Subject Area: Anthropology
This study, focusing on select novels by women writers of the African Diaspora, illustrates that a surprising degree of commonality exists among works with obvious geographical, cultural, and linguistics differences – an affirmation of the philosophical essence of the Vodun religion as an antidote to Western spiritual and cultural moribundity. A close reading Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were Watching God
, Simone Schwarz-Bart’s Pluie et Vent sur Telumée Miracle
, and Paule Marshall’s Praisesong for the Widow
, demonstrates the way in which these works allude to the Vodun pantheon and ancestor veneration in order to valorize a worldview that recognizes the interconnectedness of all living things, visible and invisible. This is accomplished by locating each novel within its socio-political context and developing African diasporic literary tradition wherein African-derived beliefs have become sources of cultural resistance. After this reconstruction, the author is able to explicate the representation and function of Vodun as it is employed by each of the authors under consideration.2009 0-7734-5023-8
[Note: This book is a reprint of the text of Vol 109, Number 7, July 2007 of the Teachers College Record
, Teachers College, Columbia University]
This work adds to the scholarship in the field by exploring educational processes in the broadest manner and from a variety of disciplinary orientations. At its core is the challenge it issues: what sort of research should one conduct if s/he believes the commonly held idea that education is a broader process that it is made to be when one takes schooling as a paradigmatic institution of education?2004 0-7734-6496-4
Asymmetrical power relationships are found throughout Pakistan’s Punjabi and Pukhtun communities. These relationships must be examined as manifestations of cultural continuity rather than as separate structures. The various cultures of Pakistan display certain common cultural features which suggest a re-examination of past analytical divisions of tribe and peasant societies. This book looks at the ways power is expressed, accumulated and maintained in three social contexts: kinship, caste, and political relationships. These are embedded within a collection of ‘hybridising’ cultures. Socialisation within kin groups provides the building blocks for Pakistani asymmetrical relationships, which may be understood as a form of patronage. As these social building blocks are transferred to non-kin contexts, the patron/client aspects are more easily identified and studied. State politics and religion are examined for the ways in which these patron/client roles are enacted on much larger scales but remain embedded within the cultural values underpinning those roles.2012 0-7734-1593-9
This book examines life history writing by Australian Aboriginal women in the context of ongoing negotiations about one's status and claims to country. It uses a methodological combination of literary analysis, history and anthropology to draw out the distinctive cultural heritages held in palimpsest within texts.2001 0-7734-7604-0
This work is essentially an ethnography, written and researched by an anthropologist. As such, the use of participant observation, in-depth interviews and a holistic, relativistic, culture-based approach provide a perspective not usually found in the literature on prostitution. The daily, nonwork lives of prostitutes are explored, showing their commonness, humanity and connections with the ‘straight’ world as ordinary people. By getting deep, rich data through the use of participant observation and ethnographic approach, it serves to address myths, and challenge stereotypes about sexuality, women, and prostitution.2010 0-7734-3738-X
This study in economic anthropology focuses on micro-changes in economic and social orders in Eastern Europe, mainly in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, of the 1990s.2010 0-7734-3597-2
This study explores the formation of gender identity and the sexual practices of teens
in Kumasi, Ghana within the context of the growing emphasis on formal schooling.
Direct interviews with students, teachers and members of the community offer a rich
variety of data that allows for important conclusions about shifting conceptions of
family, education, production and reproduction.2008 0-7734-4796-2
This work argues for the importance of studying rural India that is witnessing significant economic, political and social changes. Dr. Arora demonstrates for a village in Punjab, a north-west province of India, its complex embedded nature within regional, national and at times international network of relationships.
