Subject Area: Patristics & Early Christianity

An Exegesis of Apostasy Embedded in John’s Narratives of Peter and Judas: Against the Synoptic Parallels
2004 0-7734-6404-2
This study of apostasy in the Johannine writings contributes to filling in the vacuum of scholarship regarding apostasy in the New Testament. The perennial debate between the Arminians and Calvinists over the question has been based on their respective systematic theological presupposition whether it emphasizes freedom of human will or God’s predestination. This study serves to show how John would have understood them in his historical context, and thus affirms a well-known hermeneutic principle that a historical reconstruction must be born out from within the text rather than by imposing the interpreter’s own frame of presuppositions.

Ancient Jewish-Christian Dialogues: Athanasius and Zacchaeus, Simon and Theophilus, Timothy and Aquila. Introductions, Texts and Translations
2005 0-7734-6188-4
This work provides the text and translations of three ancient Jewish – Christian dialogues: The Dialogue of Athanasius and Zacchaeus (Greek, 4th c.); The Dialogue of Simon and Theophilus (Latin, 5th c.); and The Dialogue of Timothy and Aquila (Greek, 6th c.. This is the first published translation of each of these texts. An introduction discusses the context of the dialogues in the “Contra Judaeos” literature of the early Church and also explores the question of whether or not they represent any actual discussion between Jews and Christians, and also what purposes these dialogues served. Careful attention has been paid to the dialogues’ use of the Bible, especially the Old Testament, in furthering the discussion about the Messiah. To this end, a Comprehensive Spiritual Index encourages greater comparative study of these dialogues. It is the translator’s purpose to expose these works, which have been the concern of a small circle of focused scholars, to a wider scholarly audience and to encourage greater study of them and their role in the history of Jewish-Christian relations.

Augustine and the Making of a Christian Literature Classical Tradition and Augustinian Aesthetics
1995 0-7734-8904-5
This study examines the relationship between pre-Christian and Augustinian aesthetics as it emerges in four of Augustine's major works: de Musica, Confessions, de Doctrina Christiana, and de Civitate Dei. It places these treatises against the historical circumstances in which each was written, and notes their unusual propositions against which one can understand the development of early Christian literary theory. It considers at length how Augustine modifies secular aesthetics to satisfy the needs of the emerging Church, the role of truth and its relation to literary invention, the place of the self and its relation to community, and the evolution of early secular allegory.

Augustine and the Phenomenological Question of Time / Augustinus Und Die PhÄnomeologische Frage Nach Der Zeit
2008 0-7734-5131-5
In this work F.-W. von Herrmann, Professor Emeritus of Freiburg Universität im Breisgau, demonstrates the direct influence of Augustine of Hippo on the thought of Husserl and Heidegger. The importance of the translation lies in its presentation of Augustine as a phenomenological thinker on the question of time to an audience unaware of his influence on the contemporary age.

Augustine on Music an Interdisciplinary Collection of Essays
1988 0-88946-431-6
An important interdisciplinary study of some of the concepts central to Augustine's philosophy of art, largely ignored in previous works.

Bibliography on Temples of the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean World Arranged by Subject and Author
1991 0-7734-9775-7
This bibliography cites works that treat archaeological and literary evidence that bear on the layout, design, and physical accoutrements of the temples of Israel, Egypt, Mesopotamia, as well as the subsequent temple systems which belonged to the Greco-Roman world. In addition, it treats certain features of the temple, such as the role of the priesthood in the operation of the temple, the sacred vestments of the priests, sacrifice and other priestly rituals, the cosmic associations of the temple, and the temple as the locus of kingly authority and the site of his coronation. The bibliography is divided into specific categories, such as Temples of Jerusalem, Temples of Egypt, Priesthood, Sacrifice, and others. Within each of these categories the relevant bibliography is listed alphabetically by author.

Bishops as Successors to the Apostles According to John Chrysostom: Ecclesiastical Authority in the Early Church
2008 0-7734-4977-9
An analysis of St. John Chrysostom’s writings, this work provides unique insight into early Church authority and leadership by charting the evolution of the role of the bishop.

Blickling Spirituality and the Old English Vernacular Homily
1989 0-88946-315-8
A study of the 10th-century Blickling homiliary, one of the most important and least-studied collections of Latin / Anglo-Saxon sermon literature.

Bobbio Missal 700 A. D.
2010 0-7734-1351-0
This study examines the basis for the union between the Latin language and Christianity. In the presentation of the case, 100 manuscript pages were selected from the oldest complete Latin Mass Book, the 7th century document known as The Bobbio Misal. A photo reproduction of each of the 100 folio pages discussed is presented across from a modern typeface transcription with a English translation at the bottom of the page.

Christological and Rhetorical Properties of 1 Peter
2001 0-7734-7632-6
The hallmark of the composition of 1 Peter is the careful weaving of many types of source material into a tapestry of reassurance. The Christological testimony of 1 Peter is advanced primarily by the use of traditional deposits which have been selected, correlated and arranged by a sufferings/glories pattern derived from the Servant Song of Isaiah 53. They are best seen as a connected series, illumined by the Old Testament background and set in place as hymn-like sections which inspire the obedience and faithful witness required by the parenetic sections which follow. Exodus imagery, viewed through the prism of Deutero-Isaiah’s adaptation of it in Isaiah 53-54, is reapplied in the exhortations of 1 Peter. Further collection of evidence reveals the 1 Peter’s use of Deutero-Isaiah goes well beyond what has been recognized up to now.

