Subject Area: Classics

hellenica (greek History) of Xenophon of Athens
2006 0-7734-5997-9
In the fourth century B.C., Xenophon wrote a history of his time, intended to serve as a continuation of Thucydides’ Peloponnesian Wars. The present text is the first to be based upon the four important manuscript witnesses determined to be significant in published studies by Professor Jackson. The result is a text free of many unfounded readings accepted into earlier editions and an economical critical apparatus. Professor Doty’s new idiomatic English translation which accompanies the Greek text mirrors Xenophon’s unadorned style and is the first to make use of the new text.

Aegidius on Ecclesiastical Power
1990 0-88946-830-3
A specific attempt to redress the historical imbalance of material available in English dealing with the classic medieval conflict in church/state relations.

Aegidius Romanus, De Renunciatione Pape
1992 0-7734-9623-8
This is the first critical edition of the late 13th-century tract on papal abdication which Giles of Rome wrote at the height of the controversy between Boniface VIII and the Colonna cardinals, James and Peter. Besides the critical Latin edition, the accompanying summary of the tract's major arguments is the only comprehensive, in-depth analysis of this work that is available. The richness of this work, the citation of major authors of Western thought, above all Aristotle, Saint Augustine and canon law in creating the constitutional space within which the pope could operate as a free and sovereign individual, has much to offer any serious student of political and constitutional history. Concludes with a twenty-page summary in English.

Aeschines de Falsa Legatione / on the False Embassy
2005 0-7734-6148-5
This new translation of Aeschines' On the Embassy is designed for readers who know little or no Greek but would like to gain a sense of the linguistic and stylistic qualities of the original text. Numerous notes to the text incorporate the analysis of ancient rhetoricians, the work of nineteenth-century scholars, and that of the most recent commentators in English, German, and Italian. At certain points in the notes textual problems and variant interpretations by recent translators and commentators are addressed and, in some cases, new solutions or interpretations are offered. The bibliography is comprehensive, including work in several languages, both recent and from the past, addressing rhetorical issues, as well as legal and historical ones.

Alcestis of Euripides with Introduction, Translation and Commentary
2001 0-7734-7396-3
This translation and commentary aims to make the ancient play accessible not only to Greek scholars, but also to non-specialists. It provides a fuller commentary than those of both Dale and Conacher. The translation follows the line numbering of the Greek text as closely as possible, allowing Greek specialists easy comparison between the translation and original.

An Aristotelian Approach to Ethical Theory - The Norms of Virtue
2004 0-7734-6306-2
The project of this work is to combine an interpretative study of Aristotle’s thinking about the foundational elements of ethical theory with the formulation of a theory of ethical normativity that is based on those same elements, but that is independently formulated and analyzed. In particular, the book argues that virtue ethics, of an Aristotelian type, can provide a coherent and satisfying theory of normativity, although this has sometimes been denied in modern scholarship. Normativity is sometimes thought to require a theory of a deductive type, in which ethical norms are derived from the principle of universalization (Kant’s view) or from a universal principle, such as, in Utilitarianism, the maximization of human happiness. The claim here is that normativity can also, and more plausibly, be established inductively through an examination of human nature—as understood through a variety of means, including the ethical agent’s own sense of what human nature consists in and scientific psychology—and the interrelated Aristotelian ideas of virtue, happiness, and particular relationships. The suggestion is that, if norms are grounded in this way, we can establish a normative framework that corresponds to the reality of human shared and individual experience and that is, therefore, more cogent than one that depends (deductively) on abstract, universal principles. This Aristotelian, inductive, theory is offered as embodying a cogent account of ethical normativity, which represents a contribution to current philosophical debate on the nature and basis of ethical norms.

An English Translation of Claudius Aelianus' Varia Historia with Introduction and Notes
1997 0-7734-8672-0
Claudius Aelianus (c. AD 175 - c. 235), a Roman of Praeneste who chose to write in the archaizing Greek of the authors of the Second Sophistic, earned the epithet "honey tongue" because of the sweetness of his style. In the Varia Historia, a miscellany of anecdotes, lists, apophthegms, biographical sketches, and descriptions of natural wonders, Aelian compiled from various sources data which he felt spoke to the interests and needs of his contemporaries. Scholars have for a long time quarried Aelian's miscellany for information, often untrustworthy, about earlier centuries. But Aelian did not compile his data with the scientific aims of the modern scholar; consequently, he has been scorned for not providing material which in fact he did not set out to present. The present volume presents Aelian in such a way that his program for selection and compilation of information becomes apparent. Considering the range of data, and the voices in which he writes, Aelian's moral focus becomes clear, as does his agenda. Aelian sought to create in the Varia Historia a paedeutic collection of information, material which he felt provided models for the correct response to the Classical literary heritage.

An English Translation of the Poetry of Lucillius, a First-Century Greek Epigrammatist
2004 0-7734-6488-3
This volume offers for the first time facing-page translations into contemporary English of the entire body of Lucillius’ work, 140 epigrams. Classicists have established beyond question his significant influence on the development of the ancient epigram, such as his influence on Martial.

An Interpretation of the Poems of Catullus
1999 0-7734-7890-6
This study is a full introduction to the poetry of Catullus for students and general readers, establishing a number of crucial contexts – personal, social, literary – within which Catullus functioned. It sets out four way in which Catullus can be seen as a modern poet: emphasis on art, on sexual themes, on the individual voice, and on a brief, clear style. “Brian Arkins allows us to appreciate more precisely this ‘modernity’ of Catullus in his introductory chapter. . . . A particular feature is the sensitive introduction to the longer poems which are often put to one side as an expression of the more forbidding and ‘learned’ side of Catullus. . . . Especially fascinating, in what we commonly regard as a totally masculine world, is the way in which Catullus often compares his own feelings and ideals in relationships with those of women such as Laodamia. This book will make us pick up our Catullus again to explore with new insights an age and a poet whom we thought we knew so well.” – Andrew Smith

An Introduction to Greek Mythology Story, Symbols, and Cultures
2000 0-7734-7748-9
Based on the lecture notes of a brilliant classical scholar who possessed the unique ability of bringing to vibrant life the thoughts and aspirations of Greek writers of man eons ago, this book will fill a need not only for scholars and educated laymen but for advanced students in the classics for whom no really adequate introduction to Greek mythology now exists. Topics include myth and religion, purpose in the creation myth, human origins, death and deliverance, wildness and civilization, nature and culture amongst the gods, the nature of the Hero, the place of the family in the community, the Hero in the family and the polis, and the search for self-knowledge. Includes notes, bibliography, glossary of Greek names and terms, index.

