Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation of the Seven Trumpets of Revelation

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An innovative biblical study that focuses on the idea of social and ideological “markers” when interpreting the text surrounding the seven trumpets found in the Book of Revelation. It is the first study to give a detailed explanation of these trumpets and what they symbolize in Revelation.


“… strategic use of symbol marker, social marker, and ideological marker, then, are substantive contributions to SR analysis and interpretation that set the stage for additional, creative analysis and interpretation.” –Prof. Vernon K. Robbins, Emory University

"The author has explained socio-rhetorical interpretation methodology to Revelations very well."

-Prof. Alan S. Bandy,
Oklahoma Baptist University

"Demonstrates a wide knowledge of the relevant literature, including the text of Revelation itself in its original language."

-Dr. Peter Carrell,
Theology House, Christchurch

Table of Contents



List of Abbreviations


Chapter 1: Introduction

Purpose of this Study

Literature Review

An Introduction to the Use of the Trumpet in the OT, Second Temple, Greco-Roman and NT Literature

The Need for this Study

Interpretive Analytic

The Apocalyptic Rhetorolect

The Implied Reader, Implied Author, and Authorial Audience

The Design of this Study

Chapter 2: Inner Texture

Repetitive Texture

Progressive Texture

Open-Middle-Closing Texture

Narrational Texture

Chapter 3: Intertexture and Intratexture

Cultural Intertexture

Chapter 4: Social and Cultural Texture

Social Markers

Specific Social Topics

Common Social and Cultural Topics

Final Cultural Categories


Chapter 5: Ideological Texture

Ideological Markers

Trumpets as Instruments of Power and Destruction


Chapter 6: Sacred Texture

The Role of Divine Meetings

The Cosmic Conflict Tradition

The Value of the Markers

Chapter 7: Summary and Conclusions


Internet Sources


Other Religion-Christianity-Scripture, New Testament Books