Christology of John Chrysostom
1997 0-7734-2272-2
The considerable corpus of Chrysostom's writings and homilies gives evidence of the tensions and debates in late fourth and early fifth century Christian thought about the person of Christ. These interpretations deal with the completeness, integrity and relationship of the divine and human natures of Christ. This volume maintains that although Chrysostom's exegetical method is essentially the same as other theologians from Antioch, his underlying theological perspective of Christ is closer to the Alexandrian emphasis on one divine subject of the incarnate life of Christ. The method used is the examination of the nearly five hundred homilies and homiletical commentaries on the books of the New Testament Chrysostom treated, and his polemical homilies against the Neo-Arians.

Churches of the Restoration a Study in Origins
1994 0-7734-9843-5
In western church history, the movement which sought to go further than the Protestant Reformation has been called both the "Radical Reformation" and the "Free Church", as distinct from the national churches, such as the Church of England. They demanded a restoration of the "primitive church" reflected in the New Testament. This movement emerged in seven major branches: Pietists, Anabaptists, Brethren, Puritans, Methodists, Christians (Disciples), and Pentecostals. Each of these claimed to be nearer the primitive church than the others. In this research, the claim of each is compared with the New Testament for appraisal and evaluation. The eighth chapter concentrates on the churches reflected in the New Testament (cf. Minear, Aune).

Citations and Allusions to Jewish Scripture in Early Christian and Jewish Writings Through 180 C. E.
1992 0-7734-9430-8
This comprehensive research tool provides a time-saving, complete access to multiple examples of exegesis of Old Testament texts which were of greatest interest to New Testament authors. Jewish pseudepigrapha, Jewish hellenistic writings, the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Apostolic Fathers, Justin Martyr, and many other early Christian writers are included. This index collects side by side those instances in which Old Testament citations and allusions occurring in the New Testament are also quoted or alluded to in other Jewish and Christian literature up to 180 C.E.. An invaluable aid to scholars interested in the origins of Christianity, comparative religion, the history of exegesis, and the history of textual transmission.

Clement of Alexandria’s Reinterpretation of Divine Providence: The Christianization of the Hellenistic Idea of pronoia
2008 0-7734-5036-X
This work examines the ways in which the early Christian author, Clement of Alexandria, was able to creatively synthesize disparate Biblical, Hellenistic Jewish, Platonic and Stoic understandings of the concept of divine providence. After an initial look at Clement’s socio-historical environment, the study focuses on specific conceptual development of providence and how this term was utilized and understood in its respective milieux.

Clement's Use of Aristotle the Aristotelian Contribution to Clement of Alexandria's Refutation of Gnosticism
1977 0-88946-984-9


Comparison Between a King and a Monk / Against the Opponents of the Monastic Life. Two Treatises
1989 0-88946-613-0
The introduction and notes provide information on Chrysostom's life before his ordination and represent the first major study of these early ascetical treatises in English.

Comparison of Greek Words in Philo and the New Testament
2003 0-7734-6774-2
This volume presents a complete computer-generated comparison of the Greek New Testament and the extant Greek writings of Philo of Alexandria. It is a statistical counting and registration of all common words in these writings. It is based upon the database gathered in connection with the Norwegian Philo Concordance Project, headed by Prof. Peder Borgen. This list will be useful for all New Testament scholars interested in the Jewish and Greco-Roman background of the New Testament.

Correspondence Between Jerome and Augustine a Translation with Introduction and Notes
1991 0-88946-599-1
This new translation into English of the extant correspondence between St. Jerome at Bethlehem and St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, is the first to present these letters, written during the years 394-419 AD, in chronological order in one volume. This volume also contains explanatory notes for each of their seventeen letters, as well as two letters from Jerome and Augustine relating to their correspondence and an introduction discussing the main themes with which their correspondence deals: the relative merits of the Latin version of the Bible from the Septuagint and Jerome's new translation from the Hebrew Old Testament, the authority of Scripture, and the problem of the origin of the human soul. The letters are illuminating for the history of the period when Christians had to combat many heretical movements as well as paganism. On a more personal level, the correspondence also traces the vicissitudes of the friendship between Jerome and Augustine, the development was hindered by the practical problems involved in sending letters long distances and by Jerome's characteristic unwillingness to accept any criticism.

Cult of Isis in the Roman Empire
2002 0-7734-6894-3
This first half of this study examines the chief characteristics of the Isis cult - the goddess herself, her mythology, variegated attributes, appeal, initiation and cultic practices, priests and priestesses, and calendrical observances. Part Two is an historical survey of the cult's progress and setbacks from the cult's introduction into Italy through the reign of Commodus in the late second century C. E. An epilogue takes the story up to its suppression by the Christianizing state. This will be useful work for scholars of religion in the classical world and comparative religion, as well as for those in Roman history and civilization.

Demonology of the Early Christian World
1984 0-88946-703-X
A collection of five lectures which provide a much-needed study of the demonic in New Testament literature and thought, with useful summaries of demonology in the Greek and Jewish literature of that era.

Early Jewish and Christian Memories of Moses’ Wives: Exogamist Marriage and Ethnic Identity
2005 0-7734-6032-2
This book “frames” the appearances of Moses’ wives in Israel’s story and in the interpretive literature of Jews and Christians. Their responses to the account of Zipporah and the Cushite in the Scriptures reveal their views on circumcision, exogamy, monogamy, and even chastity, for an exegetical motif emerged that Moses “withdrew” from his wife after he became a prophet for God.