The author suggests that while Punjab gained considerably with changes in agricultural practices, little attention has been paid on ‘unintended consequences’ of change in relationships of production in the province and the role ‘social actors’ have played in developing adaptation strategies.2005 0-7734-6287-2
This book reviews the many conflicting theories about human nature, those that stress our dark side, and those that emphasize our goodness. It then explores actual human behavior in societies around the world beginning with earliest and smallest known societies, foraging people such as the !Kung San Pygmies, then various kinds of farming people, and finally, city dwellers. It also focuses on human behavior during the 20th Century providing detailed examples of human kindness and inhumanity. It also examines human behavior under the most terrible kind of stress imaginable--deadly, prolonged famine. How people respond to famine around the world is described with an emphasis on the killer famine that starved much of Ireland from 1845 to 1850. Many Irish people died of starvation but unlike other parts of the world where starvation led the strong to kill and eat the weak, Irish culture forbade such killing and in reality it did not take place. Finally, the book summarizes the evidence, then concludes that even though people have biological urges that lead toward anti-social behavior, human rule systems can control most of these anti-social predispositions.2002 0-7734-7080-82000 0-7734-7819-1
Dr. Peter Gardner’s ethnographic study of Paliyans is one of the most complete and up-to-date accounts of a South Asian hunting and gathering people. It covers the spectrum of Paliyan culture, from subsistence to medicine and word play, and it details the beliefs and practices which allow Paliyans to achieve their extreme egalitarianism and non-violence. Brief case studies throughout the account not only bring the people to life, they give the reader a sense of the rich, complex texture of Paliyan existence. The study uses recent perspectives and modes of analysis, situating the foragers in their time and place and employing tools such as fuzzy-set analysis. An appendix includes a topical Paliyan lexicon.2002 0-7734-7171-5
In addition to examining their games and pastimes, this study examines the Celtic psyche and culture. It examines all the Celtic peoples: Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, Isle of Man, Brittany, Basque Region, Icelandic Connections; children’s Celtic games; and dance and
music. This book fills a gap in the recreation literature of the warrior people known as the Celts and knits together the common threads that exist between the various Celtic nations.2002 0-7734-7221-5
This study is a comparison of the Palaeoindian and the archaic communities of north America and those of the final Palaeolithic and the Mesolithic of northern Eurasia.2012 0-7734-4512-9
This is a truly groundbreaking work that exemplifies cutting edge scholarship. It shows that there were conditions of psychiatric interest in pre-historical societies. Did some cavemen experience something that we today would call psychiatric conditions? Can these disturbances grow out of mystical experiences that one would call otherworldly, or interpersonal circumstances? Would this apply to situations where these do not exist in any way that would be recognizable by contemporary standards?2012 0-7734-4548-X
What are the origins and purposes of social critique? Rather than use critique as a mode of investigating social phenomenon, this book analyses critique as a social phenomenon. Critique is both constitutive of modernity and exceedingly diverse, and not only that but widely taken for granted in scholarly communities. Herein, the resources of historical sociology and anthropology are used in order to gain perspective on critique as something culturally specific to modernity. Based on this, I analyze critique as moving force in history, part of the dynamic of capitalism and consumerism, a recurring trope in the media from all any political positions, and finally as a common-place even of popular culture. Finally, I turn to some key literary writers who have explored critique as a social phenomenon within their work, thus providing a reflexive perspective on critique as a lived experience.2003 0-7734-6781-5
This book provides a focused critique of the currently fashionable literary/interpretive approaches in cultural anthropology and their challenge to science, scientific anthropology, and disciplinary origins and traditions. It takes on issues that must be addressed in light of what is shown to be the interpretivists’ unrelenting misrepresentation of the anthropological enterprise, science, and scientific paradigms in anthropology. The issues addressed encompass a number of highly significant intellectual/philosophical/theoretical questions with far-reaching implications for the discipline of anthropology as a whole. The challenge to disciplinary origins and traditions is emphatically addressed on empirical, theoretical, and epistemological grounds and in the context of the overall intellectual history and development of American anthropology. No other study engages the anti-science perspective in such an emphatic, uncompromising, jargon-free manner.1992 0-7734-1938-1
Contributes to the development of research and theory in social anthropology generally and particularly in issues such as gender, class, poverty, power, dissent, kinship, ideology, linguistics, development anthropology, and urban anthropology. Geographical areas covered are Africa, Europe, Asia, and North America. Each contribution is original, offering the reader new cultural insights on an individual basis.1999 0-7734-8039-0