Ancient Versus Modern Ways of Making Comparison: Comparatio in Vergil’s aeneid
2005 0-7734-5962-6
Of the 9,896 lines of poetry in Vergil’s Aeneid, some four hundred of them fall under the heading of comparatio or, loosely translated, simile. In order to define this figure of speech, this work reviews the classical authors Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian. It also reviews modern scholarship on Vergilian similes. The primary focus of this work deals with the forms Vergil used in the Aeneid when he employed this rhetorical symbol. This work should appeal to all scholars and students of epic poetry – to see the mind of Vergil at work – one who has imitated Homer but one who has made the “comparisons” his own in content, in emphasis, and in form.

Apuleius' Debt to Plato in the metamorphoses
2003 0-7734-7012-3
This book argues for a Platonist approach to the novel Metamorphoses, and shows that Apuleius forms his own theory of discourse in his philosophical work. This study of Apuleius’ late Roman novel is also a response to the scholarly debate about the unity of the text. The author shows that the Metamorphoses is a perfect illustration of the very Platonic notion of an inferior discourse that is captivating, persuasive, and suited to dealing with inconsistent or ephemeral subjects.

Aristotelians of Renaissance Italy
1991 0-7734-9697-1
This study contends that Aristotelian currents in Italian Renaissance philosophy are complex, distinctive, and significantly relevant to a complete history of philosophy for the period from the 14th to 17th centuries. Provides detailed expositions of some of the central philosophic portions of the most significant Aristotelian authors.

Aristotle Versus the Atheists: on the Existence of God and the Immortality of the Soul
2009 0-7734-4899-3
This work argues for the restoration of Aristotelianism to the college curriculum to countervail the prevailing focus on modernism and to counteract the twenty-first century proliferation of atheist tracts.

Aristotle's Organon in Epitome, the Poetics, the Rhetoric, the Analytics Aristotle's Tool-Kit
1996 0-7734-8884-7
This volume brings together Aristotle's interrelated views of poetry, speech-making, and inference, so that they create the equipment needed by students of the arts and sciences for the pursuit of their inquiries in the disciplines and the study of the histories of these disciplines and their landmark texts. Aristotle's poetics emerge from the book's analytic summaries as responsive to the expressiveness of Greek tragedy, while his rhetoric is brought into a closer relation with the logic of inference, made necessary by the persistence of sophistic reasoning in philosophy, literary criticism, and the discourse of our public sphere.

Athanasius' Concept of Eternal Sonship as Revealed in Contra Arianos
2007 0-7734-5644-9
This primary intent of this book is to examine the Contra Arianos and determine that Athanasius does address the functional subordination of the Son to the Father as being an eternal relationship. The secondary intent is to re-examine and evaluate the Athanasian approach to the Arian controversy and review his hermeneutic of the biblical texts he presents as the orthodox teaching of the Scriptures as found in the Athanasian work, Contra Arianos.

Augustine on Music an Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays
1988 0-88946-431-6
An important interdisciplinary study of some of the concepts central to Augustine's philosophy of art, largely ignored in previous works.

Bibliographical History of the Study and Use of Color From Aristotle to Kandinsky
2005 0-7734-6041-1
This book has three parts. Part One outlines historical trends in the study and use of color from antiquity to the present, with emphasis on color harmony and color in art. The history of color harmony meaning is traced from Aristotle through Kandinsky, to Modern and Postmodern ideas. Discussed are the important contributions to color theory of Alberti, da Vinci, Rubens, Descartes, LeBlon, Hogarth, and Delacoioix, to name a few. Chapters are included on the systematic color analyses of Newton, Goethe, and Chevreul, as well as those of Schopenhauer, Young, Brewster, and Runge; the groundbreaking color-vision research of Helmholtz and the notable scientific studies of Fechner and Rood; the influence of scientific color on such artists as Seurat; and the color organization theories of Moses Harris, Munsell, and Ostwald. Coverage is given to the psychology of affective response, including, among others, Wundt, Allesch, Kirschman, Birkoff, Katz, Arnheim, and Ehrenzweig. Color education is explored through such 20th century teachers as Itten, Katz, Albers, Pope, Sargent, Henri, and many more. Histories, anthologies, and bibliographies introduce Gage, Indergrand, Birren, and other late 20th century literary resources on color. Described is the role that color handbooks and quick-study references play in color harmony. An overview of the inconsistencies in the language of color is presented, and some of the current research attitudes toward the enigmatic subject of color harmony today are sampled.

Part Two covers the landmark color publications of Goethe, Chevreul, Helmholtz, Kandinsky, Katz, Judd, Albers, Wright, Itten, Arnheim, Munsell, and Pope. Bibliographic summaries are provided of the various editions of their books. Included are biographies and bibliographies of each author.

Part Three includes a bibliography of 100 books on color ranked in order of importance in the study and use of color through time. Contributors to the list include Rudolf Arnheim, Faber Birren, Frans Gerritsen, David Lewis MacAdam, and Siegfried Rösch, and others. The method used to construct the bibliography is described. The text includes references, general bibliography, a special retrospective bibliography on color harmony and color use in art, subject lists arranged by dates of publication for cross-referencing, and indexes.