Zipporah enters the script of Exodus as Moses’ wife, a foreign woman who performed the ritual that marked male Jews as God’s covenant partners and members of God’s people. Zipporah is one of three named circumcisers in the Jewish Scriptures, joining Abraham and Joshua. By circumcising her son, she made a way for the deliverance of Israel from the bondage of Egypt. Like Abraham, she took a knife to her son, not to slay him, but to save his – or his or his father’s – life. The Torah also mentions Moses’ marriage to a Cushite woman – another outsider, which the priestly and prophetic leadership of Israel – Miriam and Aaron – disparaged, but which the LORD affirmed. Like other outsiders in the Bible, Moses’ foreign wives are featured and celebrated to combat trends toward separatism and exclusivism that emerged among post-exilic Jews.

However, the early interpreters of the Scriptures were not concerned with the social dynamics of Persian period Yehud or the tensions between Second Temple scribes and redactors. Early Jews and Christian sages had their own agendas for Zipporah and the Cushite and used their stories to influence their constituencies regarding marriage, procreation and sexual renunciation, as well as circumcision and baptism. Thus, this project traces the exegetical trajectories of Jews and Christians along these lines.

Encounter Between Seneca and Christianity
2002 0-7734-6996-6


English Translation and Commentary on Origo Constantini Imperatoris/ How Constantine Became Emperor (the Anonymus Valesianus: Pars Prior) Together with a Critical Textual Analysis of the Later Christian Interpretations
2015 1-4955-0283-X
An inspiring new addition to the translated literature on the Constantine era. This work appeals to a broad audience and is a godsend to scholars and students interested in the historical biography of Constantine the Great and the correlating studies of late antiquity and early Christianity.

Epistle of Jude as Expounded by the Fathers - Clement of Alexandria, Didymus of Alexandria, the Scholia of Cramer’s Caterna, Pseudo-Oecumenius, and Bede
2001 0-7734-7402-1
This work provides in English translation what survives of commentary upon the Epistle of Jude from the first millennium of the Christian church. Five texts feature: the relevant portion of Clement of Alexandria’s Hypotyposes, and the commentaries of Didymus (the Blind) of Alexandria, Pseudo-Oecumenius, and the Venerable Bede. With these is included the scholia, extracts from other no longer extant works, published by Dean Cramer in his catena of the Greek Fathers on Jude. Each translated text is provided with notes, and the whole is prefaced by two chapters which place these commentators in their historical context and compare their handling of the material.

Eucharistia in Philo
1983 0-88946-601-7
A careful study of eucharistia (`thanksgiving') and related words as used by one of the greatest Jewish exegetes, mystics, and apologists, Philo (c. 20 b.c. - c. 50 a.d.).

Eusebius of Caesarea's Imperial Theology and the Politics of the Iconoclastic Controversy
2013 0-7734-4476-9
The Byzantine Iconoclastic controversy (ca. 726-843) was a debate over the legitimacy of the liturgical use of images. It had important political and theological implications, which modern scholarship generally tends to treat unconnectedly. Professor Ba? successfully explicates the relationship between the political and theological dimensions of the controversy in this fascinating book.

Fulgentius of Ruspe on the Saving Will of God: The Development of a Sixth-Century African Bishop’s Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2:4 During the Semi-Pelagian Controversy
2009 0-7734-4935-3
This study offers a solution to the problem of conflicting data on the extent of God’s saving will in the writings of an eminent sixth-century North African bishop, Fulgentius of Ruspe. It demonstrates that over time Fulgentius changed his opinion on the issue.

Function of Exodus Motifs in Biblical Narratives Theological Didactic Drama
2002 0-7734-6994-X


God, Immortality and Freedom of the Will According to the Church Fathers
2006 0-7734-5640-6
The purpose of this study is to offer the “philosophy” of the Greek and Latin Fathers without the parochial biases of Western scholarship. From the Latin Middle Ages, when the Masters or Scholastics ruled the intellectual world of the occident, until the present day, the work of the Fathers has been characterized as a synthesis of Christian and Hellenic thought, not unlike the philosophical theology of Thomas Aquinas, a synthesis anticipated by Augustine of Hippo, who, along with several other famous Christian writers (Tatian, Clement and Origen of Alexandria, Tertullian, etc.) cannot be numbered among the Fathers without negating the consensus patrum. In other words, we must look upon the Greek and Latin Fathers as holy men, sharing a common faith, fellows of the same theological tradition, witnesses to, not creators of, “the Faith once delivered to the saints.” To demonstrate this thesis, this book examines not only the patristic conception of philosophy, but also its treatment of those three grand philosophical problems (if we may believe Immanuel Kant) in terms of their “philosophy”: God, immortality and freedom of the will. This work will appeal to scholars of church history and patrology.

Gospel of Matthew with Patristic Commentaries
1999 0-7734-8228-8
This translation of The Gospel of Matthew with its Greek and English parallel text format and appendix of Patristic Commentary is intended to offer the reader a glimpse into the past of the church – its first seven centuries, to be exact – the Apostolic, Subapostolic, and Patristic periods, which attract Christians of all persuasions like a lodestone.

Grace and Human Freedom According to St. Gregory of Nyssa
1992 0-7734-9542-8
This is a major study of Gregory of Nyssa's thought, which has been unduly neglected and underestimated by scholars. The relationship between grace and freedom is among the more significant focal points in Christian theological reflection, and Gregory of Nyssa's thought in this area is rich and provides abundant material for detailed analysis of the Eastern alternative. This study examines his view of grace and freedom within his own historical setting, and particularly in the context of his thought as a whole. It is a significant new analysis of centithetical thinking, which is important in much patristic and Byzantine theology.

