Subject Area: Bible Studies

Aggadic Midrash I: Sample Reader
2012 0-7734-2548-9
This may be usable as a textbook for university level courses on rabbinic literature. Dr. Maoz’s book provides extracts from a wide variety of Midrash texts in the original Hebrew and Aramaic accompanied by an English translation. It serves as a reader for students and professors interested in developing their translation skills while learning about writings in Midrash. Most of the translations are from the Torah, but there are other sources as well. Aggadah is said to contain hidden, symbolic references, and where a literal interpretation is irrational, the translations are viewed as allegories.

An Examination and Critique of the Understanding of the Relationship Between Apocalypticism and Gnosticism in Johannine Studies
1997 0-7734-2282-X
This study describes, criticizes, and corrects an assumption (that apocalyptic eschatology had no place in Gnosticism) frequently employed by Johannine scholars. It explores the assumption's background in Apocalypticism, and in the light of six Nag Hammadi tractates. It then summarizes conclusions and offers additional information in appendices. It describes a trend in apocalyptic studies and hopes to contribute a more accurate portrait of Apocalypticism within Gnosticism.

An Examination of Kingship and Messianic Expectation in Isaiah 1-35
1992 0-7734-2354-0
This study has two major purposes: to determine a proper method for examining a concept like messianic expectation, and to examine how the concept of relecture or rereading has been helpful in the development of messianic expectation in the book of Isaiah. This examination not only provides some very important insights into how the book of Isaiah has been used to engender messianic expectation, but will also form the basis for the study of other books.

An Exegesis of Apostasy Embedded in John’s Narratives of Peter and Judas: Against the Synoptic Parallels
2004 0-7734-6404-2
This study of apostasy in the Johannine writings contributes to filling in the vacuum of scholarship regarding apostasy in the New Testament. The perennial debate between the Arminians and Calvinists over the question has been based on their respective systematic theological presupposition whether it emphasizes freedom of human will or God’s predestination. This study serves to show how John would have understood them in his historical context, and thus affirms a well-known hermeneutic principle that a historical reconstruction must be born out from within the text rather than by imposing the interpreter’s own frame of presuppositions.

An Exegetical and Theological Analysis of the Son’s Relationship to the Father in John’s Gospel: Equal Yet Subordinate
2015 1-4955-0306-2
John's Gospel is generally regarded as the clearest and boldest affirmation of Jesus' deity in the New Testament. Yet John also highlights Jesus'subordination to the Father more than any other New Testament writer. The profundity of this phenomenon has not been lost on Johannine scholarship. For nearly two millennia various approaches to the problem have been proposed by biblical scholars and theologians - often stressing equality at the expense of subordination, or vice versa.


In his thorough exegetical and theological analysis of John's Christology, Randy Rheaume proposes fresh insights into this ancient conundrum. With close attention to current Johannine scholarship, Rheaume seeks to uncover John's original meaning regarding the Son's eternal relationship to the father. Rather than appealing to disparate, pre-Johannine sources to solve the riddle, Rheaume argues that the Fourth Gospel is the product of a theological genius who brought together the diverse pieces of the Christological puzzle to produce a vibrant portrait of the person whom the writer and his community had come to believe, adore, and worship.



An Exegetical and Theological Study of Paul's Understanding of New Creation and Reconciliation in 2 Cor. 5:14-21
1996 0-7734-2411-3
In the span of these verses, Paul touches on issues which range from christology to soteriology to ecclesiology to eschatology, from the precise nature of God's activity in Christ (described here in terms of reconciliation), to the nature of Paul's knowledge of the historical Jesus and the new creation which his life, death, and resurrection have precipitated. This is the first in-depth treatment of these verses and their significance for Pauline theology.

An Exegetical Study of the Nuptial Symbolism in Matthew 9:15
2006 0-7734-5811-5
This work offers an ample view of how Matthew 9:15 has been interpreted in the course of the centuries, beginning from Origen up to the present day, bringing a more contemporary interpretation to light. This work provides stimulus to the discussion about the right interpretation of the parables about a rich text such as Matthew 9:15.