Caesarea Maritima the Pottery and Dating of Vault I: Horreum, Mithraeum, and Later Uses
1990 0-88946-377-8
A report based largely on ceramic materials recovered from Vault I during the Joint Expedition to Caesarea Maritima, which began in 1971. By Jeffrey Blakeley, with contributions by Marvin E. Bennett, Robert J. Bennett, Robert Brinkmann, Robert J. Bull, Glenn Hartelius, and Peter Lampinen. Oversize edition.

Clement's Use of Aristotle the Aristotelian Contribution to Clement of Alexandria's Refutation of Gnosticism
1977 0-88946-984-9


Cock for Asclepios Continuing Dialogues with Socrates, in Extremis
1991 0-7734-9916-4
Explores the logic of not-knowing, dramatically presented in the middle-period dialogues of Plato. Contends that Plato first perceived such a logic of not-knowing in the person and behaviour of the man Socrates. Argues that Plato developed the same logic in the literary character Socrates in his dialogues and presented it to his contemporaries as a model of human excellence, as the new arete designed to supplant precedent and then contemporary contenders to model status. Challenges the traditional interpretation of Plato. Offers a new interpretation of Plato as the elaborator of the hypothetical method, termed "Erotic-hypothesizing", which speaks of human possibility and human limitation.

Comparison of Greek Words in Philo and the New Testament
2003 0-7734-6774-2
This volume presents a complete computer-generated comparison of the Greek New Testament and the extant Greek writings of Philo of Alexandria. It is a statistical counting and registration of all common words in these writings. It is based upon the database gathered in connection with the Norwegian Philo Concordance Project, headed by Prof. Peder Borgen. This list will be useful for all New Testament scholars interested in the Jewish and Greco-Roman background of the New Testament.

Constitution of the Lacedaemonians by Xenophon of Athens
2007 0-7734-5516-7
This work is a new critical text of The Constitution of the Lacedaemonians, written in the fourth century B.C. by Xenophon of Athens, based upon collations of the two best manuscript witnesses presently extant. Each page of Greek text is faced with an idiomatic English translation, and the author provides as a testamonia a collation of the text of excerpts made by the Byzantine scholar Joannes Stobaeus, and a new translation of Plutarch’s Life of Lycurgus, which serves as a helpful commentary to Xenophon’s work. Unlike earlier critical editions of the The Constitution of the Lacedaemonians of Xenophon, which have been established upon an imperfect understanding of relationships between extant manuscript witnesses, resulting in the adoption of unworthy text readings and an overly stocked critical apparatus, this present edition seeks to present a text based upon Vaticanus gr. 1335 and Marcianus gr. 511, keeping as close as possible to the text offered in these codices and ignoring many of the changes offered by modern scholars who suspect more deterioration of the transmitted text than seems likely.

Contrast as Narrative Technique in Ovid's Metamorphoses
1997 0-7734-8549-X
This is the first study which attempts a thorough analysis of the definition, nature, scope, functions and effects of the contrasts which Ovid employs. The study examines six stories from the Metamorphoses for all types of contrast, ranging from occasional and immediate, rhetorical figures to farther-reaching contrasts of them, character, tone, and style. Spencer examines intertextual contrast, which are oriented toward the poet's sources, and intratextual contrasts. It is the most thorough analysis available of how Ovid uses contrast on many levels and for a wide range of effects.

Contribution of Socratic Method and Plato’s Theory of Truth to Plato Scholarship
2001 0-7734-7361-0
In Plato’s early dialogues, Socrates typically draws from his interlocutors definitions of moral terms, then demonstrates that these positions or their consequences are inconsistent with the definitions they have offered. On numerous occasions in the early dialogues, Socrates claims that this method will yield truth. This study argues that Plato entertains a theory of truth according to which consistency is sufficient for truth, rescuing him from the charge of having confused consistency with truth, and solving the puzzle of Socratic ignorance. It also suggests a new theory of Plato’s philosophical development: Middle and Late Plato did not abandon Socratic philosophy; rather, he sought to secure its foundations. The late Plato returns to Socratic method in the penultimate work of the corpus, Philebus.

Critical Editon of De Gentilium Deorum Imaginibus by Ludovico Lazzarelli First Edited Text with Introduction and Translation
1997 0-7734-8579-1
This poem by Ludovico Lazzarelli (1450-1500) well illustrates the long tradition of post-classical authors picturing and Christianizing the gods of antiquity. It demonstrates how the gods were integrated into Renaissance life as elements of the Christian universe, and also demonstrates how the artists of the Renaissance secured patronage in order to pursue their disciplines. Until now, the poem existed only in manuscript, two in the Vatican Library, one in Florence. This volume contains an Introduction, text of the poem, and translation.

Cult of Isis in the Roman Empire
2002 0-7734-6894-3
This first half of this study examines the chief characteristics of the Isis cult - the goddess herself, her mythology, variegated attributes, appeal, initiation and cultic practices, priests and priestesses, and calendrical observances. Part Two is an historical survey of the cult's progress and setbacks from the cult's introduction into Italy through the reign of Commodus in the late second century C. E. An epilogue takes the story up to its suppression by the Christianizing state. This will be useful work for scholars of religion in the classical world and comparative religion, as well as for those in Roman history and civilization.

Cult of the matronae in the Roman Rhineland: An Historical Evaluation of the Archaeological Evidence
2008 0-7734-5224-9
This book examines the cult of the Matronae as it occurred in the Roman Rhineland and explains the symbolism and inscriptions found on the altars. The work reviews previous scholarship on the subject, investigates ideas of Romanization, and concepts of bias and cultural exchange. This book contains six black and white photographs.

Development of the Epyillion Genre Through the Hellenistic and Roman Periods
2001 0-7734-7532-X
The epyllion as a genre was developed in the Hellenistic period (and continued into Roman times) in order to show what else was happening while traditional heroic stories were happening, as if the authors of epyllia were committed to giving their readers a glimpses through the back doors of the palaces in which traditional characters lived and enjoyed their adventures. Traditional heroic stories were always narrated in epics with particular conventions. The epyllion challenges these conventions in ways which make it a genre in its own right. The existence of the epyllion in antiquity is not universally acknowledged by literary scholars, and there have been few published works studying the genre as such. The present study examines its development through the Hellenistic and Roman periods, focusing on the use of unheroic and female characters.