The study of contemporary American Indian writers is complicated by problems in definitions which critics, scholars, teachers and editors so far have not addressed adequately. The subject of this study is not the traditional mythology, folklore, and song of particular tribes, but the literary uses of this material, particularly in the latter half of this century and particularly by Indian writers. The questions are basic: 1) What is an Indian writer? 2) What are the legitimate literary uses of Indians and their culture? 3) Can an American Indian literary tradition be defined? And 4) What is the relation of writing by Indians to American literature as a whole? Beside several non-Indian writers (Edwin Corle, Frank Hamilton Cushing, Charles L. McNichols, Jerome Rothenberg) the book deals with several representative Indian writers (Lance Henson, Maurice Kenny, Thomas King, Adrian C. Louis, N. Scott Momaday, Leslie Marmon Silko, Gerald Vizenor, James Welch) and also cites Paula Gunn Allen, Jim Barnes, Peter Blue Cloud, Diane Glancy, Joy Harjo, Geary Hobson, Linda Hogan, Duane Niatum, Simon Ortiz, Carter Revard, and Wendy Rose.2012 0-7734-3072-5
This book addresses the history of a small community of the African Diaspora mostly overlooked: the Afro-Zulians as the descendants of the first blacks brought over to the Sur del Lago Maracaibo region in Venezuela by the Basque-French slave trader Jean de Chourio in 1722. Despite attempts by Creole elites to strip away their African identity, it shows that they remained true to their African roots precisely because of the geographical remoteness of their settlements. The author links them to the Imbangala peoples of pre-colonial Angola, but shows how they adapted to a greater multicultural Venezuelan historical and social context through acculturation.2011 0-7734-1546-7
An encyclopedia that covers a scientific study of the religions and customs of the Chuvash. This book is written in Russian.1999 0-7734-3258-2
Of all global problems world population growth is the most significant. The growth of the number of people expresses the sum outcome of all economic, social and cultural activities that comprise human history. For a phenomenological description of the global demographic process the author developed an original non-linear mathematical model for explanation of the global demographic process.2002 0-7734-7123-52000 0-7734-7552-4
This ethnography of social life in Kingston, Jamaica, is also a study of the relationship between two major, often conflictive, forces in current cultural experience, community and cosmopolitanism. People from the Caribbean – subject to slavery, the plantation economy, and labor migration – have experienced one of the longest exposures to a global political and economic order of any social grouping. For centuries, Jamaicans have lived at a crossroads of transnational economic social and cultural dynamics. The Jamaican social milieu is characterized by massively heterogeneous and creative cultural activity, violent social fragmentation and individuation, as well as a celebration of the role of geographical mobility in the establishment of personality. A central proposition in this book is that Jamaicans in the capital, Kingston, are still living out the aesthetic and moral consequences and contradictions of the Enlightenment and modernity. The author draws a parallel between Jamaican understandings of the self, and the late philosophy of Immanuel Kant. The ethnographic material presented here, derived from two years fieldwork in Kingston, suggest that Jamaicans understand themselves as global citizens. This sense of self can be identified across multiple contexts – oral performance, music, kinship and friendship, economics and politics. In light of Jamaican cultural experience, the book argues for a reframing of ethnographic practice as an explicitly cosmopolitan cultural practice.2008 0-7734-5285-0
This book advances an anthropological understanding of time and history. Drawing on the philosophy of Henri Bergson and Gilles Deleuze, and the work of anthropologists Alfred Gell and Nancy Munn, the author presents the carefully documented case for the importance of time studies to anthropology.
The argument is channelled through an ethnographic account of the rapid and far-reaching changes affecting life in a Mediterranean French village. These are driven by the regional political economy, and heritage tourism in particular; but in an original analysis of such processes of modernization, the book traces their impact in terms of the lived experience of time.
Experiences of tradition, epoch, cultural rupture and remembrance, mythologizations of history, and the local “politics of time”, are brought clearly into focus; as is the place of heritage tourism, local history, and kinship in mediating disjuncture. A sensitive portrait emerges of how people inhabit the uncertain timescapes of modernity, in a wide range of everyday scenarios.
The book develops the notion of “living traditions” as a dynamic form of cultural continuity; and fashions a layered, integrated model of experience, time and history informed by Deleuze’s philosophy of flux. Discussion extends to pragmatist and phenomenological theories of time, and the work of philosophers such as MacIntyre. Generously illustrated, the book is notable for illuminating this complex field in clear, evocative language.2008 0-7734-4939-6
Highlights many of the inherent problems of polygyny, but challenges the media-driven depiction of plural marriage as uniformly abusive and harmful to women, criticizing techniques used by state and federal governments used to raid entire communities as they did in the 1950s and in April of 2008. This book contains six black and white photographs and two color photographs.2016 1-4955-0444-1
Herodotos’ reputation as the teller of tall stories has undergone revision over the years. In India, he said,
there were ants almost as large as dogs. The story was repeated many times by Greek authors and then
by Roman, Byzantine, Arab, and Persian writers, before finding its way into Mediaeval and early
Renaissance European literature. Attempts to rationalise the tale have centred upon the ants themselves.