An Inner-Biblical Exegetical Study of the Davidic Covenant and the Dynastic Oracle
2000 0-7734-7743-8
The Davidic covenant is one of the most controversial theological themes in the Old Testament. Its problems concern the literary and theological relationships among the texts that express it, especially with regard to its conditionality, continuity, and relationship to the Sinaitic covenant. This study uses an inner-biblical exegetical approach to arrive at a solution. It reveals that to maintain the continuity of the Davidic covenant tradition, the theologians and ideologists of Old Testament times reinterpreted and applied to it their respective new and challenging circumstances, by adding glosses to the original dynastic oracle, by rephrasing it, by quoting sections of it, or by merely alluding to it with a certain understanding of it in mind. It is this contextual re-interpretation and reuse that accounts for the apparent inconsistencies and contradictions.

An Interpretation of the Second Dialogue of Gregory the Great Hagiography and St. Benedict
1993 0-7734-9272-0
This work applies various types of criticism (source, form, redaction, historical) to the interpretation of the text. Typology and psycho-history are also used. The study first examines Gregory, the man and the scholar. The interpretation of the Vita V. Benedicti is in continuous form. An epilogue reviews the material as a whole to determine what exactly the hagiographer had in mind when he undertook the writing of the life of Benedict.

An Interpretation of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Hebrew Bible: The Emergence of Eschatology as a Theological Theme
2009 0-7734-4715-6
The Book of Twelve Minor Prophets has been one of the most loved, discussed and influential parts of the Bible. This work fills a gap in the existing scholarship on the history of interpretation of the Book of Twelve Minor Prophets and demonstrates the relevance to this day.

An Intertextual Study of the Psalms of Solomon Pseudepigrapha
2001 0-7734-7596-6
This is the first English study of the Psalms of Solomon in over a century. They were composed between 63-37 BCE as a series of reflections on the violence that accompanied the Roman dominance of Palestine. Faced with overwhelming foreign aggression, this unknown Jerusalem synagogue community used poetry as a vehicle to oppose the Romans and their Jewish allies. With the emergence of Herod the Great, this sect changed its theology, and used scripture to fashion a militant Davidic messiah, who was envisaged as a righteous counterpart to the Jewish and Roman rulers he was to destroy.

An Intratextural Analysis of the Mirroring Birth Stories of Samson and Samuel: Explaining the Narrative Logic of Literary Montage
2015 1-4955-0399-2
“In this fascinating and scholarly work by Mollo, there is an intellectual weaving of two similar yet different plots, including characters, motifs and wordings and with two distinctive logical conclusions that arguably apply to each other. The aim which is achieved is to reconstruct the literary causes and goals (narrative logic) governing form and content in both accounts, in order to explain how this mirroring effect works to convey meaning to both stories.”
-Dr. Glen Reynolds,
University of Sunderland, UK



An Investigation of koimaomai in the New Testament: The Concept of Eschatological Sleep
1996 0-7734-2417-2
This work argues that the sleep-of-death metaphor in New Testament usage is compatible with an approach to a model of the intermediate state called wholistic dualism. Focusing mainly on the New Testament witness, this book investigates the historical progression of the use of the term koimaomai and its minor semantic associates from the time of Homer to the early church fathers. The time frame includes a consideration of non-Christian Greek and Latin sources; the Hellenistic period including the LXX, Pseudepigrapha, Philo, Josephus; the semantic domain in Hebrew and Aramaic incorporating the Old Testament and the literature of Second Temple Judaism; and the early post-biblical reaction. An exhaustive search of the TLG uncovered many striking examples from primary sources.

Animal Rights and Animal Laws in the Bible: The Daily Practice of Reverence for Life
2012 0-7734-3918-4
What characterizes the proper ethical treatment of animals as outlined in the Old Testament? Animals play an important role in the Old Testament, and in particular the Pentateuch. Ritual sacrifices were a part of the ancient traditions, and there are rules written into the laws that pertain to this practice as well as the religious approach to animals and nature. In the oft quoted passage from Genesis the call is to not only be fruitful and multiply, but to reign over the earth and subdue it along with the animals that God created. The author explores the fallout of an anthropocentric way of approaching nature that he claims is a misreading of Genesis. Taken out of context this can seem as though ethics is arbitrary in the pursuit of such dominion, but in reality the Pentateuch shows a rather rigid set of laws revealing the careful treatment of animals as sacred beings necessary for the flourishing of human life on earth.