Grace of God in Jewish Tradition
1993 0-7734-1932-2


Hermeneutics of Medieval Jewish Thought
2007 0-7734-5288-5
This study examines the linguistic codes in Rashi’s commentaries on the Pentateuch and Talmud, and Nachmanide’s commentary on the Torah to elucidate their goals and concepts. Through analysis of the writing characteristics and methodological foundations of both commentators, it is possible to discern their distinct approaches and attitudes toward a multiplicity of categories.

Heterodoxy Within Second-Temple Judaism and Sectarian Diversity Within the Early Church: A Correlative Study
2008 0-7734-4938-8
This work overturns previously accepted theories about the rise of the first- century Church by arguing that it maintained a religious culture of diversity because of its roots in Judaism.

Iberian Popular Religion 600 BC to 700 AD
1985 0-88946-809-5
Reconstructs the life, culture, and religious practices of the peasants of this period and the Catholic Church's expansion of the limits of orthodoxy to incorporate elements of peasant religiosity.

Idea of Universal History From Hellenistic Philosophy to Early Christian Historiography
1996 0-7734-8787-5
This study excavates the Hellenistic tradition of history-writing, to interpret and situate the various artifacts which it has left behind. This in turn provides the context for a much more Hellenistic account of the Christian Eusebius, and his own historiography, than has yet been given. The book begins with the development of universal history, and the Peripatetic influence on historiography following Aristotle's methodological criticisms: the legacy of this is followed through to Diodorus, Josephus and Plutarch who, it is argued, form the major background to the development of Christian history-writing. The impact of Greek historiography on early Christian thought is every bit as great as that of Greek philosophy, and in drawing a line from Aristotle to Eusebius, Mortley illuminates the trail which the historical tradition of the period probably took.

Identity of Anselm's Proslogion Argument for the Existence of God with the Via Quarta of Thomas Aquinas
1990 0-88946-276-3
Begins by generally stating the relation between Anselm and Aquinas in arguing for the existence of God, then surveys the history of the tradition of interpretation of Anselm's argument and the Fourth Way of Aquinas, subsequently analyzing them comparatively to show the essential identity between the two arguments. Discusses Thomas Aquinas' supposed rejection of Anselm's Proslogion argument and addresses the viability of the Anselmian-Thomistic argument from degrees of perfection today.

Identity of the True Believer in the Sermons of Augustine of Hippo a Dimension of His Christian Anthropology
1998 0-7734-2227-7
Augustine's Sermones ad populum reveal the active dimension of his Christian anthropology. There he answers the questions "Who is the true believer?" by tracing a path through the heart. Exploration of Augustine's understanding of the term cor shows that he regards the heart as the deepest center of personal identity, and offers further insight into the unity of flesh and spirit. By uniting his understanding of the heart to his thoughts on baptismal identity, this study contributes to a fuller appreciation of the richness, vibrancy and depth of Augustine's insights into the human person which the sermons show in a unique way.

Irenaeus, the Valentinian Gnostics, and the Kingdom of God (a.h. Book V) the Debate About 1 Corinthians 15:50
1992 0-7734-2352-4
By focusing upon Irenaeus' defense of the Catholic or Orthodox position, this volume provides a needed balance to the mass of Gnostic scholarship produced since the publication of the Nag Hammadi texts. This is a fresh look, sympathetic but critical, at Irenaeus' development of an anti-gnostic position, calling attention to the importance of his biblical interpretation, especially of Paul's letters. It also adds an important supplement to the study of a crucial theological theme: the Kingdom of God, showing that the early church, or at least Irenaeus, continued to preach about the "kingdom of God" as a theological theme of first importance.

Jerome, Chrysostom, and Friends Essays and Translations
1982 0-88946-548-7
Women figured large in the lives of the two celibates Jerome and John Chrysostom, and in this study Clark investigates friendship between the sexes in the early Church. Includes chapters on Chrysostom's attitude toward women; friendship between the sexes in pagan thought; and friendship between the sexes in early Christian theory and practice. Clark proposes that there was within patristic Christianity an elevation of status for celibate women, but not for married ones.

John Chrysostom - on Virginity. Against Remarriage
1982 0-88946-543-6
The first English translation of these treatises. Enhanced by Elizabeth Clark's superb introduction, which sets forth the context of the treatises and makes an extended comparison between John's teaching and that of Paul in 1 Corinthians.

Karlstadt as the Father of the Baptist Movements the Emergence of Lay Protestantism
1993 0-7734-9357-3
Presents a revolutionary appraisal of the origins of lay Protestantism in the Radical Reformation. Karlstadt's creative contributions are analysed, and the traditional picture of Karlstadt as an epigone of Luther, challenging his mentor out of spite, are discarded. Among the many surprises this book offers are the highly probably authorship by Karlstadt of most of Felix Mantz's Manifest to the Council of Zurich; the fact that the first Baptists of Zurich financially supported the printing of Karlstadt's treatises on the Lord's Supper, the contacts between Karlstadt and Melchior Hoffman; and finally the contacts between John Smyth and Thomas Murton with Mennonites in Amsterdam. The early history of the Reformation in Estonia, Latvia, and Sweden is newly and radically reinterpreted, and made available in English for the first time. (Reprint)

Leadership in 1 Corinthians: A Case Study in Paul's Ecclesiology
2003 0-7734-6757-2
This study proposes that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians in part to encourage the church as a whole to take responsibility for its own leadership. This monograph contributes to three current discussions in scholarly circles: socio-historical scholars of Greco-Roman Corinth have been studying the impact social phenomena such as patronage and a fashionable interest in competitive rhetoric might have had on the Corinthians’ conception of leadership; theological investigators have focused on Paul’s response to the church members’ zeal for eschatology and spiritual gifts; and a third group has examined Paul and politics.

