Subject Area: Architecture
Loftin, Lawrence Keith III2005 0-7734-6332-1 200 pages
Much work has been done on the meaning and significance of Alvar Aalto’s work in recent years, but this generally takes the form of identifying motifs, and broad motivations. Little specific interpretation has been teased out. That argument that is developed here is that Alvar Aalto’s work, as a whole, is characterized by referential and narrative devices which he uses to “tell” architectural stories. These stories contain several broad themes which he developed, and returned to again and again throughout his life. His individual buildings can be seen as essays, or stories which articulate these themes.Boogaart, Thomas A.2004 0-7734-6421-2 510 pages
This work uses an ethnogeographic approach to synthesize commonly partitioned material and archival evidence to examine the urban history and cultural geography of Medieval Bruges from 1280-1349.Harris, Penelope2010 0-7734-3851-3 276 pages
This work is the first examination of the life of Joseph Hansom, the Victorian architect and designer of the eponymous cab.Lance V. Bernard2007 0-7734-5340-7 232 pages
This work examines the creation and expression of the San Francisco Bay Area’s sense of regional identity, which it expressed through its unique architectural idiom – the Bay Tradition. In the late nineteenth century, Bay Area elites developed a sense of what Bay Area living meant, based on contact with (and appreciation of) the region’s attractive landscapes and mild climate, and from this emerged an architectural style that expressed eclecticism, cultivation, and appreciation for the physical environment. Architects such as Willis Polk, Bernard Maybeck, William Wurster, and Ernest Kump used urban landscapes as a means of regional self-expression, much like Appalachia expressed its regional identity through music and folk arts, the Deep South through literature, and New England through history-based tourism. By the 1930s, it incorporated modernist ideas but retained its essential identity through its use of native woods (particularly redwood), large windows, and open, airy spaces that allowed comfortable contact with the mild, clement outdoors. In the 1940s and ‘50s, the Bay Tradition was popularized by Sunset Magazine, which began in the Bay Area and conflated its concept of the region’s lifestyle into its larger vision of “Western living;” although the Bay Tradition fell out of favor by 1970, its influence remains widely visible.Banerji, Anupam2001 0-7734-7468-4 156 pages
This study examines the masterworks of Le Corbusier and Louis Kahn at Chandigarh and Dhaka in India not only with a thorough knowledge of western modernism, but also from the view of their western intrusions on the quite different cultural sensibilities of the Indian subcontinent. It is both a philosophical and aesthetic discourse. With photographs.Banerji, Naseem2002 0-7734-7209-6 248 pagesNovakov, Anna and Elisabeth Schmidt2008 0-7734-5150-1 212 pages
This book showcases exciting new trends in Corbusian scholarship. The authors, an international group of architectural historians, draw analogies between Le Corbusier’s machine à habiter
and twentieth-century political and social movements such as Italian and German Fascism and the multi-national New Woman Movement. This book contains twenty black and white photographs and five color photographs.Powell, Christabel2006 0-7734-5769-0 412 pages
Over recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in the life and work of the nineteenth-century architect, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin. By far the greatest part of this interest has been focused on his architecture and design. Yet some scholars are beginning to realize that there is a great deal to this fascinating character that remains unexplored.
Pugin himself believed that his strongest influence lay, not in his architecture or design, but in his writing. While his books are initially easy to read, the reader who looks at them in more depth finds that a puzzling picture emerges due to Pugin’s many references to religious, historical and liturgical terms. Clearly his books are not solely about architecture; neither are the sources and authorities he used for these books merely architectural.
In the first half of this monograph, Christabel Powell sets out to analyse and explore the reasons behind his particular style of writing. This leads her to the conclusion that he did not see himself as simply an architect, but as a liturgical architect. Indeed, the author argues that he was exceptionally knowledgeable about liturgical matters and had thoroughly researched his subject.
In the second half of this study, the author argues that Pugin’s vision of liturgical architecture clashed violently with the ideas of a particular group of converts to the Roman Catholic Church, led by John Henry Newman. As Anglicans, they had supported Pugin’s views and enthusiastically embraced the Gothic Revival. As converts and Oratorians, they completely rejected those views. A bitter quarrel concerning liturgical architecture and the form and arrangement of churches thus broke out between Pugin and Newman and his followers. The periodicals of that time, including the Tablet
and The Rambler
, took up their dispute.
The author concludes that Pugin’s role in the nineteenth century religious revival was important because of his views as a liturgical architect, but also because he was a close associate of Newman and his circle while they were Tractarians, while they were moving to the Roman Catholic Church and while they were neophytes in that Church. The study brings to light the development of ideas concerning liturgy that accompanied these stages.Morley, Ian2008 0-7734-5090-4 408 pages
This work consists of an examination of examples of civic design in Britain occurring within a number of large sized provincial settlements from about 1880 to 1914. It identifies the design and planning principles that appeared to govern civic design as well as investigating its features as it appeared in practice by analysing structural and technical design components, internal arrangements and the surroundings of public buildings erected at the time. This book contains six color photographs and twelve black and white photographs.Bao, Yuheng, Qing Tian and Letitia Lane2005 0-7734-6316-X 332 pagesOVERSIZE. 8½ x 11 format with 50 photo illustrations
This interdisciplinary study on the development of Buddhist art and architecture in China from the early period till the Qing Dynasty is in a 8½ x 11 format with 50 photo illustrations, the majority of which have never been shown or introduced to the Western world. This outstanding work will be an invaluable resource book particularly for those in the fields of Art History, Architecture and Asian Studies.Hauer, Christian1997 0-7734-8546-5 172 pages
Essays include: Historical Accident 1666 - Wren and the City of London ( Bryan D. Little); Painting Sir Christopher - Portraiture in the Age of Wren (Robin John Hughes Simon); Sinews of Peace, Sinews of History - Wren and Symbolism (Patrich Horsbrugh); Wren's Planning for the Parish Churches (James L. Doom); The Making of Christopher Wren (Michael Hunter); Christopher Wren and Great Renaissance Domes (Robert Mark). Includes bibliographyJanina K. Darling, Daniel D. Reiff2017 1-4955-0550-2 1800 pages
A rediscovered aspect of art and architectural history that has been ignored by scholars. This 5 volume set includes 800 black and white photos.Bunch, Michael1993 0-7734-2211-0 248 pages
This book is the first-ever case-study of the presentation of architectural education nation-wide. It surveys and evaluates all the colleges that present accredited programs, with evaluation of the existing courses, identification of the core, and recommendations for continued research.Gathercole, Patricia M.2006 0-7734-5780-1 132 pages
The architecture and furniture of the Middle Ages in France reflects the society of the time. Carolingian, Romanesque and Gothic styles will be shown in the illuminations on the manuscripts. There are illustrations on bibles, books of hours, gospel books and later on, romances of chivalry, chronicles and encyclopedic works. There will even be architectural frames around the miniatures. Included here is a consideration of homes, castles and palaces, studios, churches, monasteries and towns. The author describes and the reader will see interiors of main rooms, banquet halls and bedchambers. In regard to furniture, various pieces will be described and depicted in the manuscript paintings: footstools, chairs, thrones, tables, buffets, desks, chests and beds. The architectural styles of the period will influence the making of furniture. That is the reason why both architecture and furniture are viewed here together. There is a wealth of material available which is valuable to note for the history of mankind. Medieval scholars and people in general will find the book interesting and different. The book contains thirty-five illustrations, coming from manuscripts found in libraries of diverse parts of the world.Morgenthaler, Hans1992 0-7734-9535-5 168 pages
Erich Mendelsohn was one of the most successful modern architects in Germany during the 1920s. This volume contains a catalogue of his early sketches. It establishes a chronological sequence of the sketches, and furnishes a clear explanation of his creative background. A detailed evaluation of his relationship to the Blue Rider group supplies a source for his Expressionist intentions and design theory. Mendelsohn's own statements, from papers and letters are examined. This book will benefit architectural historians and architects.Lee, Bryant1996 0-7734-8845-6 248 pages
This volume begins with the post-Baroque re-emergence of Classicism, the Neoclassicism of the late 18th century, examining trends and influences in the philosophy of art and architecture during the period. It examines selected theoretical writings of Pierre Patté, Paolo Landriani, and Etienne-Louis Boullée to show the development of a Neoclassical style in theatre architecture, as well as the more fanciful directions in the designs of Boullée. It examines their influence in other areas of theatrical arts: artistic vision, theatrical aesthetics, stage lighting, and scenic design. The appendices contain translations and commentary on revelant works: Patté's writing on Stage Lighting (1780); Patté's writing on Acoustics (1786); Landriani's writing on scenery and box sets (1818); Landriani's writing on the differences between French and Italian Theatres (1816); Ferrario's writing on the uses of Auditoriums (1830); and Boullée's writing on the Art of Architecture (1775-93).Lubienecki, Paul2017 1-4955-0599-5 144 pages
Examines the architectural philosophy of Frank Lloyd Wright in his design of Graycliff on the shores of Lake Erie in Derby, N.Y. Designed and constructed in the late 1920s, the estate shows how architecture, nature, family and theology blend to become a unified reality at Graycliff.
This edition is to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the birth of Frank Lloyd WrightGreen, Keith Evan2006 0-7734-5632-5 304 pages
This book considers the strange figurative
works of Gio Ponti and Carlo Mollino, two Italian friends and architects practicing, teaching, theorizing, and publishing architecture through the middle decades of the twentieth century. Ponti and Mollino offer architects today a wondrous, poetic, and distinctly Italian perspective on how to create works of architecture that allow people to feel at home with themselves and their surroundings. This book considers the work of Ponti and Mollino as a “middle position” poised between the Utopian aspiration of “high-modern” architecture that preceded it, and the obvious, scenographic and often elitist figuration of the “post-modern” architecture that followed it.
As Ponti and Mollino were not only architects but also designers, artists, professors and authors, the audience for this book is wide ranging: architects, artists and visual artists, as well as scholars and students of these same creative pursuits. As Ponti and Mollino sought to discover the relationship between words, poetry and the “figurative” language of architects, this book will interest scholars of literature, aesthetics, metaphysics, and linguistics. The book will also interest today’s architects and designers working within nature-inspired, biomimetic and sustainable practices towards creating design works that behave (more than look) like living things.
In the past ten years, there has been a renewed interest in the work of Ponti and Mollino. Despite this interest, there exists little critical consideration of either the individual architects themselves or the illuminating “conversation” between them in any significant work presently available. This book offers something more: it considers the fruitful relationship of two architects working through a difficult historical moment toward the realization of a fundamental human aspiration – to find our place in this world.
This book has 40 Black and White PhotosGreene, David B.2010 0-7734-3713-4 252 pages
This book takes up six sets of works of art that imagine community. These works do not illustrate concepts of community or make community an explicit theme. Nevertheless, the particular techniques and structure of each work project an imagining of community that is unique to the piece. Studying the six sets together opens prospects for re-imagining community and lays the groundwork for re-imagining the relation of arts and society. This book contains twelve color photographs and three black and white photographs.Derucher, Kenneth N.2013 0-7734-4470-X 128 pages
This textbook covers the analysis of indeterminate structures by force method, displacement method and stiffness method in a total of six chapters which can be covered in a single course on indeterminate structural analysis. It includes an as-needed discussion of the unit load method, which is arguably the best method to calculate deflections when solving problems by the force method.Shaw, Thomas M.2006 0-7734-5859-X 192 pages
This book focuses on the architectural transformation that occurred in imperial Dakar. Several ideas are central to the work and they form its core: that the style was the result of a conscious effort of the French to enhance their colonial authority in West Africa; that it represented one positive outcome of the forced encounter of European and African culture through French colonialism; and that the style, despite its specific origins, is surprisingly linked to the long history of African architectural traditions. This book is of great value to scholars in African architecture and twentieth-century architecture, and also for those studying the colonial period of sub-Sahara Africa.Villalpando, Juan Bautista2009 0-7734-4806-3 640 pages
This is the first translation into English of Juan Bautisa Villalpando’s Book Five of In Ezechielem Explanationes et Apparatus Vrbis Templi Hierosolymitani
. After its publication in 1604 the work stimulated a debate—over not only the architecture of Solomon’s Temple but on the very nature of the origins of architecture—that endured for more than one hundred and fifty years, in the form of commentaries and other reconstructions.Hamed, Safei-Eldin2002 0-7734-7315-7 260 pages
This study brings together two topics: landscape planning objectives and the development of the arid regions of the Middle East. It reviews the literature, presents a conceptual analysis, examines cases studies, suggests a comprehensive system for determining public objectives, and reports empirical research. It will provide landscape planners and political decision-makers with some practical tools and theoretical concepts that will be helpful to the development process.Sachs, David H.2003 0-7734-6686-X 240 pages
This is the first thorough and substantive examination of architect A. Hays Town’s work. His 70 year career provides an ideal case study in the evolution of twentieth-century American architecture, spanning from a period dominated by Beaux Arts formalism, through a period characterized by the assimilation and acceptance of European Modernism, to a period once again receptive to traditional and regional influences. This examination reveals the remarkable talent and logic which enabled him to assimilate a wide variety of influences from his education and early career as well as influences from the historical examples of his region. It contributes both to an understanding of the potential use of vernacular traditions in general, and specifically, of the rich architectural influences present through Louisiana’s long and intriguing history. The study also includes a discussion of Town’s habits, values, and relationships, providing valuable insights into typical issues involved with the practice of architecture.Barton, Paulette E.2009 0-7734-4841-1 320 pages
This work examines medieval cathedral practice through the analysis of choir stalls. The author demonstrates that far from being merely decorative, these seats reveal much about Medieval society, law and feudal responsibility. This book contains forty black and white photographs and two diagrams.Walthew, Christopher2002 0-7734-7230-4 364 pages
This book presents the first systematic and detailed discussion of the planning of Roman basilicas during the late Republic and early Empire, from the second century BC to second century AD. Basilicas were buildings of major economic, political and religious significance in Roman civic life. The clarity and coherence of their designs makes them ideal subjects for metrological analysis – scrutiny of the dimensions with which they were laid out. The core of the book, based on extensive fieldwork in Italy and the most recent archaeological research, is a meticulous examination of 35 basilicas drawn from Italy and the western Roman provinces, supported by numerous plans, tables, and a wide-ranging bibliography. The conclusion highlights for the first time the carefully formulated set of principles and proportions with which Roman architects designed buildings of this type. This study is a major new contribution to the history of Roman architecture and planning. With many illustrations.Read, Gray2007 0-7734-5429-2 184 pages
The essays in this book examine scale and measure in the local architectural traditions of Philadelphia, focusing on instances when architects strategically manipulated urban scale to engage a larger mythic narrative. The essays open several such manipulations to view, offering both a means to examine vernacular patterns of old cities and a challenge to contemporary architects to engage the scale and structure of the city in the intersection of experience and narrative. On a broader level, these essays suggest that all architecture defines the city, both spatially and rhetorically. The streets and vernacular buildings of old cities in particular, establish spatial rhythms, which are modulated, punctuated, and interrupted by design. These urban patterns define positions for people by giving scale and structure to the built environment. This study is particularly relevant to contemporary architects who are currently being asked to engage old cities and to construct or reconstruct urban life in America.Michael J. Ostwald & Steven Fleming2007 0-7734-5393-8 220 pages
In the years since the completion of Jørn Utzon’s Sydney Opera House countries throughout the South Pacific have displayed a particular fascination with the possibility that architecture may be able to embody regional cultural identity. This book examines a number of major museums, art galleries and cultural centers that have been constructed in Australia, New Zealand and the South Pacific regions. The majority of these buildings, landscapes or structures have been completed in the last few years and all have employed different architectural strategies to shape their designs. This collection of nine critical essays by leading scholars of contemporary architecture provides an important survey and assessment of Antipodean cultural architecture. Emphasizing common traits, the introduction to the text asks how this phenomenon might be understood and why it may be relevant in different regions around the world. Acknowledging the pluralistic nature of Antipodean architecture, the conclusion offers an alternative hermeneutical framework, one that accepts the fragmentary nature of the contemporary cultural landscape.Coombs, Robert2000 0-7734-7746-2 308 pages
This is a study of the great 20th century architect’s most controversial work after World War II: Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp. The work reveals Le Corbusier’s Cubist interweaving of metaphysical themes. Through fusion of visual motifs and symbolism in a figure-ground system, le Corbusier was able to integrate multiple Christian, heretical and hermetic iconography systems in his composition. This monograph reveals the various mystical strands of the Ronchamp riddle. It investigates earlier influences, Marian imagery, alchemical sources, Catharism and neo-Catharism, numerological and geometrical systems.
With many illustrations.Lam, Lai Sing2001 0-7734-7447-1 232 pages
This monograph argues that the concept of the curvature of the Chinese roof, which symbolizes the divine ‘flying bird’, was conceived as early as the totemic Shang times (16th-11th centuries BC). It further contends that the divine image expressed by the roof structure and the supporting brackets were two distinct structural components. The study examines the concepts of shen and ang, and the influence of the ‘literati landscape painting’ of the Song dynasty.
“This remarkably accessible book discusses its topic in a lucid and engaging manner. Lam Lai Sing is clearly very well informed and exhibits a passion for his material. . . . provides abundant material for East and Southeast Asianists, I am confident that this book will be well received not only by its specialist readers but also by a more general audience. . . students of design and architecture as well as scholars interested in Chinese cultural influences in Southeast Asia.” – Dr. Raul Pertierra, University of New South Wales
“In his lucid argumentation, Dr. Lam makes out a convincing case for his new theory. . . a significant contribution not only to architectural scholarship, but also to that of social change.” – Eric K-C Lye, OBE, B Arch, MFA, FRAIC, FHKIA, RIBA, Hon RICS, Hon AIA, Director of Studies of Architecture and Interior Design, The University of Hong Kong
“. . . of special interest for its implications for the social sciences, in particular for cultural anthropologists who want to gain insight into the lifestyle and religion of particularly the ancient Chinese ruling class of the Shang society. Dr. Lam’s new theory of the divine ‘flying bird’ certainly stimulates a discussion about the ancient religious thoughts, about the importance of religion among the ruling class, as well as the position of the ancient ruling class who used religion for control. . . . Dr. Lam’s research vitally includes traditional Chinese architectural development under the influence of modern European and American architecture during the 20th century. Last but not least, Dr. Lam’s reference to the ancient Chinese texts presents the architectural reader with a survey about the major theoretical approaches taken by both Chinese and Western scholars. I consider that by virtue of connecting ancient Chinese religious and philosophical thoughts to architectural design and development is indeed a pioneering work.” – F. Landa Jocano, Professor Emeritus of Anthropology, Asian Center.Farah, Caesar E.2011 0-7734-1291-3 180 pages
The study presents photographic field studies and histories of Ottoman castles and forts in Yemen. These structures’ physical and strategic layout, their architectural
design and decorative features are presented in detailed accounts. This book contains eleven color photographs and twenty-seven black and white photographs.Kutbay, Bonnie1998 0-7734-8244-X 212 pages
This study goes beyond the results of earlier scholarship by presenting synthetic examination of the architectural material, clarifying the nature of palaces and large residences in the Hellenistic world, identifying architectural forms most commonly found and examining their sources. With illustrations.Kazimee, Bashir A. and Rahmani, Ayad B.2003 0-7734-6669-X 280 pages
This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the unique meaning of Place (“Makan”) in the traditional context of the Eastern Islamic region, focusing mostly on the area defined by Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The book often replaces the term cities (as referring to oversized bureaucratic apparatus) with such terms as places and dwellings – meaning developed settlements that have retained a strong trace of social coherence and physical unity, which are the true focus. The study examines the way in which making and thinking, object and subject, are inextricably linked in Islamic places and reflect Man’s inner search for truth, and the role that place plays in helping the Muslim stay true to his faith and lead a life of meaning and spirituality. With illustrations.Evers, David2008 0-7734-5010-6 540 pages
A contribution to the literature on retail planning and the circumvention of
national policies by local authorities.Hendrix, John2002 0-7734-6995-8 320 pagesTetti, Barbara2016 1-4955-0504-9 148 pages
This is the first comprehensive study, translated into English, of the written repertoire, both published and un-published, of architect Luigi Vanvitelli and his approach to restoration and renewal in antiquities preservation. Vanvitelli’s remarkable written record covers the intellectual, theoretical and ideological etymology of scholars in Eighteenth-century Europe with regard to the ‘restoration’ and preservation process.Moussin, Alexander2001 0-7734-3372-4 604 pages
Work examines the problems of the Russian Church and Russian medieval culture inclusive of ancient Russian literature and also archeology. The author's research is complemented by 93 beautiful illustrations, extensive bibliography full index, drawings and maps.Ribas-Mateos, Natalia2014 0-7734-0048-6 108 pages
