Development of the American Surveillance State, 1900-1960

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The rise of the surveillance state is examined within the context of the developing American national intelligence community and the modern presidency during the period 1900-1960. Institutional, historical, and leadership models illustrate the ways in which the changing presidency, the domestic political environment, the perceived international threat environment, all contributed to the rise of the American surveillance state.


“Dr. John Carter continues his tradition of engaging the reader in the world of politics, intrigue, and secrecy…In this work, Dr. Carter focuses on the role and leadership style of the President and the performance of each respective administration as it relates to intelligence operations…his writing style engages the reader, much like an author of fiction, into the minds of presidents and their struggles as they wrestle with the events in history.”
-Professor Rita Gulstad,
Central Methodist University

“Dr. John Carter’s book is a timely look at an important topic. Covering the growth of government surveillance from the Theodore Roosevelt administration to the Eisenhower administration, Carter does an excellent job marshalling a wide range of sources into a compelling narrative. Although he is strong on the early years of the twentieth century, Carter is particularly good at presenting his topic during the Cold War under the presidencies of Truman and Eisenhower. His is a thorough coverage of this subject, made more pertinent by Carter’s detailed knowledge of spy plane operations.”
-Professor Richard Bradley,
Central Methodist University

Table of Contents

Foreword by Rita Gulstad
Chapter 1: The Surveillance State
Covert Action
A Cautionary Note about the Study of Intelligence Operations
Chapter 2: The Protean Presidency and Domestic Intelligence Operations
Intelligence Operations and the American Presidency
-The World Order Context
-The Domestic Context
-The Intelligence Community
The Modern Presidency
-Head of State Role
-Chief Administrator Role
-Party Leader Role
Chapter 3: Domestic Espionage and Covert Action in the Roosevelt and Wilson Administration
The Square Deal and Its Rough Edges Defined the Roosevelt Presidency
Woodrow Wilson and the Stewardship Presidency
Wilson’s Presidential Style
Chapter 4: The Presidency and the Intelligence Community during the Interwar Period
Harding and the Nadir of the Presidency
The Intelligence Community between the Wars
-Targeting the Japanese
-Targeting the Red Menace
Calvin Collidge and the Hands-Off Presidency
Coolidge’s Presidential Style
Spying at Home and Abroad during the Collidge Administration
The Hoover Administration Expands Domestic Intelligence Operations
-Intelligence Operations>br> -Hoover’s Conflicted Leadership Style
-Domestic Intelligence Operations in the Hoover Administration
Chapter 5: The Rise of the Imperial Presidency and the Surveillance State
-A Refurbished Party
-The World Order Context of the FDR Administration
Reorganizing for War
Building Domestic Operational Capabilities through Foreign Operations
-Protecting the Panama Canal
-Targeting Mexico
-Unmasking the Nazi Threat
-The K project: A Preview of the Cold War
-Burma 1942-1945
Domestic Surveillance and Espionage in the FDR Administration
Chapter 6: The Presidency,t he Intelligence Community, and the Surveillance State during the Truman Administration
Truman Reorganizes for a Troubled Peace
Truman Reorganizes the National Security Establishment
The Changing World Order and the Birth of the CIA
Covert Action and the Truman Doctrine
-My Enemy’s Enemy: Employing Nazi Assets
-The Gehlen Resume
-Operation Bohemia
-Political Action in Western Europe
Propaganda Operations 1948-1952
-Paramilitary Operations in Support of Containment
Aerial Surveillance Operations by the Truman Administration
-A Typology of Truman’s Aerial Operations
A Brief Chronology of “Spy flights” during the Truman Administration
-Domestic Surveillance and Espionage in the Early Cold War
Chapter 7: Espionage, Surveillance, and Covert Operations during the Eisenhower Administration
The Politics of Transition
The Hidden-Hand Presidency
A Lesson From the Ardennes
The General and the Old Boys
Eisenhower and the Generals
Covert Aerial Operations by the Eisenhower Administration
Aerial Surveillance Operations by SAC
CIA U-2 Operations
Secret paramilitary Operations by the Eisenhower Administration
Covert Operations,br> An Early Success in Iran
The Lesson Reinforced in Guatemala
Failure in Indochina
Failure Becomes Disaster in Albania
Disaster Becomes Catastrophe in Hungry
Domestic Espionage and Surveillance in the Eisenhower Administration
Chapter 8: Observations and Conclusions
Related Observations

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