning. Several of his works have been taken up as art and have entered museum collections.

Rationality in Pragmatic Perspective
2003 0-7734-6792-0
This book presents variations on a common theme: the centrality of functional and thereby pragmatic considerations for the theory of knowledge. It seeks to expound and substantiate the epistemic pragmatism that has long characterized the author’s work, with its central aim of showing that (and how) validation in the cognitive realm is ultimately dependent on the application of knowledge in matters of practice.

Re-Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy Mill on Hamilton
1991 0-7734-9940-7
In his Examination of Sir Wm. Hamilton's Philosophy, John Stuart Mill criticized Hamilton's thought as a "tissue of inconsistencies." Ouren examines Mill's criticisms in detail, examining how Mill misinterpreted Hamilton. He also chronicles the decline and fall of Hamilton's reputation and discusses his relationship to the Scottish School of Philosophy, especially Reid. He criticizes the "Oil/Water" thesis that Hamilton is merely an unstable mixture of Reid and Kant, stressing the importance of Aristotle and scholasticism for Hamilton's thought.

Re-Examination of Tragedy and Madness in Eight Selected Plays From the Greeks to the 20th Century
2002 0-7734-7178-2
This study links classic tragedy and the modern period through the concept of madness, which has been extensive preoccupation of both tragedians and modernists. Taking tragedy as a portrayal of the negation of an individual’s sense of reality, this book provides readings of eights plays: Greek plays (The Libation Bearers; Antigone; The Bacchae); Shakespeare (Othello and Macbeth); Modern Tragedy (Hedda Gabler, A Streetcar Named Desire; Death of a Salesman).

Reason and Feeling in Hume's Action Theory and Moral Philosophy Hume's Reasonable Passion
1998 0-7734-8282-2
Based upon a study of arguments in the Treatise and the Enquiry, this work proposes a theory of motivation and of the making of moral judgments which is Humean in two important ways: it defends (1) Hume's anti-rationalist claim that reason alone cannot either motivate action or lead to the making of moral judgment, and (2) Hume's 'sentimentalist' claim that feeling is always essentially involved in both. This defence of Hume's sentimentalism stops short of endorsing Hume's slave metaphor ('the reason is and ought only to be a slave of the passions') and argues instead for an equal partnership view of reason and feeling.

Reassessment of Absolute Skepticism and Religious Faith: Standing Before the Mystery
1995 0-7734-8842-1
The book begins by asking what religious knowledge is and whether it is possible. After offering a general discussion of waht "religious" might mean and locating Western confidence in knowing in the influence of Aristotle, the book soon moves to the question, is any knowledge (i.e. sure and certain verity as opposed to debatable opinion) possible? An examination of claims to knowledge by the physical and social sciences, history, ethics, and theology leads to the conclusion that humans can never claim certainty for any of their opinions. Knowledge always exists within a context and that context always bears the marks of human construction and fallibility. We can never be objective about the universe because we are, in fact, part of it. Therefore our view of the world is always partial and misleading. The word science is a misnomer.

Reception of Christine De Pizan From the Fifteenth Through the Nineteenth Centuries Visitors to the City
1992 0-7734-9689-0
To understand Christine de Pizan's voice we must pay attention to the culture from which it spoke and the audiences to whom it spoke. This collection attempts to address both concerns, partly to understand how and why Christine's work fell from discussion, partly to investigate how and why she has been so often misread, and finally to emphasize a fact amply documented but often ignored - that Christine de Pizan was an influential author for several centuries after her death, that she never completely disappeared, that we have, in truth , merely "rediscovered" her.

Reception of Jacques Ellul's Critique of Technology
2007 0-7734-5373-3
This volume references books, articles, notices, dissertations, theses, and reviews that feature the life and work of Jacques Ellul (1912-1994), covering the seventy-year period from 1937 to 2007. In the bibliography, the broader references have been annotated in most cases, so as to offer the reader an idea of their content, which is organized alphabetically in the subject index. The author index should enable researchers to locate works whose author's name is known.

Record Book of the St. Louis Philosophical Society, Founded February 1866
1990 0-88946-289-5

Reformed Urban Ethics Case Study of Pittsburgh
1991 0-7734-9906-7
An introductory textbook to Christian social ethics in the contemporary urban American context. Applies a reformed theory of justice and power to contemporary urban social-ethical problems. Chapters include: the urban ethos, urban theology, power in the urban setting, love and justice, evangelism and social action, John Calvin's economic theory, contemporary business ethics, racism, political ethics and housing, and a concluding chapter on peacemaking and the technological city. Rejecting the pessimism of French Protestant Jacques Ellul and the optimism of Boston theologian Harvey Cox, it maps out the terrain of a Christian realist urban ethic.

Regulation of Physical and Mental Systems Systems Theory of the Philosophy of Science
1990 0-88946-633-5
Examines the nature of evolution of increasingly complex systems in the universe. Gains its perspective on this phenomenon by using a model of interaction of wholeness and fragmentation derived from modern systems theory but also informed by the ancient philosophical problem of the One and the Many. Seeks a common ground between different specialities - physical, chemical, social - in order to answer questions regarding the evolution of systems.

Rehabilitation of the Body as a Means of Knowing in Pascal’s Philosophy of Experience
2009 0-7734-9796-X
Attempts to read the Philosophic tradition into the Pensees of Pascal. Calls attention to the relevance of this largely ignored thinker to the traditional problematic of the relationship between body and soul.

Relationship of Man and Nature in the Modern Age. Dominion Over the Earth
1993 0-7734-9273-9
The essays in this book make a unique contribution to the global concern about the effects of man and technology on the environment. They explore patterns of thinking and perception in Western society that form the basis of prevailing attitudes to self, nature, the world, and the way science and technology are used to gain control and to dominate.

Religious Dimension in the Thought of Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) Volume 1 the Early Metaphysics
1991 0-7734-9694-7
In this two-volume work, the author argues that the avant-garde features of Giambattista Vico's thought stem directly from his engagement with theological traditions, and his concern to develop a Catholic apologetic. This claim is established through a much more thorough engagement with all Vico's texts than is usual in the secondary literature in English.