Anti-Language in the Apocalypse of John
1993 0-7734-9839-7
Anti-language is defined as language that is antithetical to the norm society. Four of the practical functions of anti-language are secrecy, verbal play, group solidarity, and creation and maintainance of an alternative social and conceptual reality. The study presents an overview of the social realia and of the social location of thought of the Apocalypse of John, which is viewed as following certain cultural scripts. There is an overview of Halliday's sociosemiotic theory and an analysis of four theorists of anti-language -- Halliday, Kress, Fowler, and Malina. Draws together the two theoretical components of social location of thought and sociolinguistics and used the Apocalypse of John 11:19 - 15:4 as a test case to discern the presence of anti-language.

Arthrous Occurrence and Function in the Pauline Corpus: with Particular Focus on the Text of Romans
2010 0-7734-3769-X
This work is a study of the Greek Article in the Pauline Corpus, focusing especially on the letter to the Romans. The history of development as a demonstrative and relative pronoun is traced from the Mycenaean period to its occurrence in Homer and in subsequent Greek writers.

Asyndeton in Paul a Text-Critical and Statistical Enquiry Into Pauline Style
1998 0-7734-8369-1
This study explores the stylistic effects of asyndeton in three of Paul's major letters: Romans and First and Second Corinthians. It analyzes the way in which these stylistic features underwent change at the hands of scribes. By comparing the use of connectives in passages of similar style, the authors recover the liveliness of Paul's original texts. Passages with firm text are used to analyse patterns of speech and of writing. Manuscript variation, too, contributes to this analysis. By carefully charting the way in which the main Pauline manuscripts have deviated from Paul's use of asyndeton, the authors build a profile of the behavior of individual manuscripts and also of groups of texts. This text is essential reading for anyone interested in Pauline style, or engaged in the methodical recovery of Pauline texts.

Augustine's Changing Interpretations of Genesis 1-3
2006 0-7734-5670-8
This book investigates and compares Augustine’s two commentaries on the opening chapters of Genesis: De Genesi contra Manicheos, his first scriptural exegesis, and De Genesi ad Litteram, the final and monumental version of his exploration of the creation. The book shows how Augustine’s exegesis of Genesis 1-3 progressed in the two commentaries. In so doing, the book suggests that there are two main factors to explain his progress: his notions of history and of the scriptures, which were developed and clarified during the period of the interval between the two commentaries.

Believer's Participation in the Death of Christ "corporate Identification" and a Study of Romans 6:1-14
1996 0-7734-2409-1
Since the original stating of the "corporate personality" several studies have redefined its limitations, showing, first, that a corporate self-understanding is neither specifically primitive nor specifically Hebraic and, second, that the Old Testament from the beginning maintains a tension between group and individual responsibility. This study refines the understanding of "corporate personality", returning finally to a passage pivotal for the understanding of corporate identification in New Testament Theology, Romans 6:1-14. This passage as a whole, and in particular Paul's particular choice of words in Romans 6:5, cannot be properly understood without a proper grasp of the concept of corporate identification.

Bible and Contemporary Theology
2006 0-7734-5855-7
An honest appraisal of much biblical material must admit that in terms of its perspectives of nature and the universe, cultural mores, moral sensitivity, and understanding of God, there are factual errors and considerable irrelevance for the contemporary world. Thus the claim of infallibility is simply false. Does this mean that the Bible must be abandoned as useless? Can it be shown that in its major and essential themes, there is no necessary contradiction with the proven facts of our world and that such themes are relevant in any age?

The views of several modern theologians who seek relevance for the biblical material are described and evaluated. It is concluded that the theologies of Reinhold Niebuhr and the Process Theologians serve best to preserve the major biblical themes as meaningful in the contemporary world. Interpreted in this way, the Bible can make a contribution to the faith and life of contemporaries.

Bible in the Light of Cuneiform Literature Scripture in Context III
1990 0-88946-219-4
Interdisciplinary studies dealing with various aspects of the Hebrew Bible in relation to their literary, cultural, and historical contexts, especially the context of ancient Mesopotamia.

Biblical and Theological Insights From Ancient and Modern Civil Law
1992 0-7734-9601-7
Examines legal concepts in the scripture and the technical implications involved. Compares in both scripture and courtroom such concepts as covenant, apostle, witnessing, prayers, calls to worship compared with court room commands, the architecture of ancient temples and that of court rooms, exegesis, rhetorical arguments in the Bible and court, incarnation, and more. This book will stir the imaginations of scholars to find still further insights, questions and answers. The wisdom of the courtroom is an important ingredient for understanding biblical interpretation and Jewish and Christian theology.