Major Events in Luke's Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles: Passages that are Critical to the Meaning of Other Passages and / or Luke's Entire Work
2014 0-7734-4335-8
The purpose of this present study is to explore and interpret ten passages in Luke-Acts that in my years of study and teaching have emerged for me as more important than others in Luke’s work because their significance extends far beyond their present context to affect the meaning of many other passages.
A cogent, compelling, precise, scholarly, insightful and informative exegetes on the Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles drawing certain ‘moments’ or parts, that are of extraordinary significance to Luke-Acts as a whole; exploring the meaning of each of these elements beyond its context in the narrative to imbue with meaning other parts of Luke-Acts and often the whole.


Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire: A Study of Augustine’s contra Adimantum
2009 0-7734-4755-5
The book is the first monograph-length study of Augustine’s Contra Adimantum. The work demonstrates that, despite previous neglect of the work by Patristic scholars, a full appreciation of Augustine’s reaction to the Manichaean exegesis of the Bible is absolutely essential in understanding the development of Augustine’s early theology.

Martyrdom According to John Chrysostom to Live is Christ, to Die is Gain
1997 0-7734-2290-0
This unique contribution to the field of Chrysostomian studies is the first undertaking of a nearly exhaustive systematic and objective analysis of Chrysostom's understanding of Christian martyrdom from the original Greek sources. The text adds insight into the powerful, biblically founded and eloquent theology of the late fourth/early fifth century Father of the Church concerning Jesus Christ as the pivotal point of salvation history. Around that center emerge countless martyrs who imitate Christ's Martyrdom on the Cross either by death, asceticism, or other means. The section on holy relics carries special significance for the liturgical scholar. Through Chrysostom's eyes, the manuscript presents an original, objective view on martyrdom as understood by the early Church. A biographical sketch of Chrysostom appears in Appendix A, and a list of his writings on martyrdom in Appendix B.

Middle English Chronicle of the First Crusade - The Caxton Eracles
2001 0-7734-7425-0
The Eracles text, a condensed Crusader chronicle driving from William of Tyre’s A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, concerns the march to and campaigning in the Holy Land, focusing on the suffering and heroism of the First Crusaders as they sought to gain glory for God and establish a Christian state in a distant and misunderstood environment. In 1481, William Caxton produced a Middle English translation of this text, which he named A Boke Intituled Eracles, or Godeffroy of Boloyne. This two-volume set is the first treatment of Caxton’s work in over a century. It is the first ever modern English translation of the work, providing an easily accessible translation combined with contextual and critical information. It examines two aspects of the Eracles chronicle. First, the book illuminates the history of the text by referring to the Latin and French ancestors of Caxton’s Eracles, as well as investigating Caxton’s methods, abilities and motivations. Previous treatments of the chronicle are examined, correcting discrepancies and providing alternative interpretations. Second, the book investigates the history in the text by using the latest research to further contextualize and clarify the military events described. The author has developed a striking new concept of understanding the interpersonal relationships between the Crusaders, allowing the reader to perceive the inner workings of the Crusade itself.

Middle English Chronicle of the First Crusade - The Caxton Eracles Volume 2
2001 0-7734-7427-7
The Eracles text, a condensed Crusader chronicle driving from William of Tyre’s A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, concerns the march to and campaigning in the Holy Land, focusing on the suffering and heroism of the First Crusaders as they sought to gain glory for God and establish a Christian state in a distant and misunderstood environment. In 1481, William Caxton produced a Middle English translation of this text, which he named A Boke Intituled Eracles, or Godeffroy of Boloyne. This two-volume set is the first treatment of Caxton’s work in over a century. It is the first ever modern English translation of the work, providing an easily accessible translation combined with contextual and critical information. It examines two aspects of the Eracles chronicle. First, the book illuminates the history of the text by referring to the Latin and French ancestors of Caxton’s Eracles, as well as investigating Caxton’s methods, abilities and motivations. Previous treatments of the chronicle are examined, correcting discrepancies and providing alternative interpretations. Second, the book investigates the history in the text by using the latest research to further contextualize and clarify the military events described. The author has developed a striking new concept of understanding the interpersonal relationships between the Crusaders, allowing the reader to perceive the inner workings of the Crusade itself.

Nicholas of Cusa on Interreligious Harmony Text, Concordance and Translation of De Pace Fidei
1991 0-88946-736-6
The Latin original along with an English translation of Nicholas of Cusa's De Pace Fidei, a dialogue he wrote in reaction to the fall of Constantinople and to the general problem of interreligious strife. Supplemented by substantial annotation and commentary, concordance to the Latin text, and annotated bibliography. Latin and corresponding English translation on facing pages.

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs. Vol. 1
2006 0-7734-5756-9
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs. Vol. 2
2006 0-7734-5705-4
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

People of Curial Avignon: A Critical Edition of the liber Divisionis and the of Notre Dame La Majour
2009 0-7734-4680-X
This work cross-references the persons mentioned in each document with the remaining documents and other biographical resources and offers a critical analysis of all three. The diplomatic analysis challenges many of Bernard Guillemain's conclusions regarding the documents’ dates and purposes, and these challenges can only enhance our understanding of the Avignonese population during the late fourteenth century.