Dialogic Education and the Problematics of Translation in Homer and Greek Tragedy
2001 0-7734-7401-3
This book opens up a new way of reading classical literary texts, appropriate both to the needs and competencies of today’s university students and also, it is argued, to the classic texts themselves. The texts’ rich linguistic fabric is constructed out of the play of issues and character, of action and of evaluation; a play that is quickly lost in translation. The solution offered is not the traditional one of ever more intensive language teaching. Rather, the book argues for the provision of texts glossed with key words to enable students to create engaged, critical readings for themselves: to read through rather than in translation.

Dionysius the Pseudo-areopagite
2007 0-7734-6278-3
This is an appreciative analysis of the works of Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite and the influence he has had on the philosophical, theological, and mystical thought of Europe for fifteen hundred years. The author is also interested in demonstrating Dionysius' influence on a wide range of twentieth-century thinkers. Those who are already familiar with the research on and actual writings of Pseudo-Dionysius will find new insights into the ordering and emphases of the mystic’s works. Those who will encounter the thoughts of this influential and unknown individual for the first time will discover, it is hoped, one reason why the philosophical and theological and mystical thought of Europe took the shape it did during and after the Middle Ages. In modern times, the influence of this unknown mystical theologian has not ceased.

Earliest Arthurian Texts
2007 0-7734-5376-8
This volume offers for the first time a comprehensive collection of all the ancient Greek and Latin sources needed to deal with figures answering to names like Arktouros, Ardus, and Artorius, where the bearers seem to have some kind of ‘Arthurian’ character. It challenges proponents of later British Arthurs to explain or explain away various Classical antecedents to the Arthurian tradition. This collection includes text and translation of over one hundred short texts concerning Arthur-figures, enabling Medieval scholars to examine for themselves the basis for claims of ‘Arthurship’ before the age of the historical Gildas. A detailed commentary is provided to introduce classicists to the Medieval tradition and vice-versa. The new texts raise as many questions as they answer; but for that very reason serious students of Arthurian origins cannot afford to ignore them.

Epicurean Ethics Katastematic Hedonism
1994 0-7734-9124-4
The fundamental problem of Epicurean philosophy is understood as the problem of being human in a mechanical universe, which brings out the philosophical importance of Epicurus and guards against treating him as a museum piece. A new interpretation of Epicurean ethics is developed against the background of a critical discussion of earlier interpretations. Although the whole range of the tetrapharmakos is covered in the book, as well as the Epicurean social philosophy of justice and friendship, the argument focusses on Epicurus' understanding of the nature of pleasure and pain and on the distinction between kinetic and katastematic pleasure.

Flight of Icarus Through Western Art
2002 0-7734-7052-2


Folktale as a Source of Graeco-Roman Fiction
2007 0-7734-5372-5
For over a century, research in Ancient Fiction has concentrated on the literary aspects of the texts available to us. Ancient novels had their roots traced to a number of literary genres, including Epic, Euripidean Romantic drama, and New Comedy. The studies collected in this work look instead at the relationship between formal fiction and popular storytelling. Connections between these two forms of literature were prevalent in various cultures in antiquity, and also reemerged in the significant quantities of folk- and fairy-tales from the Renaissance onwards.

Four Elements in Plato’s Timaeus
2000 0-7734-7771-3
This work explores a puzzling aspect of Plato’s treatment, in Timaeus, of the geometry of the four elements. The claim that the elements are connected by a geometric proportion has been variously interpreted as either playful or obscurantist, but there has not yet been a treatment which both takes the claim seriously and grounds it in the essential structure of the elements, conceived in the Timaean manner as consisting of atoms of the same shape as four of the five regular solids. The intention of the study is to go as far as one can in the direction of a detailed explanation of how the claim might be justified. Although it becomes clear that it is not possible to generate a definitive interpretation which underwrites a geometric proportion, it makes plausible that Plato’s meaning is captured by the approach taken. This approach calls upon the Pythagorean roots of the dialogue to assign specific numerical values to the polyhedra which the character Timaeus associates with the elements. Attached as an Appendix is the author’s translation into English of a significant article in literature on Timaeus: “The Chemistry of the Timaeus” by E. M. Bruins. This will be of value to Timaean scholars who cannot easily read the French original, and thus allows them to gain access to the work of an important ad ingenious commentator.

Geography/de Situ Orbis A.d.43
1997 0-7734-8558-9
Pomponius Mela wrote the first systematic geography in Latin literature, datable to 43 A.D. This translation contains a facing page reproduction of the the typeset 1493 edition (Venice, Hermolaus Barbatus) of Mela's work. The Latin text casts considerable light on the Roman mind of the 1st century A.D.

Greek and Roman Themes in Joyce
1999 0-7734-8035-8
This volume begins with a brief analysis of the meaning of the Classical Tradition; deals with how Joyce acquired knowledge of Greek and Roman material; and then devotes chapters to analysing Joyce's appropriation of Greek philosophy, of the Odyssey of Homer, and of Greek and Latin language. "Brian Arkins' book is one that leaves every scholar in his debt. He brings in much more than Homer that is relevant from the Greek and his discussion of Joyce's use of the Latin Mass allows for a serious, many-sided discussion of this much misunderstood topic. And the author never loses sight of his audience, adopting a lucid, frequently witty and always accessible style to convey his learned insights." – Dr. Anthony Roche

Greek Gods in Italy in Ovid's Fasti a Greater Greece
1997 0-7734-8589-9
This monograph deals with Ovid's treatments of the gods in the poem, and in particular with gods who emigrate from Greece to Italy and become part of Roman religion as the poem progresses. It offers a new reading of the Fasti which focuses on four figures from Greek mythology (Saturn, Ino, Faunus, and Hercules). In the course of the poem each of them comes to Italy, and Ovid shows how each one sheds his or her Greek past to become a figure of genuine religious significance to the Roman people. These transformations suggest that the Fasti is meant to be read as an encomium of Roman religion.

