History and Development of Psychoanalysis in Mexico. The Conquista and Latin American Identity

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This work provides a history of psychoanalysis in Mexico and discusses the effects of culture, language and history on the development and application of psychoanalysis in different milieus.


“…the social studies and history of ideas should be understood in a way that resembles what Alexander von Humboldt has found out in natural sciences: the growth of certain plants is related to the height of the slope of the Chimborazo volcano they are growing on. The author achieves that in psychoanalysis by considering it a cultural product interrelated to other linguistic areas.”-Prof. Gabriel Vargas Lozano, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa

“The [author] conceives psychoanalysis above all as the serious criticism of social events and not only as a therapy method. He awakens a hope that derives from the augmentation of consciousness. The [author) just like his principal teacher Freud, does not elude social problems: violence, disastrous repetitions that keep occurring throughout history. At the same time, Páramo Ortega demands a lot from the analyst. He is a critic of psychoanalysis from the inside.” Dr. Paul Parin, Founder, Psychoanalytische Seminar of Zürich

Table of Contents

Foreword by Hannes Stubbe


Chapter 1 History and Development of Psychoanalysis in Mexico

Freud’s Late Reception in Mexico – a Hypothesis
Two Pioneers: Erich Fromm and Santiago Ramírez
Catholicism and Psychoanalysis: the Lemercier case – from about 1960 until 1970
The Immigrants: from 1974 to the Present
Psychoanalytic Literature
Final Notes
Chapter 2 Is There Such a Thing as a Favorable or Unfavorable Cultural Milieu for the Development of Psychoanalysis? – A Comparative Look at Two Worlds

Multilinguism as an Especially Valuable Culture Medium
Psychoanalysis and the German Language
Acting and Thinking from the Opposition as a Favorable Factor
Psychoanalytic Institutions: Conservation of Already Conquered Terrain or Defense Mechanism?
Historical Notes on the Latin American Continent with Particular Emphasis on Mexico
Illiteracy as an Unfavorable Factor for any Possible Enlightenment
A Glance at Psychoanalytic Practice on a Mexican Couch
A Brief Reference to Macrosocial and Microsocial Relations (Caruso)
A Small Excursus on Petrarch and Freud: a Brief Note on an Imaginary Path

Chapter 3 The Trauma that unites us – some Thoughts about the Conquista and Latin American Identity

Basic Hypothesis
The Concept of Trauma
The Conquista: the Destruction of Identity
Identity Problems in General
The Identification with the Aggressor
The European Reaction to the ‘Discovery’
Religion and Language as the Instruments of Subjugation
The Religious Vindication of the Conquista
Can we speak of a Collective Trauma?
The Collective Trauma: some Psychoanalytic Contributions
Historical Conscience and Similar Concepts
Consequences and Scars
The “Latin American Character”
The Vicious Circle of Underdevelopment


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