Pride According to Gregory the Great a Study of the Moralia
1986 0-88946-606-8
Examines the ethical teachings of Gregory the Great and demonstrates the degree of continuity in medieval theology by discussing the influence of Augustine on Gregory and then Gregory on Thomas Aquinas.

Primer on the Language Theory of St. Augustine the Literal Level
1997 0-7734-2230-7
This study demonstrates that, of the four levels of interpretation associated with analysis of medieval literature, the literal level is, contrary to accepted opinion, the most sophisticated and difficult for the modern mind to understand. It combines considerations currently taken up under the headings of linguistics, semantics, epistemology, aesthetics, grammar, logic and theology. This study, by a close reading of the works, traces the connections between Augustine's thought and issues in modern composition, linguistics, and language theory, establishing that the basic Christian conception - Augustine's conception - of literacy in the tradition of the liberal arts has been lost to the modern age.

Principles of Patristic Exegesis Romans 9-11 in Origen, John Chrysostom, and Augustine
1983 0-88946-602-5
Concentrates on the precise connection of Rom. 9-11 with the first eight chapters of Paul's letter by surveying the ways in which Pauline exegesis has been understood and represented in postpastristic exegesis.

Question of Meter in Biblical Hebrew Poetry
2001 0-7734-7574-5
This study provides three important contributions to the study of biblical Hebrew poetry: first, it surveys scholars of non-biblical, metrical poetry to ascertain how meter is defined in the field of literary criticism; second, it categorizes and critiques all significant proposals regarding meter in biblical Hebrew poetry from the time of Philo to the present; finally, it tests the most viable of the proposals against a large sample of poetic texts from the Hebrew Bible. The author generates statistical profiles for the texs and compares them with similar profiles from two categories of control data: metrical poetic texts from outside the biblical Hebrew tradition (Shakespearean sonnets, Beowulf, and four Japanese haiku) and prose texts from within the Hebrew Bible. The study not only demonstrates that meter properly understood does not exist in biblical Hebrew poetry, but also provides scholars with a valuable introduction to the study of meter and a comprehensive reference source for all the theories of meter that biblical scholars have previously set forth.

Reading Issues of Wealth and Poverty in Luke- Acts
2001 0-7734-7473-0
This book applies Wolfgang Iser’s theories about the reading process to Luke-Acts in order to determine how reading these documents affects the reader’s understanding and behavior relating to issues of wealth and poverty which has two emphases. On one hand, the reader will understand that these documents advocate a renunciation of the desire for wealth and possessions. On the other hand the reader will understand that these documents advocate actions of generosity toward persons in need.

Rectification (‘ Justification’) in Paul, in Historical Perspective and in the English Bible. God’s Gift of Right Relationship Vol. 3: Paul’s Doctrine of Rectification in English Versions of the New Testament
2002 0-7734-7072-7


Rectification (‘justification’) in Paul, in Historical Perspective and in the English Bible God’s Gift of Right Relationship Vol. 2: Paul’s Doctrine of Rectification in Its Historical Perspective
2003 0-7734-7070-0


Regarding the Mystery of the Trinity and the Teaching of the Ancients to Philip Melanchthon and His Colleagues, 1553 by Michael Servetus
2015 1-4955-0336-4
This book is Servetus exposition and analysis of the early Church Fathers, theology of the Trinity and is considered to be the best of his total corpus. It represents the fifth and final volume of his treatise translated into English.


Restating the Catholic Church's Relationship with the Jewish People: The Challenge of Super-Sessionary Theology
2013 0-7734-4361-4
This volume outlines some of the attempts to produce a theology to replace super-sessionary theology since the Nostra Aetate and the issues that remain, including the question of mission and the Jews.

Rhetoric, Law, and the Mystery of Salvation in Romans 7:16
2001 0-7734-7708-X
Many have come to the conclusion that Romans 7: 1-6 indicates a deficiency in Paul’s ability to construct a coherent argument. This study suggests that interpretive problems will be eliminated if the pericope is approached with the right methods. Romans 7: 1-6, examined as a rhetorical treatise, is a paradeigmatic argument which is both structurally and logically coherent. A full understanding also demands a re-evaluation of the meaning and reference of ‘law’ in Romans. Utilizing semantic analyses, Burton suggest that ‘law’ most often refers to the Decalogue. In this pericope, Paul demonstrates how a sinful individual who is condemned by law is transformed to a spiritual individual who is commended by law.

Rich Christian in the Church of the Early Empire Contradictions and Accommodations
1980 0-88946-970-9
Discusses early Christian attitudes toward wealth, including the writings of Clement of Alexandria and Cyprian of Carthage on the subject and such topics as redemptive almsgiving, stewardship of time and treasures, the danger of riches for both possessor and church, and rivalry between the clergy and rich members of their congregations.

Richard Wagner's Religious Ideas
1996 0-7734-8783-2
Chapter headings include: Early Spiritual Dimensions; Reflection of Mind and Soul (The Flying Dutchman, Tannhäuser, Lohengrin); "Jesus of Nazareth"; Encounters with the Esoteric (Hafiz and The Ring of the Nibelung; Schopenhauer and Tristan and Isolde; The Influence of Meister Eckhart); To Parsifal; Beyond Parsifal.

Role of the Rule of Faith in the Formation of the New Testament Canon According to Eusebius of Caesarea
2014 0-7734-4254-5
The book evaluates the canonization process from a new angle in that, according to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Rule of Faith served as a criterion of canonicity, encompassing both the subcriteria of apostolicity and catholicity.