Volume 1 The Early Metaphysics deals with Vico's early writings, where he makes his fullest statements concerning humanist vision and Christian metaphysics. It focuses on Vico's baffling but intriguing outline of a metaphysics in the De Antiquissima Italorum Sapientia. Hints are given concerning the import of the metaphysics for the later writings, and it argues that Vico's thought represents an `alternative', theological modernism, at once more radical and more orthodox than the proposals of Kant and Hegel.

Rending and Renewing the Social Order
1996 0-7734-9687-4
The papers selected here (from the Twelfth International Social Philosophy Conference of the North American Society for Social Philosophy held in Maine in 1995) aspire to inject a measure of calm rational reflection into the often chaotic rhetoric and irrational actions of our times. Papers are by some of the leading social philosophers, lawyers, political scientists and other social thinkers from North America and several other parts of the world. Social Philosophy Today No. 12.

RenÉ Daumal's Mugle and the Silk
1997 0-7734-8580-5
Translation (with introduction and bibliography) of René Daumal's two short stories, written in 1925-26. Mugle is written automatically in the style of the surrealists. The text's interest is twofold: it is a cluster of intertexts, paraded and parodied, grouped into two major areas. First, the urban perambulation which combines Lautréamont and the surrealists and a philosophico-religious cluster combining Bernanos and an eclectic reworking of major philosophers. Second, the text is a rigorous philosophical allegory of liberation, predicated on the struggle of consciousness to free itself, related to Daumal's 'fundamental experiment' with the drug carbon tetrachloride. The stories are allegories of self-destruction and self-destructing writing.

Reprint Edition of the Principles of Politics by Arthur Ritchie Lord
2006 0-7734-5591-4
These volumes collect and introduce the major writings of the British/South African philosopher Arthur Ritchie Lord (1880-1941). Regarded as one of the finest minds in South African philosophy in the early twentieth century, Lord nevertheless published little during his lifetime part from his The Principles of Politics (1921) and a few short essays. The editors of these volumes bring together not only Lord’s published work, but almost all of his previously-unpublished lectures and essays.

This volume reprints, but also provides a new critical introduction to, Arthur R. Lord’s The Principles of Politics. Prepared to present and discuss some of the major themes of political philosophy, The Principles of Politics focuses on three issues of perennial interest in political thought: sovereignty, law, and rights. Lord’s study also examines such topics as the nature of the state, the balance of power, theories of representation, and the rationality of political institutions. Readers will be particularly interested in the ways in which Lord’s work continues, but also advances upon, earlier idealist studies in political thought (such as those of Hegel, T.H. Green, and Bernard Bosanquet). A rereading of this work today suggests that the idealist tradition, and particularly its account of political pluralism, can provide much insight on issues of contemporary concern.

Rhetoric and Ethics
1991 0-88946-212-7
Addresses the classical connection between rhetoric and ethics, its fragmentation during the 17th century, and the reunification of rhetoric and ethics in the 20th century. Includes such essays as "Platonic Rhetoric" by Charles Salman, "Persons, Personae, and Ghost Writing: Ethics and Fictive Voice" by George E. Yoos, "Stance Perception in Sixteenth-Century Ethical Discourse" by Lawrence D. Green, and "Differences That Unite Us: John Kennedy's Speech to the Houston Ministerial Association" by Frederick J. Antczak.

Rights, Justice, and Community
1992 0-7734-9599-1
AIDS, abortion, addictive drugs, how to manage political power, how to cope with crime - these are only a few of the continuing social dilemmas that philosophers from around the world have addressed in this book. Written in clear, accessible styles, free of narrow disciplinary jargon, these essays reveal that current philosophical work provides important encouragement for the defense of human rights, justice, and community. Social Philosophy Today No. 7

Rise of Autobiography in the Eighteenth Century
2012 0-7734-2640-X
Bell utilizes an inter-disciplinary approach to studying autobiography in the 18th Century. Making use of religion and philosophy, history and literature, contemporary theory and humanism, his original analysis offers a unique array of disciplinary interpretations of the genre. This book not only deals with autobiography in a thorough manner, it also incorporates historical and philosophical interpretations to the presentation of self in this type of literature. He also demonstrates some of the problems with first person singular writing, which distinguishes this style from other forms of non-fiction, and shows how the philosophical question of ‘what can we know and how can we know it?’ is intimately related to the problem of the ‘self’ and narrative persona.

Robert Nozick’s Moral and Political Theory
2010 0-7734-3654-5
This book examines the foundation and formation of Robert Nozick’s Libertarianism.

Role of Art in the Construction of Personal Identity: Toward a Phenomenology of Aesthetic Self-Consciousness
2012 0-7734-3929-3
Loewen looks at the ways art can preserve the self as an archived project. Does art reflect personal growth and can one’s view on it change over time? Why do people identify with particular works of art and not others? The pertinent question in this book is how art reflects the personal identity of its creator and how responses to works of art can divulge information about the audience as well. Art can also serve to memorialize the changes that the self goes through while living. He also argues that artistic expression provides a forum for our truest selves to become represented.

Ronald Dworkin on Law as Integrity Rights as Principles of Adjudication
1996 0-7734-2268-4
This study provides a comprehensive examination of the legal theory of Ronald Dworkin, arguably the most original and provocative philosopher of law that America has produced this century. Dworkin's work represents an effort to synthesize the moral commitments of the natural law tradition with the hermeneutical character of post-modern philosophy. The result is an interpretive theory of law, focused on the essentially moral character of hard case adjudication. Judges strive to be principled and consistent in their resolution of legal disputes, thus manifesting an implicit commitment to the ideal of Integrity. This book clarifies and probes the moral, epistemological, and metaphysical commitments of Law as Integrity. A full discussion is presented on the pillars of Dworkin's program: his understanding of rights as "trump cards" which privilege the individual claim over the group policy; the critique of legal positivism; the history of a legal institution according to the analogy of a chain novel; and the insistence upon a theory of adjudication that is both constructive and yet faithful to the deepest intentions of legal documents. Most importantly, this volume indicates which of these claims are most fundamental in Dworkin's system, what tensions exist among the claims, and how the project of Integrity can be furthered.

Rousseau's Aesthetics of Feeling
2007 0-7734-5317-2
This study breaks new ground by focusing on the role of the arts in Rousseau’s novel, Julie ou la Nouvelle Héloïse, and through them demonstrates the underlying consistency of his thought. Although he never elaborated a formal aesthetic doctrine, Rousseau’s ideas on the arts provide the foundation for the novel and can be discerned therein. Moving between his theoretical and literary writings, this study reveals how Rousseau achieved his aesthetic and ethical goals, examining his alternation between the roles of censor and champion of the arts. This book contains 12 black and white photographs.