Biblical Higher Criticism and the Defense of Infallibilism in 19th-Century Britain
1987 0-88946-821-4
Surveys the history of disputes in Britain between partisans of the historical-critical reading of the Old Testament and conservative scholars determined to retain the total inerrancy/infallibility of the Bible.

Biblical History as the Quest for Maturity
1985 0-88946-706-4
Traces the biblical story from beginning to end by showing how the spiritual life of the biblical Christian develops through what the author calls "moments in spiritual history" which have parallels in the process of one's personal maturity.

Biblical Interpretation Using Archaeological Evidence, 1900-1930
2002 0-7734-7146-4
This study explores how traditional scholars seized upon archaeology to advocate biblical truth. It examines the conflict between critical theories of biblical interpretation and traditional methods. It delineates the tension between scholarship and the business of theology in the process of evaluation of the archaeological evidence at the beginning of the 20th century.

Biblical Law Bibliography Sorted by Subjects and by Authors
1990 0-88946-891-5
The most extensive bibliography of its kind, compiled by a professor of law at Brigham Young University.

Biblical Prophets, Seers, and the New Apocalypticism Rightly Explaining the Word of Truth
1996 0-7734-2424-5
This is an introductory text for church groups and college students, examining the fruits of modern scholarship on the subject of biblical movements of prophecy and apocalypticism. It offers a clear and unobstructive alternative to the outpouring of recent books, articles and movies that have sensationalized the theme of "the last days" or the fulfillment of so-called "Bible Prophecy." This work makes accessible and inviting the insights of those whose work is often relegated to scholarly tomes.

Biblical-Missiological Exploration of the Cross-Cultural Dimensions in Luke-acts
1993 0-7734-2212-9
Using the best insights from the disciplines of biblical studies and missiology, this study explores the extent to which cross-cultural insights can be drawn from Luke's story of Christianity as it moves from the particular (the Jews) to the universal (Jew and Gentile). Luke's narrative, while cast in religious categories, contains numerous implications on the cross-cultural nature of the messianic movement because the terms he uses have sociological dimensions. The study's conclusions will interest both New Testament scholars and missiologists.

Bibliographies for Biblical Research
2016


Bibliography for the Gospel of Mark, 1954-1980
1981 0-88946-916-4
Indexes journal articles, essays in collected works, and books in all languages under seven general headings. Items (total: 1599) are listed under a minute classification system, and within each class they are listed in reverse chronological order. There are many cross references and a complete (11-page) author index.

Bibliography of the Nature and Role of the Holy Spirit in Twentieth-Century Writings
1993 0-7734-2366-4
The bibliographies provide an index to the journal articles, essays in collected works, books and monographs, dissertations, commentaries, and various encyclopedia and dictionary articles published in the twentieth century. Technical works of scholarship, from many differing traditions, constitute the bulk of the citations, though some selected works that reinterpret the research to a wider audience have been included.

Binding [aqedah] and Its Transformations in Judaism and Islam the Lambs of God
1995 0-7734-2389-3
Little serious research has been undertaken to examine the story of the binding as it appears in Jewish and Islamic traditions, to see whether the parallel components could be found in the binding of Isaac vis a vis the binding of Ishmael. This volume presents a comprehensive examination of the two traditions and analyzes the process of how the colorful tapestry of oral tradition transformed into more rigid religious doctrine, showing the interactions and transformations of the tale as it grows within the constraints, and across the bounds, of these differing traditions. This research will be useful to all students of the Bible, encouraging them to view the Aqedah through the fascinating and fluid aesthetic of the oral tradition in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

Book of Danielmellen Biblical Commentary (intertextual) Vol. 25
1999 0-7734-2470-9
The first commentary ever written of a First Testament document that points out the earlier intertexts if Prof. Buchanan’s thought-provoking exegesis of Daniel. Among the insights discovered is the realization that Daniel is not unified, but is a collection of individual dramas. Furthermore, Buchanan has demonstrated that Daniel was not initially a prophecy; it is not pacifistic; and probably should not be called apocalyptic. The dramas of Daniel are probably some of those that Judas had scholars collect in preparation for Hanukkah (2 Macc 2:13-14). The canonizers did not classify these documents with the prophets, probably because they were not considered prophecies. They are not tracts for hard times, but dramas that are success stories for celebration, In these the heroes prosper and the enemies are destroyed. The dramas of Daniel do not at all reflect a pessimistic people under persecution, biting their fingernails and hoping against all hope that they would some day be delivered. They dramatize, rather, a bitter struggle which was over, an end that had already taken place, and victory that was celebrated. In addition to the intertexts, Dr. Buchanan has made his case by recognizing the unity of Daniel 7, observing the two variant passages in Daniel 11, and relating the texts appropriately to the history of Hasmonean times.

