Crack Cocaine and the Experience of African American Women

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This study is an analysis of treatment experiences and outcomes of African American women undergoing substance abuse treatment for crack cocaine, and to identify factors that contribute to their successful recovery as defined by completion of treatment and substance abstinence one-year post treatment.


“Dr. Okagbue-Reaves has presented a seminal study in drug treatment that is imperative reading for practitioners working with African American women drug addicts. This study identified treatment outcomes for African American women given the treatment systems utilized and services they received. Not only does the study have implications for practice and policy but breaks the ground for future research in the field of chemical dependency treatment for women.” - Dr. John Gunther, Director of the School of Social Work (retired), Missouri State University

“Dr. Reaves, in this landmark research study, gives us renewed hope that by looking carefully at data on a national basis, we can identify significant factors related to recovery for a population that has often been viewed as one of the most difficult to successfully treat for a variety of reasons - African American women addicted to crack cocaine.” - Professor Marilyn Wedenoja, School of Social Work, Eastern Michigan University

“Using data from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES) Dr. Okagbue-Reaves identifies positive treatment outcomes within the sub-sample of African American women within the treatment system ... This study challenges the treatment arena to recognize that with an increase in services, consistency in time spent in treatment, and greater availability of long-term residential treatment, African American women can achieve positive outcomes.” - Professor Sylvia Simms Grey, School of Social Work, Eastern Michigan University

Table of Contents

List of Tables
List of Figures
1 Research Questions and Methodology
2 Literature Review
3 Research Design and Methods
4 Study Results
5 Discussion

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