Saint Anselm - His Origins and Influence
2001 0-7734-7365-3

Samuel Pufendorf's on the Natural State of Men the 1678 Latin Edition and English Translation, with Notes and an Introduction
1990 0-88946-299-2

Sane Society in Modern Utopianism a Study in Ideology
1989 0-88946-331-X
Traces the birth and development of a modern ideological goal: the "sane" society. Posits that utopian visions of the "perfect society" are ideological in nature, reflecting Western capitalism's exaltation of scientism and instrumental reason. Deals with Mannheim and Marx on sociology of knowledge, Bacon's influence on scientific and sociological theoretical frameworks, and particular utopian models, e.g., Bellamy's "Looking Backwards."

Saturday Collection
1995 0-7734-2715-5
Observing the city at its darkest hour, the poet works the mean streets in a loved/hated job, observing, taking notes, making it all make sense.

Schopenhauer - A Consistent Reading
2003 0-7734-6873-0
This is one of the only studies to argue that a consistent reading of Schopenhauer is possible, making it a significant contribution to the literature. It argues convincingly that the prominent objections to Schopenhauer’s philosophy are based upon crude misunderstandings of the text.

Schopenhauerian Critique of Nietzsche's Thought Toward a Restoration of Metaphysics
1996 0-7734-8891-X
This study demonstrates that what is positive in Nietzsche's thought was already more clearly expressed in Schopenhauer's philosophy, and what is questionable was already criticized. It also demonstrates the religiosity of Nietzsche's thought, which is a secularized form of certain aspects of Christian theology, which leads to an elevation of psychology over metaphysics, lending support to a trend that has dominated much of twentieth-century thought. The book calls for a diminution in the importance of psychology, and recommends that metaphysics be reestablished in its rightful position by 'starting over' with the philosophy of Schopenhauer. The first part deals with major problems in Nietzsche's thought, such as that of causation, the relationship of Church and State, morality and power, and suffering. Second, it deals with Nietzsche's proposed means to 'salvation' and demonstrates that these means are less than satisfactory. It suggest that many interpretations of Nietzsche have missed some crucial elements in the structure and implications of his thought, not the least of which was that presented by Walter Kaufmann.

Schopenhauer’s Ethics of Patience: Virtue, Salvation, and Value
2010 0-7734-3800-9
This work explores Schopenhauer’s ethics and central aspects of his philosophy of value, discussing his conception of the individual character, his determinism, his depiction of the states of virtue and salvation, and the value that life has when understood in Schopenhauer’s terms. The book also investigates the nature and depth of Schopenhauer’s pessimism, and the extent to which it is rooted in his metaphysics.

Scientific Knowledge as a Cultural and Historical Process the Cultural Prospects of Science
1993 0-7734-9865-6
Using the analytic tools of philosophy, methodology, culturology of science and applied philosophy, the author originates an approach enabling one to treat the process of the social and cultural determination of cognition in the unity of its synchronic and diachronic aspects; to justify the culturally produced types of scientific and theoretic activity in the process of its genesis; and to elucidate ways of knowledge-realization in meaningful forms of human vital activity as an intrinsic component of its development. This is the first philosophical book to present the ties of cognition and culture from the viewpoint of "man-world" relations and the first to outline the role of the personality in the process of knowledge application in society and culture.

Scotus Vs. Ockham - A Medieval Dispute Over Universals Texts Translated Into English with Commentary (volume I)
1999 0-7734-8156-7

Scotus Vs. Ockham - A Medieval Dispute Over Universals Texts Translated Into English with Commentary (volume II)
1999 0-7734-8158-3

Searching for the Divine in Contemporary Philosophy Tensions Between the Immanent and the Transcendent
1999 0-7734-7925-2
This is a comparative analysis of the basic types of postmodern search for transcendence, taking a philosophical, generally contextual viewpoint. It covers, in a panoramic sweep, the complete spectrum of modes of postmodern spirituality and, proceeding from their mutual comparison without setting any preconceived totalizing or reducing criteria, it first seeks to design their typology: according to the modes of penetration toward transcendence, transpersonality, transculturality, transuniversality, transalterity, etc, and according to the scope of the penetration, reaching out at relative or absolute transcendence. The requisite criteria are found within the framework of the process of postmodern search itself. Thus, the questions after relative transcendence as well as those concerning an absolutely transcendent God are philosophically justified within the postmodern context.

Secular Quest for Meaning in Life
denton Papers in Implicit Religion
2002 0-7734-6999-0

Seeking Sartre’s Style - Stylistic Inroads Into Les Chemins De La Liberte
2003 0-7734-6684-3
This study looks at Jean Sartre’s trilogy through the interdisciplinary angle of philosophy and linguistics. Moving from the conventional study of prose narrative, this book provides a rewarding understanding and appreciation of Sartre’s use of language in Les Chemins de la liberté. With the application of various stylistic procedures, practical examples of textual analysis are given and act as a useful tool for students of stylistics.

Self in the Theoretical Writings of Sartre and Kant
2005 0-7734-6012-8
This book argues that Kant and Sartre share a significant number of fundamental philosophical theses by exploring Sartre’s critiques against Kant. Beginning with The Transcendence of the Ego, it is shown that Sartre’s misconception of transcendental philosophy resulted in him not giving sufficient consideration to the ontological claims made by Kant in The Critique of Pure Reason, which led to Sartre’s confusion on the relation between Kant’s and his own account of self. After a consideration of their views on what the self is, Sartre’s writings on the reflective and the pre-reflective cogito in Being and Nothingness are compared to Kant’s accounts of inner sense and apperception. Ultimately, it is shown that the task of knowing self exemplifies the more general problem of the metaphysical and epistemic relation of subject to objects, and, like Kant, Sartre draws a transcendental distinction between things as they appear and as they are in themselves. This project’s reevaluation of the relation between the philosophies of Kant and Sartre permits a general indication of various strengths and weaknesses in Being and Nothingness that have been overlooked in past scholarship, as well as the possibility of new insights into Kant’s theoretical writings.