Brief Commentary on the Gospel of John
1992 0-7734-2346-X
This well-written, concise guide integrates the best insights in biblical research to explain essential points of this profound Gospel. A major emphasis is two-fold; to make clear the meaning of Jesus for John, and how John understands the words and deeds of Jesus to give`life to the fullest'. Also relates the Gospel to the social situations which gave rise to it. This reliable commentary will be of great use to college theology classes, bible study groups, homilists, and retreat directors.

Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew
1992 0-7734-2350-8
This book explains the various contributions the Gospel makes to moral teachings, to the understanding of Jesus, to the significance of the church of Jesus, to the manner in which this church relates to the Israel from which it came, and to the Jewish scriptures. As well, the commentator draws attention to elements which distinguish it from the Gospels of Mark and Luke. This readable and coherent commentary will be of great use to college theology classes, bible study groups, homilists, and retreat directors.

Calvin's Preaching on the Prophet Micah
2006 0-7734-5804-2
It is difficult to exaggerate the importance of preaching during the period of European reformation. This book recognizes the centrality of John Calvin’s preaching to his reforming program. This study elucidates the reformer’s teaching within the very concrete historical situation in Geneva in 1550-1551. What emerges is a clearer picture of Calvin the preacher, Calvin the pastor as he struggles to commend the love of God to a difficult generation.

Centrality of Aima (blood) in the Theology of the Epistle to the Hebrews: An Exegetical and Philological Study
2012 0-7734-1461-4
This book demonstrates that because blood sanctifies, consecrates and purifies, the Greek word for blood provided the best expression for the unique role of Christ as self-sacrificing High Priest in the Epistle to the Hebrews.

Centrality of Metaphors to Biblical Thought a Method for Interpreting the Bible
1990 0-88946-619-X


Clumsy Construction in Mark's Gospel a Critique of Form- and Redaktionsgeschichte
1979 0-88946-876-1
Proposes that Mark's gospel shows evidence of the distorting clumsiness that has always beset the ordinary, if occasionally creatively talented, story-teller.

Commentary on the Book of Genesis
1990 0-88946-090-6
Influenced by memories of conversations with Leo Strauss. The Book of Genesis is shown to be an introduction to a grand failure of a people beginning as slaves in Egypt and ending as slaves in Babylon. An artful and well-constructed account, Genesis is viewed as intending to reveal the deepest causes of failure to those who were about to begin all over again.

Comparative Analysis of the Gospel Genre the Synoptic Mode and Its Uniqueness
1992 0-7734-9460-X
This work addresses itself to four interrelated questions: 1) What was the primary source of power that generated the Gospels? 2) To what extent do the Gospels represent a unique literary genre? 3) Does the Gospel genre permit us to talk seriously about the historical Jesus? 4) How do the Synoptic Gospels relate to the large body of literature describing the lives and teachings of the many highly revered, phrase-making itinerant teachers, healers and doers of miracles in the ancient world? The book's chief contribution is its application of some novel methodology called "Content Analysis" which produces an entirely new dimension of primary evidence for the examination of the problem of Synoptic origins. This throws a fresh light upon the entire discussion, and produces some new insights. Because of its original approach and the new data it produces, this book will be of great interest to research libraries and Synoptic scholars.

Comparative Discourse Analysis and the Translation of Psalm 22 in Chichewa, a Bantu Language of South-Central Africa
1993 0-7734-9289-5
This study illustrates a comprehensive method of analyzing the discourse structure and style of a Hebrew lyric text with special reference to its interacting thematic organization and rhetorical dynamics. An illustrated survey of ten of the principal stylistic features leads to a discussion of similar rhetorical techniques manifested by modern lyric (written) poetry in Chichewa. The study also makes an important contribution to the theory and practice of meaning-oriented Bible translation.