Role of the Solar and Lunar Calendars in the Redaction of the Psalms
2002 0-7734-6931-1
Sectarianism in the Jewish religion increased during the Second Temple period. One of the prominent manifestations of their differences was the establishment of a different religious calendar for each sect, causing a ‘war of the calendars.’ The first part of this book provides a comprehensive survey of the various calendars found in the ancient world. The second part discusses the redaction of the Book of Psalms in this light. It argues that the redactional Book of Psalms is according to the lunar calendar, while that of the “Psalms Scroll” (11QPs) is according to the solar calendar as practiced at Qumran. Variations in the redaction of the Masoretic, the Septuagint and the other five identified Psalter Scrolls found in Qumran are interpreted as corresponding with the variations in the lunar and solar calendars.

Samaritan Version of the Book of Numbers with Hebrew Viariants: A Close Textual Study
2014 0-7734-4317-7
The voice of long-dead native speakers is resurrected in this outstanding study on the Old Testament Book of Numbers. Accurate translation of Old Testament scripture has always been problematic without the input of native speakers for the written languages of that record. This work seeks to stay as close as possible to the voice of the verbs and non-verbs of the Hebrew sentences of those ancient texts.

This book provides the critical Hebrew text of Numbers circa 600BCE along with a coherent English translation that visually shows off all the autograph differences from the traditional text. The purpose of giving the lexicon form and the grammar of all variant Hebrew words, and their manuscript sources, is to allow access to everyone who wants an analysis of the Hebrew language.



Self-Definition and Self-Discovery in Early Christianity. A Study in Changing Horizons
1990 0-88946-374-3
A collection of essays that trace a new self-understanding which emerged during the early evolution of Christianity.

Significance of Theophilus as Luke’s Reader
2004 0-7734-6384-4
Few studies of Luke’s Gospel (or Acts) give much attention to Theophilus and his potential significance despite the fact that Luke indicates specifically that he is writing ‘for Theophilus’. Those which do not recognize the importance of Theophilus nevertheless dismiss him because almost nothing is known about the individual.

Admittedly, we are left to conjecture and theory but the task, however daunting, is still necessary. A proper appreciation of Luke’s Gospel – particularly when it departs from Markan tradition – must look to Theophilus’ interests and concerns as the likely influence on the way the material is presented. To ignore Theophilus and to refer instead to Luke’s ‘church audience’ is dangerous.

This book attempts to solve the mystery of Theophilus and the man’s influence on Luke’s version of the tradition. As noted by H.J. Cadbury, the New Testament scholar is a virtual detective.

Situating the Letter to the Hebrews in Early Christian History
2002 0-7734-6900-1


Social History of Palestine in the Herodian Period- the Land is Mine
1991 0-88946-272-0
A study of land ownership in first-century Palestine with emphasis on the Little Tradition vis-à-vis the Great Tradition. Under the former, land was viewed in a somewhat traditional and egalitarian sense as a gift of God; in the latter, land was seen in an entrepreneurial, capitalistic light. The concepts of the Great Tradition led the Ptolemies, Seleucids, Herods, and Romans to form large estates. This movement cost many peasants their patrimonial farm plots, reducing them to day laborers and tenants and causing deterioration of the extended family. Shows that Palestine in the Herodian period was a typically agrarian ancient society with a very small group of wealthy and powerful aristocrats and rural masses that barely achieved subsistence.

Sociology of Johannine Christianity
1996 0-7734-8753-0
This study uncovers the first-century community dynamics that occurred among the people to whom the Gospel of John is addressed. It first separates early from late passages, then portrays the local social situation around each layer of literary tradition. Following the successive portrayals, the study finds a change from the 'forum' social situation to a 'jurisdictional dispute', and then to a schism between Christians and non-Christians within a local synagogue. Following the schism came the formation of separate Jewish and Christian identities, a high christology among the Christians, and a conformance on the part of part of the Johannines to the practices of other Christian groups. Special discussions focus on Johannine conceptions of ultimacy, the desyncretizing activity among the Johannine Christians, and their similitude of modernity.

St. Augustine's Theory of Knowledge a Contemporary Analysis
1981 0-88946-959-8
States that there exists in St. Augustine's work a unified theory of knowledge, attempts to analyze the individual elements in Augustine's epistemology and relate them to a unified structure, and relates Augustine's theory of knowledge to others in the history of philosophy. "Bubacz's synthesis of Augustine's thought around the central problem of knowledge is a valuable contribution." - Religious Studies Review

St. Gregory of Nyssa and the Tradition of the Fathers
1995 0-7734-8993-2
This study refutes the ordinary description of St. Gregory as would-be philosopher in the Greek tradition. First, it describes the world-view of the holy Fathers, holding that it is to their fellowship that he belonged, not the Platonic tradition of the philosophies of Plotinus, Philo, and Origen of Alexandria. Chapters compare St. Gregory to these alleged models and sources, and he matches none of them. The study also holds that the works of St. Gregory were adulterated by his enemies, probably during the sixth-century Origenist revival, as his orthodoxy was never questioned by anyone until the time that the latter followers of Origen associated him with their cause. This study opens up a new direction in the study of religion, contributes to the 'rehabilitation' of St. Gregory and the Christian Tradition to which he was a preeminent witness.