Selfhood as Thinking Thought in the Work of Gabriel Marcel
1987 0-88946-329-8
Examines Marcel's concept of the human subject as a pensée pensante which participates directly in the subjective life of Being, since, in Marcellian theory, "blind intuition" pervades the whole life of human reason and frees it from the limitations of logic.

Social Power of Ideas
1995 0-7734-9043-4
Ours is a time when we need to be reminded that forcefully-expressed ideas have in fact wrought huge changes in the world -- sometimes of great good, sometimes of overwhelming evil. The theme of these essays is that the hope of the next century of human history hangs on our ability to recapture our faith in the social power of ideas. Social Philosophy Today, Vol. 11

Social Thought of Francis Bacon
1989 0-88946-313-1
Offers a fresh analysis of Bacon's ideas and a reassessment of their significance for understanding some fundamental features of modern life. Bacon is seen as an important source for grasping the practical and theoretical consequences of the modern harnessing of power to knowledge.

Socrates, Lucretius, Camus - Two Philosophical Traditions on Death
2001 0-7734-7369-6
This monograph links reasons for attitudes toward death to reasons for different metaphysical positions on the human being and the place of the human being in the universe. Most recent discussions of death either place the topic directly in the context of nothing more than ethical considerations without reference to the deeper ontological or metaphysical issues, or place it in the context of Heideggerian or existentialist considerations. This essays goes deeper than the former and provides a broader context than the latter. The discussion is structured by the thought of Camus, providing a careful reading of both The Myth of Sisyphus and The Outsider. Examines his connection to both the empiricist tradition and Hume, Plotinus, Lucretius, Socrates, Aristotle, the Stoics, and into the modern period with Spinoza. Their metaphysical positions on death are fully laid out.

Spirituality of Mozart’s Mass in C Minor, Bach’s Mass in B Minor, and Messiaen’s quartet for the End of Time
2012 0-7734-2591-8
This book is based around reports from people who have listened to certain pieces of sacred music (that is, pieces with a liturgical text or biblical allusions) and have said that hearing the music is itself an encounter with the divine. While relating to the music, these people find that relating to the music is a relation to God. The music as such becomes inaudible, and disappears into an encounter in which they address and are addressed by God, or the Risen Christ, or the Eternal Infinite. The book’s project is to elaborate on these reports, first by dwelling on the meaning of “relation” then by drawing parallels between the reports and the writings of Martin Buber on the I-Thou relation and its contrast to the I-It experience, and finally by describing the salient aspects of the music in order to specify just what is this hearing that is a relating, an encounter. Although many pieces could have been chosen as examples of this kind of hearing and this kind of spirituality, the book takes only three so that it can describe them in considerable detail and depth. These pieces : Three Movements from Mozart’s Mass in C Minor, the resurrection music from Bach’s Mass in B Minor, and Oliver Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time.

Sport as a Spiritual Practice: Mastery, Failure, and Transcendence in the Life of Athletes
2010 0-7734-1472-X
TThis work examines how the individual player moves toward a religious enlightenment through sport. It argues that this spiritual enlightenment is uniquely her or his own without the trappings of doctrinal creeds or traditional religious discourse.

Structuralism Vs. Humanism in the Formation of the Political Self the Philosophy of Politics of Jean-Paul Sartre and Louis Althusser
2002 0-7734-7159-6

Studies in the Interrelationship Between Miracles and the Laws of Nature
1993 0-7734-9875-3
This book is an examination of the perennial wonderment, characteristic of human consciousness, essential in order to cope with the inability of reason to fully explain all the events of experience

Studies in the Philosophy of Michel Foucault: A French Alternative to Anglo-americanism
2010 0-7734-1324-3
This collection reminds the reader that Foucault was first and foremost a philosopher. The study focuses on the three principal aspects of Foucault’s work as Foucault himself acknowledged them to be namely, subjectivity, truth and power.

Study in Kant's Metaphysics of Aesthetic Experience Reason and Feeling
1992 0-7734-9468-5
This work is for anyone sufficiently interested in beauty to want to reflect philosophically on its nature, examining such questions in Kant's aesthetic theory as: What is beauty? How are natural and artistic beauty related? What is sublimity in art and nature? A critical study in Kant's aesthetics, giving insights to areas of his philosophical enquiry and familiarity with relevant fundamentals of his thought. A reflection on the philosophical nature of beauty.

Study of Identity as a Concept and Social Construct in Behavioral and Social Science Research: Inter-Disciplinary and Global Perspectives
2010 0-7734-1452-5
How do behavior and social scientists understand the implications of identity on themselves and the world in which they interact? This work makes a contribution to the behavioral and social sciences in terms of examining the layered complexities that are embedded in the process of knowledge-creation.

Author’s Abstract:
The chapters in the book individually explore each author’s culturally contextualized scholarship on issues related to identity, and collectively represent multidimensional constructs of these concepts that have profound implications upon marginalized populations, mainstream policy, educational protocols and practices, sociocultural norms, and on diversity paradigms.

In the process, the book provokes readers to examine their assumptions of identity. In many respects, the book serves as a vehicle for readers to transcend their own ethnocentricity and examine what it means to understand identity in different contexts.

The book will appeal to scholars, educators, and policy makers who have an interest in the behavioral and social sciences. Specifically, this book will support college and university faculty and graduate students whose research interests include college and school administrative leadership, gender and ethnic identity, and public policy in light of diversity, equity, and social justice practices.

The book will be relevant for full-time and adjunct faculty, as well as graduate students, who want to explore the intersections of cross cultural understandings of identity, and the respective implications of those understandings as they are manifest in institutions, society, family, tribes, culture, and politics.

Study of the Complex and Disputed Philosophical Questions Surrounding Human Action
1998 0-7734-7737-3
This study presents a dualist account of the nature of human action, dualist in a modest sense in that it defends the claim that generally actions involve two kinds of components – the physical and the mental – and that the mental components – the experiential awareness – cannot be interpreted in materialist of functionalist ways fashionable of late. The study identifies eleven elements or data concerning our everyday idea of human action. It then gives an account of the voluntary which, in stressing its character as an all-pervasive awareness of what it is like to be doing something as opposed to having things happen to one, neatly avoids the pitfalls of infinite regress associated with ‘acts of will’. The account of motives is fleshed out and defended against various well-known objections. Finally, the study spells out the author’s approach to freedom and indeterminism.