By the mid-twentieth century the puzzle appeared to be regarded as settled. However, based on studies of the etymology of various languages spoke in those area, and on anthropological investigations the book offers a new explanation of Herodotos’s story based on historical context rather than fantasy.2002 0-7734-7125-12006 0-7734-5682-1
What sets mankind apart from all other species is not the naked skin, the upright stance, the use of tools or the capacity for thought and emotion. Not even the ability to speak makes the difference. The true ‘sapiens factor,’ the element which turned ape into man, was the transition from verbal communication to verbal thought.
Our forebears started out like any other great ape. Even the development of speech did not help to improve life much compared to that of other hominoids. But around 40,000 years ago, human cultural evolution exploded. Something very impressive takes place within a time span that would normally pass unnoticed. Compared with the preceding pace of evolution, there is an explosion of innovation. A new factor is at play here – what is the ‘sapiens factor’? Available data strongly indicate that what moved our forebears away from all other mammals, including other hominids, was not their use of words to communicate, but that they used them in a new way. Our ancestors moved the handy denominators for reality, which words are, from the realm of communication into the realm of thought.2009 0-7734-3890-4
This work is the first detailed Western study of contemporary funeral rituals in villages in north China. At a time of great social transformation in China, this work examines funeral rituals, encompassing the rites of transformation and the rites of disposal.1995 0-7734-8854-5
The nature/nurture controversy, sometimes known as the evolution/environment controversy, seems to have trickled down into the information systems of the vernacular world as an unfortunate rift between duelling scholarly camps. The Biocultural Paradigm is offered as a model that transcends both camps, by recognizing the neuro-biological origins of human development and by delineating exactly how and when sociological influences can and cannot affect those neuro-biological invariants. The Biocultural Paradigm is established by using existing discoveries in evolutionary neuro-biology and Selection Theory. It is composed of five proto-cultural models ("biocultures") which correspond to the five evolutionary centers of our neurological structures.2007 0-7734-5508-6
Why do people, in our modern age of rationality, science, and materialism, commence the formation and celebration of the irrational, the unscientific, and the immaterial? What anxieties drive us to escape the cold light of the empirical? What desires are left unfulfilled by the premises and promises of technocracy and market capital? What beliefs are unbelievable, and what do we wish to avoid remembering at the cost of forgetting the history of ourselves? This book explores these questions with a combination of analyses of structures which impose themselves upon our thinking and create for us templates of prejudice and spaces of judgment, and a variety of qualitative case studies taken from many of the somewhat occlusive and tricky fjords of human experience.2013 0-7734-3598-0
This book examines how an education system can provide mechanisms for nation building This work exposes how these mechanisms influence imagining, building, and enacting nation in a country with no native population It also examines how its colonially introduced ethnic groups proudly proclaim their differences in language and history.2012 0-7734-3930-7
This text provides a new framework for examining the relationship between voluntary hunger as an emotion and the written voice.1991 0-88946-072-8
Provides a theological, historical, and methodological analysis of the impact of Christian missions on indigenous cultures by examining Alaska as a case study. Demonstrates that Protestant missionaries carried a "gospel" of Western civilization intended to Americanize the native peoples of Alaska. Describes approaches taken among the Inupiat and Yuit peoples (translated: the "real people.")2005 0-7734-6171-X
This study is a sociological critic of Darwinian social science (human sociobiology), i.e., the application of Darwinian natural selection theory to complex human social behavior. More specifically, the manuscript examines Darwinian social science through the substantive topic of incest and inbreeding avoidance, a behavior forwarded by human sociobiology as the best example of sociocultural behavior naturally selected in humans. The sociobiology approach is now commonly presented in public forums and media leaving the impression on the general public that sociobiology and its many claims are scientific fact.2003 0-7734-6690-8
This interdisciplinary study sheds light on the communal creative process of music and discusses the process of music change in Bumba-meu-Boi, and provides an example of exo-semantic analysis in the quest for the truth of this folk drama. It argues that Bumba-meu-Boi, sheds light on 18th century Brazil, and reveals existing levels of interaction between classes (master-slave, oppressor-oppressed) on sugar can plantations and mills. A sociologist perspective demonstrates that the structure of the Bumba-meu-Boi reflects a similar network of relations as they exist in communities where it is performed. The study contains a glossary, comprehensive bibliography, and a reproduction of the entire play.2003 0-7734-6821-8