Study of Ignatius of Antioch in Syria and Asia
1992 0-7734-9495-2
This study examines the letters of this bishop-martyr as products of both Antiochene and Roman Asian influences. After an overview of scholarship on Ignatius, there is an examination of the Christian situations in Antioch and Asia. The writer concludes that relations were troubled between Ignatius and other Christians in Antioch and that the circumstances of his martyrdom included Ignatius having given himself up to the authorities. The emerging `catholic' tradition, which Ignatius represented, was among a variety of Christianities, whose identities are considered in chapter five. The Ignatian letters preserve interesting parallels with Matthean, Johannine and Pauline thought, as well as with the language and ideas of IV Maccabees and of later Gnosticism. Attention is also given to the possible influence on Ignatius and his opponents of the Didathe, the letter of Clement to the Corinthians and of the Apocalypse.

Syntax of Masoretic Accents in the Hebrew Bible
1990 0-88946-510-X
Provides a formal syntax of the use of Hebrew accents. Defines the syntactic grammar of each accent as it functions within the domain of the verse. By means of computer analysis, each rule is exhaustively tested in the Pentateuch or Poetic books. Part One examines the accents in prose; Part Two the accents in the poetic books of Job, Psalms, and Proverbs. Also examines the classic work of William Wickes, and contemporary Israel Yeivin.

Teachings on Usury in Judaism, Christianity and Islam
2001 0-7734-7656-3
This study maintains that the religious teaching on ‘usury’ had a marked and different effect on the economic development within each of the three monotheistic communities.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: Structure, Source, and Composition
2013 0-7734-4480-7
This book is an investigation of the pseudepigraphical Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (TPatr) as a complete literary product. TPatr is examined with the underlying hypothesis that such an analysis will provide a key to enhance our understanding of the document’s inner logic and composition, as well as of the writer’s adaptation of sources.

Tractatus Super Psalmum Vicesimum of Richard Rolle of Hampole
1991 0-7734-9666-1
A critical edition with translation of Richard Rolle's tropological commentary on Psalm XX. Of interest to biblical scholars, especially since, despite the fact that Rolle wrote complete Latin and English psalters, it is the only psalm he chose for separate treatment. It is an essay in commentary form that marks an important step in his developing understanding of mystical experience. The general reader will enjoy Rolle's way of bringing the mystical down to earth; his warm, often passionate prose style; and his lively sense of life in the fourteenth century.

Trinitarian Theology of Novatian of Rome: A Study in Third-Century Orthodoxy
2008 0-7734-5026-2
This work explores Novatian’s historical context, his use of Latin terminology, and his New Testament exegesis, in order to discover and clarify how he solved the Christological problem of how Christ could be fully divine without compromising the oneness of God. The study includes a new translation of his De Trinitate and shows that Novatian’s christology is not only progressive for his time, it anticipates Nicaean and Chalcedonian christology.

Tropes and Sequences in the Liturgy of the Church in Piacenza in the Twelfth Century an Analysis and an Edition of the Texts
2002 0-7734-7073-5


Twenty-Five Years (1969-1994) of Anselm Studies Volume III of Anselm Studies
1996 0-7734-8957-6
The first two articles present a status quaestionis on Anselm. C. Viola reviews and critiques Anselm research presented at L'Abbaye Notre-Dame du Bec in July, 1982. Along with a brief critique, F. Van Fleteren submits a bibliography garnered from English sources. W. Fröhlich gives Anselm's itinerary from birth c. 1033 to death in 1109. A. Nadeau treats the circumstances and textual tradition of the Vita Anselmi by John of Salisbury. I. Sciuto indicates the strong ties that link Anselm's argument for God's existence to Augustine's demonstration from eternal truth. K. Kienzler compares Anselm's thought with Descartes, Feuerbach, Hegel, and Levinas. A. Cantin discusses Lanfranc's theology of the Eucharist, relates it to and distinguishes it from Berengarius'. E. Recktenwald then discusses the significance of truth as rectitudo in Anslem. T. Losoncy contributes to the discussion of human knowledge of God aliquatenus, and R. Herrera speaks of the sources of Scotus' demonstration of God's existence from materia in Anselm. The most significant contribution in the volume is made by C. Viola's treatment of Anselm's theological method, showing it to be based on Augustine's exegesis of Sacred Scripture. Viola compares and distinguishes Anselm's method from modern and contemporary methodologies of Kant and Heidegger. Includes reviews of several contemporary interpretations and translations of Anselm's works..

Use of Textual Criticism for the Interpretation of Patristic Texts: Seventeen Case Studies
2012 0-7734-3073-3
This book examines the textual emendations to patristic writings to showcase the theological preoccupations of early Christian teachings. The debate around the formation of a unified church produced several key texts in the history of Christianity, and they are discussed in these scholarly essays. These seventeen chapters examine a shift in textual interpretations, notice a change in literary genre, and also identify ancient editing techniques. Two essays actually show an intentional change in a text to make it palatable to a different audience.

World of the Early Church a Companion to the New Testament
1991 0-88946-598-3
A portrait and analysis of the environment in which the Christian faith first grew, as well as an account of the Church's responses to that environment. Provides the student and reader with a perspective on the world surrounding the Church that is at once immersed in that world and informed with a sense of the unique mission of the Christian faith. Covers not only the world of the advent of Christ and the work of the apostles, but also the much less studied world "before the times" -- in the "gap" between the Old and New Testaments. Familiarizes the reader with the cultural, social, political, and religious landscape as it was shaped in the five centuries preceding the appearance of Christ.

Yahweh/baal Confrontation and Other Studies in Biblical Literature and Archaeology
1995 0-7734-2426-1