Comparative Literary Study of Daniel and Revelation Shaping the End
1995 0-7734-2361-3
This study shows similarities in Daniel's and Revelation's structural combination of genres (narrative vision, prophecy-apocalyptic, epistle-vision), explores similarities in their characterization of the central characters and of some divine figures, and analyzes the effect on structure of the distinctive outlook of each author: horizontally through history in Daniel and vertically upward in imminent expectation in John's vision. Part I deals with the genre, chronology and historicity of Daniel, and suggests a new approach to the problems of "mixed genre" and "historical errors," showing the literary unity binding Daniel's narratives and visions together. Part II discusses the prophetic, apocalyptic, and epistolary characteristics of the Book of Revelation and provides a literary analysis of the whole as a unified work of art. Part III analyzes Daniel and Revelation intertextually, focusing particularly on previously unnoted similarities in structural and thematic unifying features of the works. There is also a consideration of the influence of each book on English literature.

Comparative Study of the Ritual of Ordination as Found in Leviticus 8 and Emar 369: Ritual Times, Space, Objects, and Action
1998 0-7734-2241-2
This is a major study on the meaning and interpretation of the ordination ritual as found in Leviticus compared with the recently published Akkadian text from Emar describing the ordination ritual.

Comparison of Greek Words in Philo and the New Testament
2003 0-7734-6774-2
This volume presents a complete computer-generated comparison of the Greek New Testament and the extant Greek writings of Philo of Alexandria. It is a statistical counting and registration of all common words in these writings. It is based upon the database gathered in connection with the Norwegian Philo Concordance Project, headed by Prof. Peder Borgen. This list will be useful for all New Testament scholars interested in the Jewish and Greco-Roman background of the New Testament.

Concept of the Christ in St.paul's Thought: The Nature of Communication Among Humans and Between God and Humans
2012 0-7734-4080-1
CHRIST in Paul’s Thought is concerned with religious ideas of the nature of communication between God and humans, and between humans and humans as presented in the undisputed correspondence of the Apostle Paul. This communication scheme is compared and contrasted with texts understood as post-Pauline glosses, pseudo-Pauline, and deuteron-Pauline literature, as well as apocryphal texts pertaining to the Apostle to determine whether the communication scheme demonstrated in the communications agent, Paul, operate in unison to bring to dejected humankind a communication scheme of God’s – through Christ – salvific activity and telos. Paul’s concept of CHRIST’S function in this scheme is tied to both ancient Israel’s understanding of the covenant, and the Greco-Roman world’s failure through its philosophical and religious teachings to assuage and/or resolve human despair. By his understanding of CHRIST, Paul represents him as both the specific savior agent for traditional Israel, as well as for universal “Israel,”: the Church. Membership in this Church/”Israel” has the power to resolve the despair.

Contribution of the Speeches of Elihu to the Argument About Suffering in the Book of Job: A Study in Narrative Continuity
2009 0-7734-4799-7
This study contends that Elihu and his speeches are an original part of the text of the Book of Job and do play a significant interpretive, explanatory and theological role.

Corpus of Ammonite Inscriptions
1989 0-88946-089-2
Presents a complete discussion, bibliography, and analysis of all published inscriptions that have been identified as Ammonite. Contains numerous illustrative photographs.

Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Ecclesiastes
2016 1-4955-0429-8
This is a comprehensive study of Ecclesiastes in commentary form that explores all aspects of the book and its interpretations, ancient and modern. It explores Ecclesiastes in the light of contemporary Judeo-Christian historical, theological, and biblical scholarship, with special attention to the role of Ecclesiastes among the Megilloth, the Five (biblical) Scrolls liturgically read at five important festivals in the Jewish community.