These essays present new critical perspectives on the dynamic configurations of music, religion (indigenous, Islam, Christian), and ritual in contemporary African societies. Examples demonstrate issues and processes of accommodation, the construction of religious, ethnic, and cultural identities, and local articulations of gender and the aesthetic. Examples from African-American Pentecostalism, independent Christianity, Tumbuka healing, Yoruba kingship ritual, Senegalese Sufism, etc confirm both common and divergent patterns in African cultural traditions.2016 1-4955-0432-8
This fascinating study is devoted to the Iron Age Celtic presence in the territory of ancient Scythia and European Sarmatia (today’s Ukraine and nearby regions of Moldova, Russia and Belorus). It provides careful attention to the Celtic-Slavic relationship as it impacts cultural influences and adaptations of the indigenous populations of that time and area.2006 0-7734-5773-9
Dramatizes the well-known rite of passage in anthropology, while addressing this famous male transition as it occurs in three midlife western intellectuals.2009 0-7734-4688-5
An interdisciplinary work that examines the representation of death in traditional and “new” media, explore the meaning of assassination and suicide in a post 9/11 context, and grapple with the use of legal and medical tools that affect the quest for a “good death.” The contributors treat their interrelated topics from the perspective of their expertise in medicine, law, psychology, anthropology, sociology, political science, religion, philosophy, literature, media, and visual culture.2005 0-7734-6167-1
This is the first comprehensive monograph on naming in the Xhosa speaking community in South Africa. Although onomastic studies in South Africa have a fairly long history, the emphasis has been mainly on toponyms, and then not on data from the indigenous African communities. With the coming into being of the Names Society of Southern Africa in 1980, as well as its official mouthpiece, the journal Nomina Africana
, the discipline received a very necessary stimulus. Various contributions on Xhosa naming did appear regularly in the journal, but episodically. This work brings together all available scholarly research on Xhosa naming as well as recent research by the author. It not only covers the well-known categories such as anthroponyms and toponyms, but also lesser-known topics such as the names of minibus taxis and month names. The work also incorporates other recent and relevant onomastic studies in particularly Southern African communities. This book should be of great value to names scholars working in Southern Africa, as well as further afield. Naming in Africa often takes on other dimensions than in western society, and this work illustrates this well regarding Xhosa society. The socio-onomastic approach should also interest anthropologists, ethnographers, sociologists, cultural studies experts, and even the general public who wish to learn more about Xhosa society as reflected through naming.2014 0-7734-0053-2
A comprehensive analysis of how the concept of personhood has been used by anthropologists and how it should be used in the future…This book is a very valuable contribution to the study of the history of anthropological thought, as well as a tremendously useful guide for scholars and students who want to use the concept of personhood analytically in their own work.2002 0-7734-6923-02016 1-4955-0447-6
This book describes the acute structural plight of the Colombian Department of Chocó on the Pacific Coast. This Afro-Colombian, indigenous and mixed ancestry region is located in one of the richest areas of biodiversity remaining in the world and consequently gives rise to antagonistic confrontations due to the asymmetrical confluence of cultures in Colombian society.1992 0-7734-9537-1
This anthropological inquiry into the nature of non-human primates considers group social dynamics, organization and behavior as local phenomena with transcendent properties. Rejects the neo-Darwinian view that social behavior is subject to natural selection and that genetic determinism underlies manifest patterns. New models are introduced concerning: where behavior lies (Paterson, Hornshaw); what the meaning of proximal domain of behavior is to the actors (Burton); problems of epistemology within primate studies that have sent primatologists off track (Chan, Hornshaw, Burton, Zeller); nature of interaction among young female orangutans and the history of the development of solitary patterns (Galdikas); and how patterns of communication code intricate, complex information of social significance (Burton, Zeller). Includes maps, photographs, glossary of technical terms, and a joint bibliography with chapter numbers.1999 0-7734-8025-02005 0-7734-6238-4
This book is a study in the sociology of knowledge. Specifically, a study of how anthropologists over the previous forty years have constructed anthropological knowledge. Interpretation of this material takes place within the discourses of the anthropology of knowledge and education.
