Was George Fox a Gnostic? An Examination of Foxian Theology From a Valentinian Gnostic Perspective

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The combined effect of observations made by John Owen (Puritan Vice-chancellor of Oxford University) in tracts published in 1655 and 1679 was that Quaker theology renewed aspects of Gnosticism, a theology interpreted by patristic commentators as Christian heresy. This monograph argues that George Fox’s theological message (and in particular, his interpretation of the concept of revelatory Light) incorporated a remarkably similar soteriology and realised eschatology to that found in Valentinian Christian Gnosticism.


“The twentieth century has seen a growth of scholarship in Quaker studies and the last twenty years in particular has seen a wealth of new and exciting thinking about Quakerism and its origins ... This is a book which rightly sits alongside the other scholarly attempts to better understand early Quakerism and which adds to the field enormously.” – Dr. Ben Pink Dandelion, University of Birmingham (UK)

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. Revelation
3. Perfection
4. Scripture, Baptism and Communion
5. Conclusion: The De-Gnosticising of Fox
Index Abbreviations

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