Study of the Works and Reputation of John Aubrey (1626-1697) with Emphasis on His Brief Lives
1992 0-7734-9861-3
This monograph evaluates Aubrey's intellectual temper and accomplishments, and measures his posthumous reputation against that evaluation. His non-biographical works are studied against their contemporary background, and Brief Lives is critically examined and compared with other biographies of the seventeenth century. Assesses him as combining the modern scientific view of the mid-seventeenth century with the superstition of the Medieval and Renaissance past.

Study on the Idea of Progress in Nietzsche, Heidegger, and Critical Theory
2002 0-7734-7281-9
This book challenges the current general mood of disillusionment of belief in progress. By confronting the nihilistic – Nietzsche and Heidegger – and the utopian – Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse – critiques of progress, it pursues a revitalization of the humanist tradition. “. . . an ambitious and challenging book on the philosophy of history that explores the theme of progress from an original perspective. His method is both historical and conceptual, combining an intellectual history of the concept of progress with the development of a number of distinctions within the field of progressive philosophies of history. His work also has a critical edge, uncovering progressive philosophies of history at the core of theoretical works that profess to renounce progress. . . . The core of the book is a fascinating interpretation of the work of Nietzsche with an original and provocative reading of Thus Spake Zarathustra. This makes an important contribution to Nietzsche studies . . . an original and thoughtful contribution to a number of issues currently in the history of philosophy and social theory.” – Howard Caygill

Synchronicity and Intellectual Intuition in Kant, Swedenborg and Jung
2000 0-7734-7593-1
This study examines, for the first time, the filiation of a philosophical concept in relation to its use by the major 20th century thinker, C. G. Jung. It is a timely contribution to the history of the development of analytical psychology, as well as the ‘history of an idea’. It represents a new and substantial argument about the significance of Jung, placing him in an often-overlooked but vitally important intellectual context. It shows how Jung’s theory of synchronicity stems from a long and deep preoccupation with such central themes of German philosophy as the mind-body problem, the notion of intellectual intuition, and the critical philosophy of Immanuel Kant. It contextualizes Jung’s misprisioning of Kant in terms of the modernist interest in mysticism and occultism. The approach is based on a close reading of Jung’s and Kant’s texts, and on a survey of 18th and 19th century philosophers and cultural commentators.

Technology, Morality and Social Policy
1998 0-7734-8475-2
Essays from the 13th International Social Philosophy Conference.

Ten Basic Questions About Education
2006 0-7734-5630-9
This book, presuming that the makers of policies and everyday decisions on education do not employ an adequate understanding of education, undertakes an extended inquiry into the concept of education embedded in ordinary English discourse. After determining the framework of the conceptual meaning of education, the investigation then examines the logical implications of that meaning for various pertinent issues. Specifically, there are discussions of educability, education and the political order, reasoning as an educational content, and educational teaching. Some of the text relies on references to academic sources, while other parts use examples from pop culture and computer technology. The book’s final chapter is devoted to an application of the findings to some problems likely to be confronted by educational leaders in public schools today.

Theological Ethics of Friedrich Schleiermacher
2001 0-7734-7349-1
The range and versatility of the intellectual accomplishments of Friedrich Schleiermacher have been the scene of much scrutiny and recognition since his passing in 1834. The subjects of this study have been provided by both his published writings during his lifetime and the great amount of lecture material that comprise his literary remains. The material that Schleiermacher singled out from the exceptionally large deposit of lectures over many philosophical and theological subjects were those on philosophical dialectic and on Christian ethics. The resulting book that reflects the former topic has been the occasion of considerable analysis and discussion. Other lectures such as those dealing with the philosophy of human culture, and called by Schleiermacher, philosophical ethics, and hermeneutics, have received much attention also, the latter in English as well as in German. But such has not been the case with Schleiermacher’s Die Christliche Sitte or Christian Ethics. Despite that fact that certain important figures in nineteenth-century German theology have pointed to the path-breaking nature of Schleiermacher’s ethical thought in theology, exceptionally little of this thought has appeared in English.

Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882) and the Philosophical Foundations of Politics an Internal Critique
1998 0-7734-8498-1
“Tyler’s study of Green displays a threefold strength: he takes seriously the interrelated nature of Green’s philosophy; not only does he pursue an internal critique of Green, but he also effectively defends Green against some major persisting criticism; and Tyler extends Greenian scholarship by connecting Green’s philosophy with contemporary issues. . . . This explains his systematic re-examination of the metaphysical and epistemological foundation of Green’s ethical and political philosophy. . . . serious and highly scholarly study of Green. Scholars of Green and late nineteenth century British political thought should welcome Tyler’s book and find it enriching.” – Avital Simhony in Bradley Studies

Thought and Social Engagement in the Mexican-american Philosophy of John H. Haddox: A Collection of Critical Appreciations
2010 0-7734-3836-X
This collection of essays was inspired or influenced by the seminal work of John Haddox in his 50 years working as a philosopher and activist at the University of Texas, El Paso. The book includes papers in Latin American and Mexican philosophy, philosophy and activism, and Native American thought.

Thought of Lucien Goldmann: A Critical Study
1996 0-7734-8742-5
This work provides the first comprehensive and detailed exposition of the entire oeuvre of the important 20th-century philosopher and social researcher, Lucien Goldmann. His entire range of study, including his writings on literature, political theory and philosophy, as well as his methodology, are examined and assessed in full. Perhaps of the greatest scholarly interest is the author's highly original and provocative treatment of Marx's historical materialism in the light of Goldmann's critique of the German thinker and recent attacks on his thought by postmodernism. It outlines and develops Goldmann's own research in the area of the sociology of literature, focussing particularly on the modern novel and the avant-garde theatre of Jean Genet, as well as the works of Blaise Pascal and Jean Racine and the relationship between these cultural expressions and 17th-century French society. The work contains a significant analysis of the Enlightenment movement, suggesting the German version differs fundamentally from the British/Franco model. It also examines Kant's critical philosophy, and the processes of alienation and reification as detailed by Marx Lukacs and Goldmann. This volume will interest all scholars in the areas of the sociology of literature, Marxism, philosophy and social research methodology. Section headings: Background and Influences; The Philosophy of Tragedy - Immanuel Kant; The Tragic World Vision of Pascal and Racine; Goldmann's Later Political Writings; Marxism, the Market and Consumer Capitalism; Socialism and Modern Society; Assessment; Notes, Bibliography, Index.