Critical Tools for the Study of the New Testament
1995 0-7734-2405-9
"Every serious student of the New Testament needs the information supplied . . . Mills informs students of the myriad of books used by experienced scholars: bibliographies of bibliographies, periodicals, indexing and abstracting resources, book reviews, information on dissertations and theses, dictionaries, commentaries, works on archaeology, texts of the New Testament, grammars, lexicons, concordances, synopses, and the computer in New Testament Studies. The volume in encyclopedic in scope, attempting to list the major resources presently available, especially those in English, German, and French. . . . Students are not simply provided lists; they are provided introductory interpretive commentary and suggestions. In the chapter on bibliography, for example, Mills distinguishes the sorts of bibliographies and their uses and then gives a brief description of each of different bibliographies of bibliographies in English, German, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian. The thirty-eight most important periodicals in New Testament studies are listed and discussed. Twenty-five different resources for abstracts, indexes and locating book reviews are included. . . . unquestionably the best guide available." - Edgar V. McKnight

Deuteronomistic Theology of Prophecy as Indicated by the Consistency Between Prophecies and Fulfillments: An Exegetical and Theological Study
2013 0-7734-4475-0
This exegetical and theological study argues that within the Deuteronomistic History the number of imprecisely fulfilled prophetic predictions increase dramatically as the historian’s account moves into the divided monarchy.

Directory of Putative References to the Old Testament in the Gospel of Mark
2011 0-7734-3937-4
This text is the first to display the text of the New Testament book of Mark alongside its putative Old Testament referents.

Disciplinary Practices in Pauline Texts
1992 0-7734-2348-6
This study contributes to the understanding of early Christianity through a detailed examination of its disciplinary practices as reflected in the letters of Paul. It employs the methods of historical-philological exegesis. Texts included are 1 Cor. 5:1-8, 2 Cor. 2:5-11, Gal. 6:1, Rom. 16:17, Phil. 3:2, 2 Thess. 3:6-15, Eph. 5:3-14, and several texts from the Pastorals, chosen because they are both communal and corrective. The author concludes that discipline was salvific in intent as well as protective of the community; that it could take a variety of forms; that Paul left it to the community to decide the action,except in extreme cases; that it was derived from the Gospel and not from pagan or Jewish models; and that it served the vital functions of social control and boundary maintenance.

Discourse Analysis of Hebrew Prophetic Literature Determining the Larger Textual Units of Hosea and Joel
1995 0-7734-2371-0
This monograph develops the discourse analysis techniques outlined in the author's previous work Comparative Discourse Analysis and the Translation of Psalm 22 in Chichewa. The specific focus of this work is upon the analysis of larger (strophic/stanzaic) units for which a detailed methodology is set forth with specific application to the oracles of Hosea and Joel. The analysis also explores the functional dynamics of prophetic discourse as manifested by its structural organization. Special studies of irony (Hosea) and recursion (Joel) are included as a means of more fully exploring the rhetorical features of these divine messages, which are of continuing relevance to God's people today. The study concludes with a series of practical remarks directed particularly to those engaged in Bible translation in languages throughout the world.

Diverse Water Symbols in the Psalms: Seas, Rivers, Streams, Wadis, Rain, Hail, Dew, Tears
2017 1-4955-0526-X
Different forms of water play a major role in creation, nature, historical events, and spiritual similes and metaphors concerning Yahweh, human beings, and religious concepts. This study is an indispensable tool in understanding and determining the meaning of biblical texts that employ these water symbols.

Early Jewish and Christian Memories of Moses’ Wives: Exogamist Marriage and Ethnic Identity
2005 0-7734-6032-2
This book “frames” the appearances of Moses’ wives in Israel’s story and in the interpretive literature of Jews and Christians. Their responses to the account of Zipporah and the Cushite in the Scriptures reveal their views on circumcision, exogamy, monogamy, and even chastity, for an exegetical motif emerged that Moses “withdrew” from his wife after he became a prophet for God.

Zipporah enters the script of Exodus as Moses’ wife, a foreign woman who performed the ritual that marked male Jews as God’s covenant partners and members of God’s people. Zipporah is one of three named circumcisers in the Jewish Scriptures, joining Abraham and Joshua. By circumcising her son, she made a way for the deliverance of Israel from the bondage of Egypt. Like Abraham, she took a knife to her son, not to slay him, but to save his – or his or his father’s – life. The Torah also mentions Moses’ marriage to a Cushite woman – another outsider, which the priestly and prophetic leadership of Israel – Miriam and Aaron – disparaged, but which the LORD affirmed. Like other outsiders in the Bible, Moses’ foreign wives are featured and celebrated to combat trends toward separatism and exclusivism that emerged among post-exilic Jews.

However, the early interpreters of the Scriptures were not concerned with the social dynamics of Persian period Yehud or the tensions between Second Temple scribes and redactors. