Subject Area: Communism & Socialism
This study in economic anthropology focuses on micro-changes in economic and social orders in Eastern Europe, mainly in Bulgaria and Yugoslavia, of the 1990s.1998 0-7734-8312-8
This volume captures the sociological imagination of Beatrice Webb by enlarging upon two of her most notable contributions. First, she applied the scientific method of observation, experiment, hypothesis, and verification to the study of social problems. Second, an outgrowth of the first contribution, she, along with her husband Sidney Webb, turned government into a science in the interest of furthering socialist doctrine to combat social problems. This book will interest scholars in historical sociology, the sociology of knowledge, sociological theory, political sociology, and gender roles.2004 0-7734-6504-9
This facing-page edition makes translations of over 150 poems of contemporary Chinese poet/author Huang Xiang available to the Western world for the first time in a collection. Since he is subject to a long-term ban against publication of any of his writings in his native China, only a few of his poems have ever been read and translated in the West. A member of the proscribed classes by virtue of his birth, he was subjected to harassment, imprisonment and brutality from his childhood until his departure from China in 1997. His writings have already gained high and deserved respect in the small scholarly circle that is familiar with them in China and the West. The book has an extensive bibliography listing all books published by Huang Xiang outside China, plus many that refer to him or quote his works, as well as general works on Chinese poetry. The long biographical introduction will be of great value to scholars who wish to pursue the origins of Underground Literature in which Huang is a major figure, and the later Menglung “misty, obscure”) poetry that followed it. The poems themselves are in clear recitable English. The book’s composition, with the original Chinese on the left and English on the right, matched line for line, offers an excellent pedagogical tool, as well as a subject for study by critics, commentators, and students of language. The book also includes a section of personal photographs, and a foreword by Huang Xiang.1993 0-7734-9369-7
Six scholars address significant issues: the good society (Louis Patsouras, Timoux Thomas); welfare (Donald Hartley); gender relations (Sharon Carson); prison reform (Russell Ensign); and perestroika (Howard Parsons). Two inextricable common threads running through each essay are a profound concern for the quality of human life, and a recognition of the significance of human spirit. While they do not prescribe lofty answers for complex social problems, the authors do call into question both the ends and the means of improving the human condition.2011 0-7734-3658-9
This book examines the significance of China’s open-door policy to comparative education and its effect on Chinese educators. It considers traditional forms of the Chinese teacher-student relationship and how differences in pedagogical theory in China and the West influence this relationship.2001 0-7734-7320-3
This study investigates the entire process of deviant labeling under the leadership of Chairman Mao between 1950 and 1978. Through the use of life history materials that include autobiographies and memoirs published in both English and Chinese, the causes of the labeling, the lives of the deviants, and the consequences of deviant labels on individuals, family members, and significant others are thoroughly analyzed. It documents the impacts of labeling on the self-concept of deviants and the creation of a new socially and politically defined deviant class, the ‘enemies of the people’ in Mao’s China.2005 0-7734-6101-9
The St. Louis Smith Case, “James Forest et al. v United States” offers a case study of the United States governmental campaign against state and local American Communists in microcosm. The indictments and arrests of CPUSA-Missouri members in 1952, their subsequent prosecution and convictions, and the ultimate reversal of those convictions closely mirror the “second-string” prosecutions at the national level.
The case of “James Forest et. al. v United States” is complex and multifaceted. The question of whether the defendants violated the Smith Act was only a small piece of the entire puzzle. The very legitimate questions of constitutional and civil liberties involved in the case were juxtaposed against an equally strong concern for the protection of an open society against those who understood to be seeking the destruction of that society. The larger question was whether American society could take steps to impair or hinder a movement whose existence was considered inimical to the national interest. First Amendment guarantees, national security concerns and ideological questions jumbled together in an uneasy co-existence in St. Louis during the 1950s, just as they did in the larger society. The St. Louis Smith Act Case, “James Forest et. al. v United States” is the focus of this inquiry.
This work utilizes a wise range of sources, both primary and secondary. It makes substantial use of official court records, U.S. Justice Department Files, and materials from the United States National Archives. In addition, many materials from the Harry S. Truman and Dwight David Eisenhower Presidential Libraries are also employed. The secondary literature on American Communism, the Post-World War II world and the McCarthy era is vast and is thoroughly examined. The literature is supplemented by a review of period journalism in the form of newspapers and periodicals.
The student of American political history will observe that “James Forest et. al. v United States” was a prototypical Smith Act prosecution. The St. Louis case encapsulated many of the elements that marked the first American Communist prosecutions and mirrored the other state level prosecutions of the CPUSA leadership. A close examination of the case offers a priceless insight into the primary elements common to all of the state and local Smith Act cases. A study of “James Forest et. al. v United States” presents a portal through which to view the sociocultural standards of the American Midwest during the 1950s. This work will prove itself an important contribution to social, cultural, political and legal history.1994 0-7734-9414-6
Focussing on political and ideological aspects, the author presents an organic synthesis of the Party's life, organization, and internal political debates. Party ideology is analyzed in close reference to Soviet Communism and the European Communist movement. The analysis is based on a wealth of archival materials, documents issued by the Party through its conferences, press, and the writings and memoirs of its leaders. The study makes extensive use of the material in the collections of the former Central Archive of the Central Committee of the Unified Polish Workers' Party in Warsaw. This work is the first organic study on the topic to appear in English.1992 0-7734-9799-4
This study compares the educational ideas and implementations of Dewey and Mao from 1919 to 1981 in the context of Chinese modern history. The differences between them, on whether school is society or society is school, whether class character should be embodied in moral education, and whether intellectuals are leaders or mere followers in social transformation, highlight the most fundamental debates in education, still unsettled today. Their similarities in emphasizing the connection between school and society, the role of experience in learning, and of morality in schooling illuminate the essential issues in modern education. The interweaving of their differences and similarities offers us intriguing and provocative insights for education today and tomorrow.1994 0-7734-9074-41996 0-7734-8894-4
This study traces the activity of an important civil liberties coalition which developed in response to the 1919-1920 Red Scare, a time when national and state governments used the fear of Russian Communism to justify persecution of left-wing organizations, and mass deportation of suspect radical aliens. The threats to freedom of speech and due process of law were so severe that influential people organized a loose but highly effective civil liberties movement to block passage of draconian sedition laws and rescue thousands of innocent aliens from deportation. The book examines the political strategy and follows its networking from the American Civil Liberties Union and Harvard Law School to the United States Department of Labor and federal courts. The historical narrative provides a basis for the development of a theory of opposition to cycles of political repression, the 'libertarian check,' and provides an opportunity to evaluate the strengths and limitations of civil liberties in the United States. No other studies have focused as closely on the multifaceted opposition to political and legal repression during this Red Scare period.1999 0-7734-3182-9
This is the first documentary investigation of the most crucial period of GULAG history --the 1930s--when this repressive body became a powerful component of the economy of the USSR. This book provides the base to substantiate the accusatory works of A. I. Solzhenitsyn, V. T. Shalamov and other writers who revealed the very grave crimes of the Soviet regime. This unique book is prepared by the most competent specialists from the Institute of Russian History and edited by historian Professor M. Khlusov.1992 0-7734-9911-3
An anthology not only on representative figures of the major socialst streams, but also on various problems of socialism. Section one, on Utopian Socialism, has a sterling article by Dr. Easton, entitled Economic Democracy in Ohio's Owenite and Fourierist Communities. The second section concentrates on anarchism/syndicalism; third section is on Marxism/Communism; fourth on Democratic Socialism; fifth on Socialism's close ties to religion; and six deals with various problems of socialism.2014 0-7734-1574-2
Gesell’s thesis is that: the form of money inherited from the ancient world embodies a never solved practical contradiction between the functions of medium of exchange and the storing of value. This contradiction is at the basis of usury, and with it of all social disorders from the unemployed proletariat to war. His solution: Free Money, shorn of its function as store of value and reduced to pure medium of exchange.
The last part is a general theory of interest based on Free Money, which clinches all the previous arguments.
Having bared the source of the scourge of usury, Gesell furnishes abundant material for thoroughly judging economic theory and practice. His orderly array of arguments is of unanswerable cogency. Anyone who has read The Natural Economic Order
cannot help admitting that is the most extraordinary book on economics ever written.2007 0-7734-5283-4
This book presents a general overview of the lives and works of William Temple and R. H. Tawney. The author examines their notions of acquistiveness, re-evaluating other themes in their works in light of this. The ethical socialism of Tawney and Temple is appraised to examine and evaluate their ideas and to establish their philosophical and historical legacy.2002 0-7734-7192-8
This volume describes the situation in the Territory of Hawaii in its post WWII years. It is an accounting of the roles of the Department of Justice, Congress, and Hawaii’s Big Five sugar companies in claiming that Communists were seeking control of the Hawaiian islands, in response to the post-war growth of the International Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen Unions. Melendy is the first historian to use Department of Justice and FBI documents as well as to research papers of various Congressmen. These sources throw new light on the search for Communists in the Territory.2002 0-7734-7227-4
This is a translation (from the Yiddish) of the memoirs of the Polish-Jewish workers leader Pinkus Minc (1895-19620. Minc played a leading role in the Jewish Bund in the early 1920s, leading its left wing in a fusion with the Polish Communist Party in 1922. Minc was active in organizing workers in Poland, West Byelo Russia and West Ukraine. He spent much time in prison. In the face of severe state repression, Minc was forced to leave Poland in the mid-1930s, whereupon he worked with Trotskyite groups in Prague, Danzig, Copenhagen, and finally Paris, where he was a close collaborator and friend of Trotsky’s son Leon Sedov. The publication of his memoirs contributes significantly to our understanding of the East European workers movements. It will also interest scholars in Jewish Studies, Russian studies, political science, and personal history. Includes rare photographs and facsimiles of correspondence between Minc and Leon Sedov.2015 0-7734-0087-7
The first in a series of joint venture scholarly explorations into the Czech-African relationship. The monograph brings together several aspects of Czechoslovak-African relations mainly in historical perspective covering major events and views on Africa dealing with different periods and different regions of Africa and the various roles Czechs or Slovaks had in these places.2015 1-4955-0268-6
Karl Marx did not view Lincoln as fighting to quell a rebellion, but to start a revolution to end worker exploitation by abolishing a stratification system that was not in the workers’ interest. Even Lincoln’s conscription policy during the Civil War was said to support the workers.
The author cites, in full or part, Marx’s various writings (articles and letters, including one Marx wrote to Lincoln and a reply by Ambassador Charles Adams on Lincoln’s behalf) in which Marx analyzes Lincoln’s actions (e.g., his dismissal of McClellan, The Emancipation Proclamation, conscription), as well as Union (northern) elections and discusses military campaigns.2000 0-7734-7487-01992 0-7734-9180-5
Examines the phenomenon of Marxism-Leninism from a perspective of the history of religions, in order to cull the lessons that students of both religion and society might draw from the collapse of that once seemingly impregnable ideology. After considering the reasons advanced by a variety of scholars for calling Marxism-Leninism a religion, as well as at Marxism-Leninism's own claim to be a science, the author suggests that a more fruitful way of looking at is would be as a form of civil religion. It examines the way Marxism-Leninism sought to supplant the historic religions and develop its own ritual system, as well as those features which are not only mythological, but also ideological in precisely the same sense in which Marx himself saw religions as ideological phenomena.2015 1-4955-0397-6
This study considers two contemporary movements of militant labor and their effect upon the democratization of their respective societies – Solidarnosc,
the Polish Solidarity union, and the Frente Autentico de Trabajo,
the Authentic Labor Front of Mexico. It provides illustrative examples of the leading role of workers organizations in the development and establishment of a democratic society.1993 0-7734-9373-5
This book highlights the profound effects that Credit has always had on economic developments in capitalism. The role and significance of Credit is distinctly missing in all major tradition schools of thought in economics (classical, neo-classical, Keynesian, and monetarist). The incorporation of Credit into economic theory promptly reveals the underlying forces behind important phenomena such as inflation and recession. This study is a radical attempt to expose the flaws of monetarist doctrines by following the evolution of economic history in parallel with the development of economic theory.1993 0-7734-9863-X
This is a philosophical, psychological and economic analysis of the basic archetypes of mentality of the Homo Sovieticus. The "child archetype," "twilight mentality," and archetypes of worship and protection are some of the concepts the author uses to describe the phenomenology of Russian and Soviet conservatism. He analyzes the so-called "Turannian" components of the Russian national psyche, discusses the views of both traditional and modern "Eurasians". Using literature, the media, and economic data, he illustrates the emergence of the antitotalitarian spirit as the precondition for the transition to "positive pragmatism", or the emergence of a Russian version of protestant ethics.1999 0-7734-3186-1
This collection of papers considers in detail the crisis at the end of 1920 which caused the fall of the NEP economic system as well as “Stalin’s turn” in 1929. Pulling down NEP meant the transition to command economics, the specific road of economical and political development.2002 0-7734-7176-6
In the summer of 1949, the Cold War came to Peekskill, NY, as two proposed Paul Robeson concerts were marred by the protests of local veterans’ organizations. The protests exploded into violence as area residents joined the protest. This even provides important insights into the nature of American anti-communism in the early Cold War. The riots, and anti-communism in general, have long been portrayed as the result of political manipulation. This work suggest that it is more a rational response to local, national, and international events than it is a product of political conspiracy. This work rectifies the usual overly-simplified view by examining the cause-and-effect relationships that led to the events, within the larger context of the Cold War.2015 1-4955-0373-9
The volume focuses on a series of case studies which cover a wide range of experiences and ages. Thus, it aims to provide the reader with a relevant image of the writing of these female intellectuals and the paradox Romanian women occupied during the Cold War period. The cases discussed are relevant both for their diverse narrative formulas and for their content, including their historical meanings as well as their multidisciplinary appeal.1992 0-7734-9484-7
This study involves research into bureaucratic behavior and group interest articulation, and repercussions of cultural, society-government (party) relations. This is one of the only books in the field to study the reasons why Soviet citizens do not do what the Party and State expect: to test an hypothesis that there is something about the Soviet character - particularly that of the Great Russian - that inhibits acceptance of the Party line and plans to remake the individual in Lenin's image.2007 0-7734-5225-7
This book provides a comprehensive portrait of China at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author surveys various issues including problems associated with the “One-Child Policy”, the condition of families and women, the rise of Christianity, areas facing ecological catastrophe, special economic zones, and growing splits and controversies in the Chinese Communist Party.2002 0-7734-7148-0
This work examines the differences between the two main laws that fund democratization activities in the post-Soviet regions. Analysis of the program funded by the Freedom Support Act reveals the extent to which the State Department relies n private organizations to implement democratization programs, and suggests that democratization programs provide financial benefits primarily to American organizations. Then, with a combined issue network/statist argument, this study explains that an issue network, organized by the State Department to give the foreign policy community an active mission in the post-cold war environment, was the impetus behind the creation of programs like Community Connections. Because Community Connections have never faced financial or political scandal, and taps into an American priority of spreading democracy and capitalism, evaluation of CC was irrelevant to program expansion and continuation.1998 0-7734-8283-0
This is the first comprehensive study of religiousness in Russia from the last year of the communist regime, covering the transition period up to 1996. The work is based on three World Values surveys conducted in Russia from 1991 to 1996.2006 0-7734-5809-3
Considering both significance and limitation of the existing gender perspective, this study views women’s liberation as a comprehensive project and part of the process of China’s democratization by using the prism of “public philosophy” to examine Chinese women’s liberation in a global context. Drawing the lessons from the past four revolutions in modern China, the author asserts that China needs the fifth revolution – remaking China’s public philosophy in order for Chinese women to achieve their full liberation in communist China. The author challenges the conventional Western and Eastern European opinions and refutes the official Chinese gender ideology, arguing that Confucianism is not the source of women’s oppression, Western feminism is not a panacea to women’s liberation, and Marxism cannot be the guiding principle of the Chinese women’s movement. To achieve the ultimate goal of women’s liberation, it is urgent for Chinese women to increase self-consciousness of women’s liberation and promote an independent women’s movement to fight for women’s rights in every aspect of Chinese society by focusing on five keys of women’s liberation. This study will contribute not only to China’s peaceful transition from the communist regime to a democratic one, but also to Chinese women’s liberation in a global context.1992 0-7734-9487-1
This bibliographical study, containing over three thousand entries in ten languages and further divided into thirty categories, is a comprehensive and focussed presentation of the revolutionary organizations and the Communist Party of interbellum Poland. The study is based on research covering the period from 1918 to 1990 and contains lists of file materials, bibliographies, documents, catalogues, and book, magazine and newspaper articles, primarily in Polish. In order to maintain a sharp focus, only those titles are included which are closely connected to the topic and not found in other major bibliographical studies. Much of the cited material appeared in Poland from the 1950's to the 1980's. These materials have been compiled from the most disparate sources, including studies by centralized institutions such as the government, The United Polish Workers' Party (UPWP), trade unions, and also by less official and marginal bodies, as well as independent studies. This study also includes special materials designed for the exclusive internal use of the UPWP and unpublished materials such as dissertations and manuscripts.
The division of the materials into thirty categories is intended to facilitate the use of this bibliography in future historical research. The anniversaries section, for example, presents historical perspectives of the UPWP. In one sense, it documents how the UPWP, the self-declared official heir to the prewar communist ideology, perceived its past communist history. The titles within this section focus upon the observations of those who celebrated the communist past in important historical moments. In another sense, the celebration and analyses thereof, at both the specialist and grass roots level, reveal more about the contemporary UPWP itself than of the pre-war communists.
The second part of this study comprises an extensive list of revolutionaries and accompanying bibliographic entries. Again, this has been carried out with the criterion of maintaining a sharp focus, and avoiding superfluous materials. Since about ten percent of the revolutionaries in interbellum Poland are sketched herein, previous assumptions can be tested or new hypotheses may arise on this working political body.2000 0-7734-7638-5
This text compiles exhaustive, newly acquired evidence from multiple sources and evaluates its reliability in order to draw a picture of education as experienced by the people, benefiting from direct observations by contemporaries and participants, triangulating national with provincial data, and enriched by qualitative historical material. A strength of this work lies in its ability to move through a variety of conceptual frameworks including international development theory, rational choice theory, Chinese politics and history, educational reproduction and organizational theory. The text draws out the relationship between ideology, policy, implementation, socio-economic incentives, and the demand for education among the people. The differences experienced by rural versus urban populations and under the radical-egalitarian and moderate labor resources policies are highlighted. After decades of struggle around ideology, structures, intellectuals and the content of education, some years to the point of violence, overall literacy among the masses increased only a little. These findings point to the necessity to question official claims for mass basic education in Mao’s China, and to review the role of culture and socio-economic context in international development education.1999 0-7734-8037-4
For half a century, Soviet linguists tried to drive a wedge between the Romanians of Moldova and their ethnic and linguistic kindred across the river in Romania. Attempts were made to create an independent literary language called ‘Moldavian', which according to Soviet linguistics and their followers was lexically, phonologically, even grammatically distinct from standard Romanian. These attempts failed, but for most of the Soviet period, the Romanian of Moldova.
The present work examines through a series of contemporary essays the history of Soviet language policy in Moldova. Special attentions is paid to the actual dialectal features of Moldovan Romanian, its borrowed lexical stock from Russian and the relationship between the Romanian of Moldova and other languages spoken in the region, such as Bulgarian and Gagauz. A special feature is a series of interviews in the appendices, with both politicians and academicians, including Mircea Snegur, President of Moldova.1989 0-88946-174-0
While there are not many people who still believe that "scientific socialism" can "scientifically" bring about more just and humane societies, Bardis speaks of an all-pervasive spirit of criticism which continually undercuts any attempt to build such societies. He also causes us to consider the way such criticism has become the fashion in politics and can be used to establish new and sometimes more oppressive political regimes than the traditional systems.1999 0-7734-7916-3
This study deals with the establishment of Reinhardt's school, the training that took place until WWII (including the implementation of nazi officials at the institution), the program of study during the German Democratic Republic, and finally the Hochschule für Schauspielkunst "Ernst Busch". By offering a detailed account of actor training methods which existed shortly after the fall of the Berlin Wall, the study examines the shift in emphasis from a socialist Realistic school of acting, as one of the state institutes of the GDR, to a more eclectic, broad-based approach. As witneessed in 1993, the tprofram showed the influence of Reinhardt's theories of acting as well as those of Stanislaviski and Brecht. Several of the schools' main teachers and leaders throughout its almost ninety year history are profiled, with their corresponding theoretical views included.2001 0-7734-7654-7
This is the first full-length study of the Ruskin experiment northwest of Nashville. The book discusses the rise and fall of Ruskin, at first communally and commercially successful but at the end spitefully and rancorously rent.2013 0-7734-4344-4
This memoir-novel is a historical account of real life under communism in Ukraine from 1917 to the first months of the invasion of the Soviet Union by Nazi Germany in 1941. It reveals the barbaric treatment inflicted upon ordinary Ukrainians under Stalin’s regime. These author-survivors are real human beings who deftly depict the atrocities and horrors inflicted upon them documenting the annihilative brutality of Soviet tyranny during this era of history.
A riveting narrative, a historical novel, a story about personal dignity, humanity and integrity in the face of a brutal political system. It documents details of Soviet history and its penal system from a Ukrainian perspective under Stalin that no other source has provided since not many survived to describe the horror of it.2002 0-7734-7140-5
This study offers a profound study of Arrufat’s play, using most recent critical trends concerning the performance aspect of the drama. It examines the genre of the drama and its relationship to the phenomenon of the Cuban Revolution, Arrufat as a Cuban playwright of the 60s and his re-writing of the Greek theme of the fratricidal fight in Aeschylus’ Seven Against Thebes. Also contains a recent interview with Arrufat in which he describes the social circumstances surrounding the play and some of his classical re-writing techniques. In Spanish.
“With the useful journey through Seven Against Thebes and its epoch furnished by this book, two assertions are well-established: first, the play is one of the masterpieces of Cuban theater of all time; and second, Barquet’s study constitutes a model of criticism in the field of Latin-American drama.” – José A. Escarpanter1993 0-7734-2242-0
Probes the question of whether the current insights and actions of Anglicans adequately anticipate potential political realities as the Church moves from British to Chinese communist rule. The resulting analysis is supported by reflection on the Church's history in Hong Kong and its relationship to the British and Chinese communities. Scrutinizes the potential for freedom of religion in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of China, in light of the Beijing-promulgated Basic Law, Hong Kong's future miniconstitution. Considers three political scenarios for China that might alter the Anglican agenda, and five scenarios for the Church in relation to China's possible attitudes toward religion. Recommends two strategies for pre-1997 Church action.2008 0-7734-4842-X
Examines the decision of American Communists to go underground during the 1950s’ era of McCarthyism. This book contains seven black and white photographs.1995 0-7734-8880-4
This book combines a critical synopsis of established views of the political and intellectual history of Victorian Britain with a detailed study of the original 1889 text of the Fabian Essays in Socialism. It will be of interest to both research scholars and higher education students working in the areas of political theory, history of political ideas and nineteenth-century British history.1997 0-7734-8679-8
In a long career, Upton Sinclair made himself one of the principal spokesmen of American socialism. With the decline of socialism in the United States as a viable social and political force, Sinclair's reputation as a reformer declined also, although his literary reputation remained constant. His lasting influence was to effect the transfer of socialist ideas from the moribund socialist party to a rejuvenated Democratic Party, which after 1932 adopted many of them. Today he is remembered as a socialist by very few.2006 0-7734-5537-X
This study considers the institutional evolution and progress of village elections in China. China’s dramatic economic growth in less than 30 years is the result of economic reforms initiated by Deng Xiaoping in the late 1970s, and thus has lifted more than 200 million people out of poverty. This change began with the “household responsibility system” permitting peasants to farm their own land, which eventually led to the abolishment of the commune system. In an effort to establish viable rural governance after de-communization, villagers took the initiative in establishing village self-government and electing their own leaders to manage village affairs. This book studies the creation and evolution of democratic institution of village election. It examines the causes of village election, the making of state and provincial election legislation, state implementation and improvement of village election rules and procedures, and the role of domestic and foreign players in influencing electoral institutionalization of village self-governance, and it assesses the impact of village election on Chinese political development. It argues for the institutional buildup of democratic infrastructures to ensure what could eventually be the beginning of a more extensive move towards democracy.2007 0-7734-5471-3
This study focuses on the background, life and personality of Episcopal Bishop William Montgomery Brown to explain why he became a materialist and a communist. Born to poor but industrious parents near Orrville, Ohio in 1855, he pursued the ordained ministry in the Episcopal Church. Following the publication of his The Church for Americans
in 1895, he was chosen as the episcopal successor to the Rt. Rev. Henry Niles Pierce, Bishop of Arkansas. He went on to write some works which proved controversial, causing friction within and outside of his diocese, leading him to move back to his native Ohio where, following a crisis of faith, he became a materialist and communist. Then, following the publication of his Communism and Christianism: Banish Gods from Skies and Capitalists from Earth!
, he was tried for heresy and deposed in 1925. He spent the remaining years of his life advancing communism and advocating a symbolic, non-supernatural Christianity, up until his death in 1937.