Impact of High-Stakes Testing on the Academic Futures of Non-Mainstream Students

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“Equality is one of the tenets on which democracy is founded. The French Revolution saw monarchy replaced by promises of liberty, equality and fraternity. In America, our pledge to the flag ends with the words "liberty and justice for all." It is our responsibility as citizens to ensure that these principles are upheld. We have become, over the years, increasingly inclusive. We have tried to remove prejudice from our interviewing practices at work and from our grading processes in school. A national goal has been to offer all citizens equal opportunity for employment, for advancement and for education.
It is therefore no small irony that one of the means we have adopted to insure fairness and objectivity may actually result in inequity and inequality. High-stakes testing situations are the gateways to placement in special programs, admission to private schools, colleges and universities. This book provides a most useful discussion of cultural bias, dominant culture thinking and domain specificity which constitute the primary, negative effects of these tests on students of color. This book sets the issue of testing in an historical perspective and offers appropriate definitions and measures of bias in testing … The volume concludes with an international perspective. Culturally sensitive schooling and strategies for individual success appear to be assisting Maori students in New Zealand despite former central policies which were not always conducive to their success.
This volume sets this issue in a local, national and international context. It offers succinct discussions of the critical issues and approaches to testing. Examples of success and failure in teaching and testing are cited in such a way that they are useful to the teacher, the administrator, the parent and the student. The authors of this volume weigh the positive aspects of testing along with the negative in a thoughtful fashion. Francis Bacon said that some books are to be tasted and others eaten entirely and digested slowly. This book contains material which will provoke thought and discussion. It also contains positive suggestions which will, hopefully, be adopted to improve the future of our students who will one day lead this nation.” – (from the Commendatory Preface) Roseann Runte, President, Old Dominion University

Table of Contents

Preface (Roseann Runte, Ph.D., President, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia)

1. A Brief Overview of High-Stakes Testing and Its Implications for Historically Underserved Students (Jean T. Pryce, Ph.D., Education Consultant, Cincinnati, Ohio)

2. Cultural Diversity and Intelligence Testing: Confusion, Controversies, Conflicts and Considerations (Cynthia A. Tyson, Ph.D., Associate Professor in Language, Literacy and Culture The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio Donna Y. Ford, Ph.D., Professor, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio )

3. Under the Guise of 'Let No Child Be Left Behind': The Degradation and Commodification of Teaching and Education in California (Roberta Ahlquist, Ph.D., Professor, Secondary Teacher Education, San Jose State University, San Jose, California)

4. Looking at the Standards of Learning: The Virginian Experience with High- Stakes Testing (Gail Singleton Taylor, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Educational Curriculum and Instruction, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia)

5. Do We Throw the Baby Out with the Bathwater? A Review of the Louisiana Education Assessment Program (LEAP) (Celina Valentina Echols, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Coordinator of Diversity and Multicultural Issues, Southern Louisiana University, Hammond, Louisiana; Quenyatta Echols-Williams, M.D., Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, Louisiana)

6. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing on Restructuring Efforts in Schools Serving At-Risk Students (Linda Bol, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Old Dominion University, Educational Curriculum and Instruction, Norfolk, Virginia; John Nunnery, Ph. D., Assistant Professor, Educational Leadership and Counseling, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia)

7. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing from the Perspective of University Supervisors (Anne Creany, Ph.D., Program Coordinator, Professional Studies in Education Department, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania; Monte Tidwell, Ph.D., Associate Professor and Faculty Advisor, Professional Studies in Education, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, Pennsylvania)

8. Are the Stakes Higher for Urban School Districts? (Sueanne McKinney, Ph.D., Instructor, Educational Curriculum and Instruction, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia; Jack Robinson, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Early Childhood, Speech Language Pathology and Special Education, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia )

9. A Teacher's Perspective on Teaching and Testing (P .J. Nomathemba Seme, Ed.D., Communication Skills Specialist, Norfolk Public Schools, Norfolk, Virginia)

10. High-Stakes Testing: What Roles Do Culture and Socioeconomic Status Play in the Scores of Ethnic Minorities? (Janis V. Sanchez-Hucles, Ph.D., Professor, Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia; Florence Jinadu, M.A., Doctoral Candidate, Industrial Organizational Psychology, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia; Cynthia Hand, M.S., Virginia Consortium Program in Clinical Psychology, Norfolk, Virginia)

11. Myths, Mistakes and Methods: High-Stakes Testing and African American Learners (Patricia J. Larke, Ed.D., Professor and Coordinator of Graduate Program, Department of Teaching, Learning and Culture, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas; Gwendolyn Webb-Johnson, Ph.D., Assistant Professor, Special Education, University of Texas, Austin, Texas)

12. Using the Blues to Enhance the SOL's in the Teaching of English (Margaret B.S. Bristow, Ph.D., English Teacher, I.C. Norcom High School, Portsmouth, Virginia)

13. Diagnostic Testing for Freshmen Students at a Historically Black College and University: Implications for Retention and Student Success (Brenda Neumon Lewis, Ph.D., Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia; Mercy O. Azeke, Ph.D., Executive Director, First Year Experience, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, Virginia)

14. High-Stakes Down Under for Indigenous Peoples: Learning from Maori Education in New Zealand (Dale Titus, Ed.D., Professor, Secondary Education, Kutztown University of Pennsylvania, Kutztown, Pennsylvania; Theresa Stahler, Ph.D., Professor, Secondary Education, Kutztown University of Penrtsylvania, Kutztown, Pennsylvania)

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