Thought of Sorbonne Professor Michel Maffesoli 1944-): Sociologist of Postmodernity
2010 0-7734-3637-5
This book is an examination of the social theory of Professor Michel Maffesoli, Professor of Sociology at the Sorbonne and a well-known public intellectual in France. It is the first book length consideration of Professor Maffesoli’s work in the English language.

Tibetan Buddhist Approach to International Relations: The Teaching of the Dalai Lama
2012 0-7734-1608-0
This monograph examines the theological paradigms within Buddhism, a religion that interacts with the world without narratives of genesis and eschatology. This book argues that there is a need to study and understand this interdependent relation between the religious and the secular political world.

Time and Duration - A Philosophical Study by S.v. Keeling
1991 0-7734-9767-6
Keeling leads us to a view that our conventional idea of time is mistaken and that the true nature of what we misperceive as temporality is to be found in the nature of change. The work which was the last philosophical enterprise of his career constitutes only part of a more complete work which he had in mind. Keeling reviews our common views of time and finds that though in our everyday lives they are satisfactory enough, none of them are satisfactory as philosophical criteria. Keeling describes a world where the present, as the domain of change, is the only reality and the only place where action can occur. The successive renewal of presentness is the ultimate significance of what we believe in as time.

Toward a Thomist Methodology
1988 0-88946-779-X
Challenges the fundamental assumption of traditional Thomism that the esse/essence distinction drawn by St. Thomas Aquinas lies within the domain of philosophy (nature) rather than theology (grace), since Thomas himself supposed the substantial correlation of esse and essence to be natural, thereby relegating grace to the role of accident.

Towards a Theory of Relativity of Truth in Morality and Religion
1991 0-7734-9760-9
Argues for a model in which moral truth is presented as truth in the perspective of certain social commitments, while religious truth is interpreted as truth in the perspective of religious experience. Theorizes that relativity need not conflict with universality. Truth from the perspective of the outsider is, therefore, truth without qualification.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5847-6
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5858-1
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5923-5
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Translation From Latin Into English of Giambattista Vico’s il Diritto Universale/universal Law: Book One and Book Two
2011 0-7734-1562-9
This work, a new translation of Giambattista Vico’s preliminary version The New Science (La Scienza Nuova) gives the reader a complete picture of Vico as a forerunner of constructivist epistemology and a critic of the enlightenment, a significant humanist and culture theorist who influenced, among others, Karl Marx and James Joyce.

Translation From Latin Into English of Giambattista Vico’s Il Diritto Universale/universal Law: Together with an Introduction and Notes Book One and Book Two
2011 0-7734-1562-9
This new translation provides a complete picture of Vico as a forerunner of constructivist epistemology. In addition, it demonstrates that he was a critic of the enlightenment, a significant humanist and culture theorist who influenced Karl Marx and James Joyce.

Translation of Alexandro Malaspina's Meditacion De Lo Bella En La Naturaleza
2007 0-7734-5404-7
Alexandro Malaspina conducted the most ambitious scientific experiment of the eighteenth century, and wrote the Meditación in 1798, while imprisoned for sedition in the fortress of San Antón off La Coruña. His fall, precipitated by the reaction to the politico-economic recommendations he made to the Monarchy on the subject of colonial relations, led to the suppression of most of the results, whether botanical, zoological, ethnographic or gravimetric, of his voyage, and so the loss, until recent times, of a significant voice in Enlightenment thought. This translation is an attempt to redress an intellectual injustice, the silencing of a mind at once broader and deeper than those of his most well-known counterparts Cook and La Pérouse, a mind which exercised itself on the philosophical issues of the day from a vantage-point of learning and anthropological experience to which few could lay claim. Malaspina’s main topics in this work are questions of aesthetics: does Beauty lie in the eye of the beholder? Is Beauty to be found in Art or in Nature? Does Beauty depend on Utility? He supplements these with Notes on a range of matters, literary, historical and scientific, opening a fascinating window onto his own time.

Translation of Arthur Ahlvers’ Zahl Und Klang Bei Platon/number and Sound in Plato
2002 0-7734-7167-7
This facing-page translation provides the English-speaking world of classical scholarship with access to a key text in the understanding of Plato’s views about the role of mathematics in the cosmos. It deals with interpretive issues surrounding Plato’s mathematically-based accounts, derived from Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, of reproduction among the ruling class of the Republic, of terrestrial and celestial music, and of atomic stereometry. It indicates surprising ways in which these accounts are essentially connected. Ahlvers offers a re-analysis of Plato’s derivation of the nuptial number in Republic, and devotes much attention to the broader issues raised by Timaeus. It will be of interest not only to Plato scholars, but to scholars of medieval thought, and music.

Translation of Works of Jules Lequyer the Hornbeam Leaf, the Dialogue of the Predestinate and the Reprobate, Eugene and Theophilus
1998 0-7734-8366-7
Translated, Edited and With an Introduction by Donald Wayne Viney Although several editions of Lequyer's works have been published in France, this is the first English language translation. Lequyer (also spelled Lequier) (1814-1862) devoted a great deal of attention to the question of human freedom. Like Renouvier, William James, and the existentialists who followed him, Lequyer was critical of determinism and defended a concept of freedom as a creative act. Lequyer also explored the ramifications of his ideas on freedom for philosophical theology. He spoke of his belief in 'God, who created me the creator of myself.' His views have affinities with process theologies. The translator's Introduction provides a brief account of Lequyer's life and an orientation to his thought on the question of foreknowledge and human free will. The Hornbeam Leaf is a brief autobiographical reflection on Lequyer's first realization of the feeling of freedom. It is an impressionistic but vivid summary of the main themes of Lequyer's philosophy of freedom. The Dialogue of the Predestinate and the Reprobate is an imaginative, passionate, and philosophically informed discussion of the problem of human freedom and divine omniscience. Renouvier called it 'a dramatic metaphysical masterpiece, probably without equal in any literature.' Eugene and Theophilus summarizes Lequyer's views on freedom and foreknowledge.

Trinitarian Axiom of Karl Rahner
2006 0-7734-5584-1
The widely-accepted Grundaxiom of Karl Rahner’s doctrine of the Trinity, “The economic Trinity is the immanent Trinity and vice versa,” functions in contemporary theology as a means of reconciling the seemingly contradictory claims that (a) God has revealed the doctrine of the Trinity to the Church, and (b) God has not disclosed this doctrine verbally in Scripture. Rahner’s Grundaxiom thus serves to legitimate theologies of the Trinity that do not presuppose the verbal inspiration of Scripture.

The present study, by contrast, indirectly challenges the viability of such theologies by subjecting the Grundaxiom to a thoroughgoing, immanent critique. On the grounds that Rahner does not successfully warrant his axiom and that the axiom itself implicitly conflicts with key elements of Rahner’s Trinitarian theology, this study argues that Rahner fails to supply a credible account of how human beings learn of the existence of the immanent Trinity. A more robust theology of scriptural inspiration than Rahner’s, this work suggests, may suffice to remedy this defect in Rahner’s theology of the Trinity.

Trumpet of the Last Judgment Against Hegel, the Atheist and Antichrist an Ultimatum
1989 0-88946-356-5
Translation of Bauer's Posaune des jüngsten Gerichts über Hegel, den Atheisten und Antichristen, an excellent example of the type of writing that characterized the radical school of Hegelianism in the late 1830s and 1840s in that it mirrors the arguments and irritable temper of both the liberal Hegelians and their conservative opponents during the period between the French Revolution of 1830 and the general revolutions of 1848. As David McClellan has noted, the Trumpet is "the locus classicus for the Young Hegelian view of Hegel, and a small masterpiece of their style of writing." As such, it is an excellent "period piece" that can enhance an appreciation of the Hegelian involvement in the theological and philosophical argumentation that characterized the German Vormärz.

Understanding and Beingan Introduction and Companion to Insight
1980 0-88946-909-1
An edited version, recreated from tapes and auditors' notes, of the ten lectures the Canadian Jesuit Lonergan delivered on his Insight, with a selection of the auditors' responses.

Understanding Jewish Ethics -- Volume II Major Themes and Thinkers
1993 0-7734-1972-1
This companion volume continues the work and thesis of Volume I. It contains a full investigation of the revolutionary theories and methodologies of Volume I and identifies major themes and thinkers not covered in the first book. Major themes such as Theodicy, Human Justice and Rights, Altruism, Mysticism and Jewish Ethics, Jewish Ethics and Zionism, and the whole question of Jewish modernism and ethics are examined. In addition, it considers some major thinkers who dramatically affected our understanding of Jewish ethics, from classical philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Maimonides, and Gersonides to moderns like Baruch Spinoza, Immanuel Kant, Søren Kierkegaard, Moses Mendolssohn, Hermann Cohen, Ahad Ha'am, Jacob Klatzkin, Abraham Isaac Kook, Isaiah Leibowitz, Martin Buber, Franz Rosenzweig, Gershom Scholem, Max Kadushin, Eugene Borowitz, Seymour Siegel, Alasdair Macintyre, Louis Henkin, Hannah Arendt, and Leo Strauss among many others.

Understanding Life and Death Through Plato and Socrates: Philosophy as a Confrontation with Eternity
2012 0-7734-2899-2
It fills in a gap by outlining the ways that Plato and Socrates talk about life and death. There is also a lengthy discussion of how Aristophanes responded with satirical exaggerations of their positions. This author focuses entirely on how death and eternity are integral thematic components of the Platonic dialogues. The contribution is in drawing on copious secondary material to make the argument that all great philosophy must serve as a confrontation with eternity. It must make the audience resolve the issue of their own mortality by confronting our precarious place in the cosmos. Eternity is a prescient theme in Plato and Socrates, which is important for bolstering their place in the Western canon.

Unity of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
1986 0-88946-301-8
By noting some striking similarities between the first Critique and Herder's 1772 essay On the Origin of Language, Williams approaches Kant through emphasis on questions of meaning.

Unraveling the Mysteries of Mysticism
2006 0-7734-5905-7
The mystics of all of the major religions have made many incredible claims throughout the ages – even going so far as to say that this world is merely an illusion. Over the last several decades, various philosophers have argued that mystical claims are mistaken due to unintentional self-delusion on the part of the mystic.

This book is the first to bring together the six major claims made by mystics, the philosophical attacks that have been made on these claims, and the best responses the mystic could make to these attacks. The author demonstrates that the philosophers have not dealt the knockout punch that they have imagined, and that it is still an open question whether the claims made by the mystics should be believed. Along the way, this book both explains what a mystical experience is and is not, citing writings from the mystics of all major religious traditions, and analyzes whether the mystical experience could be considered objective.

Although this book will be of assistance to the scholar working in the field, because it is written in a clear and easy-to-read manner, it should prove of interest to anyone interested in the subject.

Utopian Communities of the Ancient World: Idealistic Experiments of Pythagoras, the Essenes, Pachomius and Proclus
2010 0-7734-3736-3
This is the first comparative study of lived Utopian communities in antiquity. The examined communities provide examples of somewhat successful utopian experiments that belie the twentieth century notion that the application of utopian ideals must always lead to dystopia or not work at all.

Utopian Thought of St. Thomas More and Its Development in Literature
1992 0-7734-9611-4
A major contribution to scholarship is the exploration of St. Thomas More's philosophy concerning the conflict of Reason and Power in Book I of Utopia, since most scholarly work has concentrated on Book II, the vision of the utopian society itself. The philosophical conflict between Reason and Power discussed by Thomas More is also the central problem in various utopian literary works setting forth Scientific, Humanistic, Collectivist, New Age, and Natural Utopias.

Vergleichsprozesse Bei Evaluativen Urteilen Der Einfluß Der in Der Frage Vorgegebenen Vergleichsrichtung
1993 0-7734-9365-4
The author draws on previous research into cognitive processes that underlie judgments of similarity. Demonstrates that the theoretical principles developed by Tversky and his colleagues in the context of similarity judgments are not restricted to this domain but hold for comparative judgments in general. Contributes to the exploration of the cognitive processes that underlie responses in survey interviews. English Preface by Norbert Schwarz. Text in German

Vico and the Social Theory of Law: The Structure of Legal Communication
2014 0-7734-0050-8
This creative text is the result of a scholarly struggle with the meaning over the context of a social theory of law. It examines the philosophical, sociological and jurisprudential aspects of Gambattista Vico’s theory of law. Particularly his philosophical confrontation and engagement with important thinkers such as: Hobbes, Leibniz and Spinoza and the configuration of this thought with modern thinkers such as Gadamer and Deleuze.

Virtue of Humility: A Thomistic Apologetic
2009 0-7734-4889-6
This work reconstructs humility by tracing a consistent but often unstated definition: humility is a virtue of self-knowledge acquired by the practice of other-centeredness.

Walter Benjamin and the Bible
2003 0-7734-6727-0
This book follows the theme of sacred text from Benjamin’s early writings on religion, Judaism, and language to the study of Baroque tragedy, modernism, history, and the Paris Arcades. All of these writings reflect a commentary on the idea of the sacred text in Western culture.

What Gives Work Its Value? the Human Worth of a Physical Product
2006 0-7734-5772-0
Marx’s value theory has long been recognized as the station at which his intellectual formation in continental philosophy and political thought meets his protracted engagement with the political economists. This book explores the understanding of Marx’s engagement with value-modernity in a variety of ways.

What is a Person the Concept and the Implications for Ethics
1989 0-88946-140-6
Traces the philosophical, biological, and medical developments in the understanding and definition of personhood: from its beginnings in early Christian theology to an analysis of contemporary information, reports, and ethical evaluations.

What is the Self? a Philosophy of Psychology
2006 0-7734-5931-6
The studies presented here have a central point of departure: it is remarkable that we, as biological organisms in a social world, configure our lives in terms of selves. This work succeeds in bringing together different but related disciplines concerned with people and the histories and conditions of their lives. Biology and science, philosophical investigations of identity and narrative theory, and conceptual analysis of the rule-governed nature or meaningfulness of social actions and beings are drawn into an investigation of the age-old question 'What/who are we?' In emphasizing the self’s natural constitution; its development into a reference point for communication and legal and moral responsibility and accountability; and as a biography open to the vagaries of existence, these studies show the way out of both psychology’s ongoing anxieties about the perceived threat posed by explanations forthcoming from the biological and brain sciences, and difficulties in demarcating the nature of psychological knowledge. The answer worked out to the central question addressed is thus an optimistic one in that it shows the niche for knowledge of human nature and the texts that enfold lives, and of cause-effect links and meaningful things.

What Makes a Society Political? Four Philosophical Essays
This is a brief philosophical analysis of the ideas presupposed by a political society. The author describes the difference between political and non-political societies. He differentiates the distinctive roles of science and religion in relation to politics. He presents a general value theory. He then explicates the concept of human willing that is implicit in that value theory.

Who Needs a Liberal Arts College? a Philosophy of Education by Alburey Castell
2005 0-7734-6181-7
Alburey Castell, a significant Twentieth Century American philosopher, turned his attention to issues in education at mid-point in his academic career. Engaged in an enduring polemic with scientism's effort to abolish personhood, most notably in B.F. Skinner's thought, Castell forged the concepts of "agency," "activity," and "process" to stake out the claims of personhood. Carrying such concepts as tools into the field of education, Castell drove a wedge between the humanities and the sciences. The person, or "self," reasons, while processes in the natural world are reasoned about. Logic is the description of the reasoned "activities" of the self, while laws of science are descriptions of the "processes" of nature. Applications to the everyday concerns of educators abound. Understanding the daily tasks in teaching presupposes knowledge of the logic of coming to know. Students are not stimulus-response mechanisms, but resourceful reasoners assembling connecting links to conclusions. The role of social science is exposed as a complex and open question. The issue of the aims of education is directed to the development of the individual person as a free and rational agent. This individual must come to understand himself and his place in the modern world. The modern world is aptly described as requiring a professional and managerial class with special educational needs. Castell then describes the function of the liberal arts college as providing the foundations for the special, further educational skills acquired at the graduate and professional school level.

Why and How Secular Society Should Accommodate Religion. A Philosophical Proposal
2010 0-7734-3811-4
This study examines judiciary attempts to refine the neutrality worldview called for by the U.S. Constitution.

Abstract: The author argues that religion should be reasonably accommodated in the public arena, especially in the United States. To this end he reviews and critiques the way this issue has been considered in both philosophical and legal circles. He finds that neither the philosophical nor the legal case for suppressing religion-based statements in the public arena is persuasive or definitive.

Why Consciousness is Reality: A Philosophical Alternative to Materialism and Classical Dualism
2010 0-7734-1385-5
This work presents the plausible mind-body theories that connect bodily life with intentional thought and consciousness. It proposes a unified account of a world containing both thoughtful, conscious beings and 'mere' physical objects.

Why Good Argument is Critical to Useful Research
2007 0-7734-5441-1
Writers like Rorty, Popper, Dewey and Feyerabend suggest that rather than searching for more and more exacting and rigorous rules for how to undertake well justified research, we need to be concerned with communities of doubters. These, if adequately applying dialectic argument, will act to challenge unjustified knowledge claims, and so save us all from being deceived. This book encourages doubt by providing over a dozen ways to critique research, especially where that research results in knowledge claims about human activities. Each chapter provides another pragmatic conception of knowledge, used to question the assumptions behind whatever research work you have just read. Therefore, the book offers a way of learning about your own discipline specific research literature, while also learning how to design a well-justified research report.

Why Happiness Includes Fairness: An Essay in Soft Utilitarian Ethics
2013 0-7734-4336-3
This is a study of ethical principles and theories. Dr. Meynell defines the good in ethical matters as depending in large part, although not entirely, on how an action effects the happiness of and the fairness to sentient beings. He calls this “soft utilitarianism”.

What makes Meynell’ s work distinctive is that given the Aristotelian framework, he defends ‘Soft Utilitarianism’ as combining the principle of happiness with the principle of fairness, being careful to note that these two features of a proper ethical theory cannot be reduced one to the other. The moral agent must therefore balance them in order to reach the best decision in whatever circumstances he or she may face.

William James Durant an Intellectual Biography
1991 0-88946-596-7
The first critical examination of the philosophical and historical works of William James Durant. Traces his early intellectual development in college and seminary, his eventual rejection of Catholicism, and his studies under John Dewey at Columbia University. Examines The Story of Philosophy and The Story of Civilization, with a discussion of the critical reception to these works. Outlines Durant's political philosophy, his rethinking of his early socialist convictions, and his attempt to outline a program of reform in Depression-era America. Concludes with a reappraisal of his life and work.