Anthropologists say that ways of thinking about anthropological knowledge conflict at the theoretical level but do not conflict in practice. Practice is defined as fieldwork and teaching. here, theory is felt only indirectly. Various tensions follow from this understanding. They include those between subject and object, positivism and post-positivism, value and validity, field and archive, and cultural relativism versus scientific knowledge.
The concept which mediates these tensions is that of the field. Fieldwork is seen by anthropologists as an experience with both epistemological and ethical implications. Ethically, the field supports a certain manner of living and outlook on humanity. Yet, epistemologically, the field is divisive because it is cast as the promotional agent for various kinds of method, theory, and reflective analyses. These analyses include a belief in value relativism in concert with a scientific notion of validity. For example, if it were not for the fundamental tools of positivism in anthropology, anthropologists felt that anthropological knowledge might be seen as idiosyncratic. In their search for human knowledge, anthropologists are united by their methods and ethics. They are divided, however, by their theories. These divisions and unities are inherited in the culture of anthropology. Although anthropologists understand different cultures’ values to be equal, they suggest that ways of knowing another culture through anthropology are not equally valid.
Theoretical conflicts are also produced in institutions. These are seen as major influences on the ‘look’ of anthropology at various times and places. Departments, publishers, students and teachers are all influences on anthropological knowledge construction.
Anthropological knowledge is also seen as being constructed at a personal level. Anthropologists felt that the concept of vocation in the individual’s life-narrative as an anthropologist is important to this construction. Anthropology is seen as a calling or assignation. As well, the purpose of anthropological knowledge is seen as an ethical precept. The sanctity of field experiences for these anthropologists brings them together ethically but divides them epistemologically.2002 0-7734-7290-82010 0-7734-1428-2
This book is the first full-length study of the literary output of South African-born, Mauritian-based novelist, Lindsey Collen. This study tackles these aspects of her writing from a cultural studies standpoint, encompassing both a socio-anthropological reading that identifies the creative energies that forge new connections and a literary analysis of the metaficitional potential of her novels as vehicles for the reassessment of social, cultural and historical conventions.2006 0-7734-5526-4
Northwest Semitic syntax has been explored extensively on word, phrasal, and clausal levels. This has contributed much to our understanding of the languages in this linguistic family. There have also been numerous studies on micro level and isolated occurrences of literary devices within the corpus of texts. This work examines Northwest Semitic inscriptional material from the 10th – 5th centuries BCE and includes writings predominantly from the Phoenician, Moabite, and Hebrew languages. The inscriptions are analyzed based on a text level approach, and it will be demonstrated how clauses and sentences work together to form larger syntactic units. Additionally, the literary structure of the texts will be defined and the function of the macro level literary devices will be explained. As these larger levels of literary devices can only be detected when viewed in combination with the syntax of the compositions as a whole, the two approaches will be explained independently, yet cooperatively. Thus, the syntax and literary structure of the texts will compliment each other, as the syntax is the vehicle that conveys the literary devices within the inscriptions.2016 1-4955-0413-1
This study critically examines Black aesthetic theory. The sociopolitical sensibilities of Black aesthetics may be viewed as a response or a critical “talking back” to the power structures in society that consciously perpetuate a dominant narrative of the beautiful or what it means to be beautiful. Ultimately it attempts to situate Black aesthetics in the context of education as a language through which to make meaning of the term social justice.2008 0-7734-5120-X
This book illustrates the social structure of Iraqi society and the development of the national personality by dealing mainly with the great influence of Bedouin values upon the behavior and conduct of the sedentary population over the centuries and in the present. This book contains one black and white map.2007 0-7734-5337-7
This work, written by an accomplished anthropologist, provides vivid accounts of the horrific practice of torture from around the world, along with explanations from the torturers as to how they could carry out such acts and accounts from victims of torture, detailing their experiences. The result is a book that offers readers a glimpse of what may be mankind’s most appalling behavior. Readers should be cautioned that their reading will like be a painful one.