A first ever examination of the neighborhoods within the walls of Old Damascus that challenge our ideas of stereotypical Mediterranean ethnic and social divisions. The doors open to show us the impact of economic and cultural globalization that has led to a reshaping of cross-national economic integration, creating new forms of regionalisation. (written in Spanish)Beedle, Lynn S., Mir M. Ali and Paul J. Armstrong2007 0-7734-5333-4 912 pages
This work is a broad-ranging survey of high-rise architecture which touches on many issues that define the character and social and economic role of this important building type. The history and theory of high-rise design, along with programmatic, structural, social, financial, operational, and urban issues are all covered in a comprehensive and insightful way. This book contains 28 black and white photographs and 12 color photographs.Balakier, Ann1995 0-7734-9057-4 172 pages
This interdisciplinary study is an extensive examination, from a comparative arts perspective, of the impact of Newton's Principia on the art and literary theory and practice of the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The Greenwich connection with Newtonian science is exemplified by Sir Christopher Wren's spatially-extended, open-center design for the Greenwich Naval Hospital complex, the site of the Royal Observatory, and his application of Newtonian "conics" to the site; James Thornhill's Newtonian-based spatial treatment and iconography in the illusionistic ceiling painting in the Lower Hall at Greenwich; and James Thomson's celebration of the Royal Observatory in Poem Sacred to the Memory of Sir Isaac Newton as a locus for the Newtonian exploration of the universe, to which he gives dynamic form. The book includes a survey of the development of Newtonianism and its influence on English culture in general along with its role in the development of the aesthetics of the sublime. Illustrated with photographs.Dragan, Radu1996 0-7734-8870-7 136 pages
This volume addresses questions regarding contemporary interpretation of the language of sacred and religious buildings. While inspired by Heidegger's hermeneutic approach as well as by Chomsky's view on language and Eliade's archetypes and symbols, its interpretive hypothesis appropriates the Orthodox Christian perspective on church architecture. The second half of the book is a close reading of the Bible pertaining to questions on architecture being presented both historically and symbolically. The purpose of the interpretation is to trace back the possible grounds for a 'primitive hut' of the sacred space, the never-existing 'first Christian church'. In an environment striving for a renewed ecumenical unity, such a hermeneutical approach on sensitive issues such as the sacred, religious architecture, pursued by two architectural scholars from Eastern Europe's Romania, is meant to propose a fresh overview of a timeless question.Schmidt, Maurice2009 0-7734-3782-7 376 pages
This book is the first work that establishes the ancient Israelite Tabernacle as a seminal work of art. It brings together the seemingly divergent worlds of biblical symbolism and art history. While all acknowledge that Western art was often inspired by biblical story and poetry, the modern study of art presupposes that Western religious art originates only from Greco-Roman civilizations. This book contains four color photographs.McNeill, Tom2017 1-4955-0597-9 279 pages
The subject of this book is the evidence to be be derived from a study of the physical remains of the churches constructed for Protestant denominations in Western Europe during the first century and a half after the Reformation. Only part of Europe saw substantial Protestant communities and their churches survive, mainly Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Scandinavia. There were churches produced by Lutherans, Calvinists and Anglicans. The period covers two major church developments in church building: the Reformation in ideology or theology and the arrival of Renaissance ideas from Italy into Northern Europe. The book includes 23 Black and White photos and 13 Color photos.Stunkel, Kenneth R.2003 0-7734-6558-8 312 pages
This monograph provides a readable exposition of Lewis Mumford’s views on dozens of issues with continuous, selective reference to his published works. Mumford produced more than 30 books and 3000 articles from 1914 to 1982. Added to this vast corpus are the many books and articles about him in multiple languages. This study elucidates his thoughts about history and its meaning, human nature and its development, science and technology, cities and their culture, art and architecture, and more. It highlights his ideas while integrating Mumford’s words into the exposition, providing an intellectual map. An Appendix includes a personal memoir of the author’s meetings with Mumford.Golany, Gideon2001 0-7734-7409-9 316 pages
This study examines architecture and urban design as a joint entity, with a further subdivision, socio-cultural studies, used to develop a more complete picture of the ethical forces that shape the Chinese city. It incorporates information from other disciplines – history, archaeology, anthropology – to elaborate the discussions and conclusions. It highlights the influence of cumulative Chinese thoughts, beliefs, behavior, and ethics upon the formation of their distinctive spatial urban form.