Greek Popular Meteorology From Antiquity to the Present: The Folk-Interpretation of Celestial Signs
2010 0-7734-3657-X
This book, the only one of its kind in the English language, examines the attempts of the Greeks to predict weather change by means of naked-eye observation of celestial phenomena, unaided by scientific meteorology.

Hiero - A New Translation
2003 0-7734-6693-2
Since classical antiquity, Hiero has been the most popular of Xenophon’s minor works. This new critical edition clears up manuscript errors from the Marchant edition of 1920, and is a contemporary facing-paged translation which makes the language much more accessible to the current reader. Hiero is a dialogue in which the poet Simonides questions the tyrant Hiero about the pleasures of the tyrant’s life. It is a study of the form of government called tyranny, and an ethical treatise as well.

How Plato’s Theory of Truth Explains the Socratic Method: Consistency is the Test of Truth
2010 0-7734-3701-0
This book argues that Plato’s Socrates subscribes to a coherence theory of truth, and according to that theory, there is only one fully consistent set of beliefs: the set which contains all and only true members. Thus, not only does inconsistency between two beliefs indicate that at least one of them is false, but the consistency of a belief with the other beliefs in the system suffices for its truth.

Index to the Three Works by Ioannes Lydus (de Mensibus, De Ostentis, De Magistratibus)
2012 0-7734-4528-5
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

Influence of Plato and Aristotle on John Dewey's Philosophy
1990 0-88946-948-2
Explores the influence of ancient Greek philosophy on the writings of John Dewey: on the nature of experience, ethical theory; logic; theory of knowledge; aesthetics; theory of education; and supremacy of method. Discusses the kinship Dewey has with Plato and Aristotle in their approaches to social and moral philosophy.

Influence of the Roman Poet Ovid on Shakespeare’s a Midsummer Night’s Dream: Intertextual Parallels and Meta-Ovidian Tendencies
2010 0-7734-3610-3
This study explains that Shakespeare's use of Ovidian text as source material produces an intrinsic theme when viewed through the scope of a writer whose primary aim was to provide his audience with a "uniquely English" dramatic product.

Influences of Callimachean Aesthetics on the Satires and Odes of Horace
2002 0-7734-7247-9
This study investigates the literary program of Horace’s Odes as part of the Callimachean tradition’s emphasis on brevity, novelty, and refinement, as well as a familiarity with a critical vocabulary, formulated at Rome and mirroring the programmatic imagery and terminology pioneered at Alexandria. It begins with a preliminary analysis of the Satires, and discusses the ‘meta-literary’ aspects of both the Satires and the Odes.

Iohannis or De Bellis Libycis of Flavius Cresconius Corippus
1998 0-7734-8242-3
This is the first modern translation, with a useful introduction, of Corippus’ epic work. It is a major source of historical information about the reign of Justinian and especially about the wars of reconquest which that emperor waged it North Africa. Since it provides a good deal of information about the native Berber tribes of North Africa, it is an important text for ethnographers and anthropologists. Finally, it may be considered the last classical Latin epic. Produced in a Byzantine Christian and North African context, it is also a significant example of literary adaptation.

Iris Murdoch’s Contemporary Retrieval of Plato: The Influence of an Ancient Philosopher on a Modern Novelist
2010 0-7734-3824-6
This book analyzes the work of Iris Murdoch as a thinker concerned with conceptions of human good in contemporary Western cultures. Until now, Murdoch’s contributions to literature and the relationship between her philosophical work and her novels have received little comprehensive examination.

Life and Journey of Athenian Statesman Themistocles (524-460 B.c.?) as a Refugee in Persia
2003 0-7734-6809-9
In ancient Greece, Themistocles was universally acknowledged as the architecture of the Greek victory in the great Persian invasion. Some years later, political opinion turned against him in Athens and he was obliged to flee into exile and eventually wound up in the court of the king of Persia. This book examines the quite considerable body of evidence which survives about Themistocles’ journey and his life as a refugee in Persia, in order to disentangle fact from the abundant fiction.

Logos and Language in the Philosophy of Plotinus
1991 0-88946-288-7
Examines how Plotinus relates language not only to philosophical reasoning, but to noesis, the intuitive and comprehensive act of intellection, and how he relates language to Union with the One, a union "beyond speech and beyond noesis."

Lordship and Tradition in Barbarian Europe
1999 0-7734-8151-6
This book develops an hypothesis about the interaction of lordship and tradition - and about how such tradition was generated and propagated - among the peoples of barbarian Europe. It shows how orally transmitted tribal and dynastic historical tradition was crucial to the legitimization of political authority. It contributes to literary historical scholarship by showing how pre-Christian oral tradition was politically significant to early medieval aristocracies, thereby elucidating the social context in which texts like Beowulf originated and within which they must be interpreted. This first large-scale study of the subject draws on an extensive range of evidence relating to a variety of early Germanic and Celtic peoples.

Mythic Hero's Appearance in the Twelve Seasons of Nature: His Dramatic Action in Literature and Film
2012 0-7734-4082-8
The hero in literature and film is an expression of seasonal occurrence. His behavior exhibits, symbolically, the relationship of the sun to the earth in twelve phases. It begins at the March equinox and proceeds through the natural year. He assumes, then, twelve distinct characterizations. His conflicts and successes reflect the natural conditions of Early Spring, Mid-Spring, Late Spring, and so on. It creates an aesthetic development that primarily converts traditional mythic dynamics (based in agriculture) into story lines. His character in a given season suggests the dynamism of that season in a modern cultural context. As all works of literature and film either indicate or suggest a seasonal moment, all heroes as will be shown by reference to over a hundred novels, plays, short stories, and films, are characterized by the force of aesthetic sublimation in sympathy with their seasonal set.

Neoplatonism and the Arts
2002 0-7734-6985-0
This collection of essays explores the scope of the important relationships between the philosophical system of Neoplatonism and the arts in Italy. It was a pervasive way of thinking from 300 A. D. to 1700 A. D., and while antithetical to Christianity in the beginning, its ideas were quickly adopted by Christian theology, and Neoplatonism became a philosophical tool of the Catholic Church. The art and architecture produced in the service of the church is infused with Neoplatonic ideas. Part one of this study addresses cosmological and theoretical notions on Platonism and Neoplatonism. Part two focuses on the spiritual impact of Neoplatonism in Christian imagery depicted in paintings and manifested in religious structures. Part three probes the assimilation of Neoplatonic allegories in art, literature, and music. With illustrations.

New Interpretation of Sophocles' oedipus Tyrannus: in the Light and Darkness of Apollo
2014 0-7734-0057-5
This unique and fresh interpretation of an enigmatic classic provides a better understanding of the play’s religious and political undertones with an innovative and focused examination which proposes an earlier recognition than previously assumed of the whole truth by Jocasta. This will become an indispensable reference book for Classical scholars in this first ever English translation.

On Celestial Signs (de Ostentis)
2012 0-7734-4524-2
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

On Powers, or the Magistracies of the Roman State (de Magistratibus Republicae Romanae)
2012 0-7734-4526-9
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

On the Months (de Mensibus): Three Works of Ioannes Lydus
2012 0-7734-4522-6
The objective of this edition is textual and translational in nature. Since the works of Lydus are replete with Latin vocabulary, this book serves to bring it into English. The translation is faithful to the original and accurate so as to express Lydus’ intended thoughts. His repetitious use of certain linguistic expressions, although sometimes awkward to render to English, have been retained in order to capture his peculiar linguistic and seemingly crabbed style. The book tries to put his words into working English for the first time, and the translators were meticulous in trying to do a tight word for word translation based on the text, free from interpretation.

Origins of Epistemology in Early Greek Thought a Study of Psyche and Logos in Heraclitus
1994 0-7734-9122-8
This study contributes to scholarship in five ways. It provides a unified framework within which to view the development of Presocratic thought; it points out three aspects of Xenophanes' skepticism, and shows that (and how) Heraclitus responded to each; it summarizes key issues concerning psyche and logos, and attempts to settle certain long-standing debates concerning them; it argues that Heraclitus' concepts of psyche and logos resulted from his need to construct an epistemological theory in order to counter Xenophanean skepticism; and it make use of various traditional Greek assumptions such as the principles of "like-to-like," the analogy of microcosm and macrocosm, and the concepts of balance and measure as exemplified in the ideal of sophrosune. In doing so, it illustrates the usefulness and importance of an approach to the Presocratics which takes into account then-contemporary beliefs which may seem odd to our own time.

Outline History of Rome
2006 0-7734-5710-0
This book is a chronological account of the years and the events of the Roman Commonwealth from the founding of the city in 753 B.C. to the Code of Justinian in A.D. 534. The yearly listings are printed in bold numerals and serve as a rapid locator for the searcher. The annual headnotes contain citations that attach the entry to supporting vouchers in classical literature. Yet, the binding theme of this work is the universal magnetism of the Roman language. No age – whether the Regal Period of the kings or the Republican Period of the consuls or the Imperial Period of the emperors – stood outside the tidal draw of Lingus Latina. Its ready acceptance through the provinces of the Commonwealth came to rest on the incomparable simplicity of its alphabet. Today, this universal transport vehicle, Alphabetum Romanum, is seen in every city of the world. In less than 400 pages, this book opens up one of the most fascinating of all scrolls.

Palaces and Large Residences of the Hellenistic Age
1998 0-7734-8244-X
This study goes beyond the results of earlier scholarship by presenting synthetic examination of the architectural material, clarifying the nature of palaces and large residences in the Hellenistic world, identifying architectural forms most commonly found and examining their sources. With illustrations.

Philosophy of Eros and European Art
1996 0-7734-8872-3
This interdisciplinary study deals with the interaction between philosophy and the visual arts. It presents the long tradition of the theory of love and its interpretation in European art. The special focus is on the Neoplatonic school and its influence on Renaissance art, but the book also provides a view of the whole history of European art. This study, based on the synthesis of history and theory, involves a critical approach to contemporary theories of love and sexuality, including Herbert Marcuse, Julia Kristeva, and Michel Foucault. The book contains a number of illustrations.

Plato's Dialogues - The Dialogical Approach
1997 0-7734-8628-3
The essays in this volume were specially planned and solicited because of their various contributions to a dialogical reading of the Platonic dialogues. Emphasis on the dialogical is a way of advocating an approach that appreciates the dialogues in their witty humorousness, their irony, their literary richness and historical allusiveness. The work also deals ultimately with the question of the compatibility, or incompatibility of the dogmatic or doctrinal approach to the dialogues.

Plato’s Self-Corrective Development of the Concepts of Soul, Forms and Immortality in Three Arguments of the Phaedo
2000 0-7734-7950-3
Scholars agree that the proofs for immortality of the soul in Plato’s Phaedo are unconvincing. Many scholars think Plato was unaware of any flaws. This study argues both that the proofs are ultimately unconvincing and that Plato was aware of the problems. Only three of the arguments for immortality include a discussion of the forms? this study argues, first, that the view of forms, soul and immortality in each argument is internally consistent. Next, each argument contains three significantly different views of forms, soul and immortality. Third, each argument is a refinement of the previous view, rather than a radical rejection of it. Even the last argument in the Phaedo, however is inadequate. The Phaedo is shown as a truly dialectical philosophical conversation about the immortality of the soul.

Plato’s Socratic Philosophy
2002 0-7734-7138-3
This study is a radical reinterpretation of the dialogues in terms of appearance versus reality. It covers wholly or in part Gorgias, Charmides, Laches, Lysis, Meno, Symposium, Phaedrus, Protagorus, Euthydemus, Republic, Phaedo, Menexenus, and the Parmenides.

Plotinus and Freedom a Meditation on Enneads 6:8
1990 0-88946-312-3
Explicates Plotinus's doctrine of freedom by paying respectful attention to his thought, together with its background and underlying intentions.

Poetic Style of the Greek Poet Sappho: A Study in Word Playfulnessthe Poetic Style of the Greek Poet Sappho: A Study in Word Playfulness
2010 0-7734-3626-X
This book argues that Sappho’s style is characteristically playful, and that this is probably the best explanation for some problematic features of her text.

Poroi - A New Translation
2003 0-7734-6695-9
In Poroi, Xenophon examines the meaning of prosperity and its relationship to employment, consumption, and expenditure in a way that now one else would until John Maynard Keynes wrote The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money. The observations of Xenophon and Keynes agree on many points. This study strives to clarify Xenophon’s importance as an economic thinker and the originator of the study of macroeconomics. Because the only readily available English translation of Poroi is Marchant’s Loeb edition, it provides a contemporary and accessible rendering of the Greek into English. This critical edition also incorporates recent scholarship and remedies some difficulties in the critical apparatuses of earlier editions. Facing page translations.

Priscian of Caesarea's De Laude Anastasii Imperatoris Translation and Commentary
1991 0-7734-9772-2
Explores both the comparatively neglected genre of imperial Latin panegyric and an important piece of evidence for the reign of the Emperor Anastasius, under whom the eastern and western halves of the Mediterranean world became increasingly separate and distinct cultures.

Problem of Plato's Cratylus
2007 0-7734-5425-X
This works seeks to force classical scholars to think further and differently about the Cratylus and its importance in Plato’s corpus, as well as to open the eyes of scholars working on Wittgenstein, Barthes and Derrida regarding the debt they owe to that dialogue. The study begins by assessing Plato’s role in the developing consciousness, among Greek thinkers, of “language” as an entity for study, while also exploring the more specific issue of Plato’s part in developing formal grammatical awareness and terminology. Further, the work considers Plato’s concern as exemplified by the Cratylus for the reliability of language as an instrument of philosophy. Since philosophy in Plato’s mind is centered on seeking Truth and pursuing an ethical life the Cratylus focuses on how effective words are for seeking truth and defining ethics.

Prose Rhythm in Latin Literature of the Roman Empire - First Century B.c. to Fourth Century A.d
2003 0-7734-6667-3
This study provides a comprehensive assessment of the ancient and modern evidence on Latin prose rhythm in a single volume. Any student of ancient rhythmical style will find very useful the extended excursuses on the theories of Greek and Roman rhetoricians and literary critics, and will be well served by the detailed discussions and explanations of the complex methodologies crafted by German, French, Russian, Italian, British, and American scholars since 1881 to analyze prose rhythm.

Quest for Wisdom in Plato and Carl Jung: A Comparative Study of the Healers of the Soul
2008 0-7734-5177-3
This is an application of Jung to a reading of the texts of Plato and demonstrates how a psychoanalytic practice can provide a framework for textual analysis. This pursuit also reveals how the analysis of these thinkers has much to say about liberal arts education.

Reading of Apollonius Rhodius’ Argonautica - The Poetics of Uncertainty
2002 0-7734-7116-2


Scholarly Reconstruction of St. Paul and His Times the Historical Evidence
2002 0-7734-7279-7


Shakespeare After 9/11: How a Social Trauma Reshapes Interpretation
2011 0-7734-3730-4
This work assembles a composite picture of Shakespeare’s afterlives in media and cultural imagination. Each essay in this collection provides new insight about how our understanding of Shakespeare has changed after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Socrates, Lucretius, Camus - Two Philosophical Traditions on Death
2001 0-7734-7369-6
This monograph links reasons for attitudes toward death to reasons for different metaphysical positions on the human being and the place of the human being in the universe. Most recent discussions of death either place the topic directly in the context of nothing more than ethical considerations without reference to the deeper ontological or metaphysical issues, or place it in the context of Heideggerian or existentialist considerations. This essays goes deeper than the former and provides a broader context than the latter. The discussion is structured by the thought of Camus, providing a careful reading of both The Myth of Sisyphus and The Outsider. Examines his connection to both the empiricist tradition and Hume, Plotinus, Lucretius, Socrates, Aristotle, the Stoics, and into the modern period with Spinoza. Their metaphysical positions on death are fully laid out.

Superheroes and Greek Tragedy
2006 0-7734-5776-3
“A hero is someone who looks like a hero,” says film critic Robert Warshow, but in fact, we do not know who looks heroic to viewers other than ourselves. This study uses theories of affect and spectatorship to show how dramatic productions arouse pre-cognitive responses, such as pity and fear. These responses are tied to ideological frameworks: viewers root for Spiderman, but not for his arch-nemesis, the Green Goblin. In that case, affects arise from the value constructs of their cultures, and a comparison of heroes, modern films from Shane to Spiderman with stories of ancient Greek superheroes such as Antigone and Achilles, shows that each culture maintains a stereotype within which a range of responses to heroes can be defined. An ancient spectator, therefore, would not be concerned about whether Spiderman could save every innocent victim, for example, while a modern spectator does not admire Achilles when he demands respect before he saves his community. This study examines primary texts like the Iliad and Cryopaedia to set the viewing parameters of Athenian ideology, then considers how heroes, for example, like Oedipus and Iphigenia, might “look like heroes” to their original audience. This “affective hero,” unlike the structuralist hero, reflects the audience’s self-image back at itself and reveals surprising insights into culture.

Symbolism of Vanitas in the Arts, Literature, and Music
1993 0-88946-399-9
Original research on the symbolism of vanitas as seen in the Danse of Death, the treatment of hair, the use of mirrors, and the depiction of skulls. With illustrations.

Symposium of Xenophon of Athens: A New Critical Edition with a Facing-Page English Translation
2014 0-7734-4350-9
This work is a critical text of The Symposium, written by Xenophon of Athens in the fourth century B.C. Each page of Greek text is faced with a contemporary English translation which richly embodies the original meaning of the author.

Theme of Returning Home in Ancient Greek Literature: The nostos of the Epic Heroes
2009 0-7734-4720-2
This book is about nostos, the return home of a hero. Although the importance of this topic has long been recognized by scholars, this is the first full length book on nostos both across a range of tragedies and in the light of the diverse cultural background of the motif. It shows how the elements of Homer’s narrative were to be developed by later Greek poets, and particularly the fifth-century tragedians and the Hellenistic poets.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5847-6
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5858-1
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Tragedy and the Philosophical Life
2006 0-7734-5923-5
These books respond to Martha Nussbaum’s interpretation of Plato in The Fragility of Goodness: luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. The author focuses her arguments on three issues: 1) Plato’s views did not change as radically as Dr. Nussbaum claims; 2) Plato is not anti-tragic; and 3) Plato’s dialogues go beyond tragedy, both in their form and in their content, without being anti-tragic. These claims are supported in four ways: 1) by applying Aristotle’s criteria for tragedy as a literary genre to Plato’s texts; 2) by applying a definition of tragedy as a worldview to Plato’s texts; 3) by examining Plato’s texts from the perspective of the literary traditions of his day; and 4) by a close analysis of the text. These books present a unique view of the philosophical life as a path out of tragedy and a unique understanding of how the character of Socrates exemplifies that life. Part One is a summary of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and of current research on these particular issues in Plato. Part Two is the author’s own contribution to the debate. Part Three is a closer examination of Dr. Nussbaum’s view and exactly where the author and Dr. Nussbaum disagree.

Translation and Commentary on the Lectures on Greek Rhetoric by Pedro Nunes (1502-1578)
2004 0-7734-6506-5
This two-volume book contains an introduction to the rhetorical theories put forward by the most important ancient Greek rhetoricians, followed by a modern English translation of the Latin version of their commentaries in Hermogenes’ seminal work on stasis-theory, the basis for writing any sort of speech for a law-court or for public use. Rhetoric today is extremely important in public life, as any politician’s speech-writer knows, and the work by Syrianus, Sopater and Marcellinus translated in this book remain the foundations on which all theories of public speaking are built. When Pedro Nunes translated the original texts, no doubt from the recently published Aldine text, he was lecturing to the brightest young law students in Lisbon in the 16th century. It is unique in that in Europe at that time all other works on rhetoric were based on Cicero and Quintilian. The modern English translation will be of great use for students, as it will give them access to the basic theories of speech-writing, well exemplified with plenty of apposite quotations from leading Greek orators, especially Demosthenes, and from major events in Greek history. This version contains the original Latin as well as the English translation.

Translation of Arthur Ahlvers’ Zahl Und Klang Bei Platon/number and Sound in Plato
2002 0-7734-7167-7
This facing-page translation provides the English-speaking world of classical scholarship with access to a key text in the understanding of Plato’s views about the role of mathematics in the cosmos. It deals with interpretive issues surrounding Plato’s mathematically-based accounts, derived from Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans, of reproduction among the ruling class of the Republic, of terrestrial and celestial music, and of atomic stereometry. It indicates surprising ways in which these accounts are essentially connected. Ahlvers offers a re-analysis of Plato’s derivation of the nuptial number in Republic, and devotes much attention to the broader issues raised by Timaeus. It will be of interest not only to Plato scholars, but to scholars of medieval thought, and music.

Utopian Communities of the Ancient World: Idealistic Experiments of Pythagoras, the Essenes, Pachomius and Proclus
2010 0-7734-3736-3
This is the first comparative study of lived Utopian communities in antiquity. The examined communities provide examples of somewhat successful utopian experiments that belie the twentieth century notion that the application of utopian ideals must always lead to dystopia or not work at all.

Writing in Greek But Thinking in Aramaic: A Study of Vestigial Verbal Communication in the Gospels
2012 0-7734-4062-3
In this monograph the author investigates the syntactic construction found in the Semitic languages known as verbal coordination as it relates to the translation and therefore the interpretation of the scriptures. In the course of his analysis, the author also discusses grammaticalization that has occurred to translate the function of the word from Hebrew to Greek. According to the author, translations of this construction account for certain awkward expressions in the Greek Gospel texts, particularly Mark and John, because the writers were thinking in Semitic and writing in Greek. There are significant implications for Bible scholars, translators and linguists.

Xenophon on Hunting
2001 0-7734-7578-8
The Cynegeticus, probably written in the first half of the fourth century C.E., is a manual for hunters. Its author, Xenophon, was a disciple of Socrates, the able general who led ten thousand Greeks on a successful forced march from Mesopotamia to the Black Sea, as well as an historian and practical philosopher. In his book, he aims to acquaint the novice with not only the techniques but also the values of the hunter. The first chapter lauds the famous hunters of legend, the last two chapters discuss the moral value of hunting, and the middle books examine the techniques. He arranges his material to begin with the smallest game animal, the hare, proceeding through progressively larger prey, to end with a description of hunting as a preparation for war, in which one hunts the most dangerous game of all. This new edition of the Cynegeticus is an attempt to incorporate recent scholarship and at the same time provide a contemporary English rendering of Xenophon’s Greek in facing-page translation.

Xenophon’s cyropaedia: A Late Byzantine Recension with Facing Page English Translation (two Book Set)
2010 0-7734-3843-2
This edition of Cyropaedia includes the readings preferred in Byzantine times and those discarded to produce a full critical apparatus. The work provides scholars with a new text of the semi-historical life of the founder of the Persian Empire and insight into the methods of scholars from the last great Byzantine renaissance.