About the author: Dr. Magnus O. Bassey received his Ed.D in Social and Philosophical foundations of Education from Rutgers University. Dr. Bassey is an Associate Professor in the Department of Secondary Education and Youth Services at Queens College, The City University of New York. He is the author of Malcolm X: The Seeker of Justice; Western Education and Political Domination in Africa: A Study in Critical and Dialogical Pedagogy and Missionary Rivalry and Educational Expansion in Nigeria, 1885-1945. Dr. Bassey has also authored numerous academic articles including, Malcolm X: Islam and African American Self-consciousness. His works have appeared in The Journal of Negro Education, The Western Journal of Black Studies, Educational Foundations, The Educational Forum, Dialogue and Alliance and Educational Change.
2005 0-7734-6281-3 This book argues that Malcolm X told African Americans to affirm their blooming sense of self and to assert themselves in their own uniqueness. However, he realized that the first route to African American affirmation of self was to awaken black self-consciousness and he therefore called for black wide-awakeness. The book concludes that "Malcolm X's call for a psychological return to Africa through a process of historical reconstruction was aimed at overthrowing the enslavement of African American thought and thereby setting African Americans on the path to freedom and human dignity."
1999 0-7734-8153-2 Evidence abounds in the research literature to show that wherever the Protestant and Catholic missionaries met in Africa, opposition, antagonism and rivalry flared between them. In Nigeria, missionary rivalry was even more intense. Education was an essential part of their ‘civilizing' mission because it was a way of winning converts, training Nigerian workers and catechists, and creating a Nigerian middle class. However, the rapid expansion of education, particularly in southern Nigeria, was actually the accidental outcome of missionary rivalry rather than the result of an altruistic policy to provide expanded educational opportunities for the Nigerian populace.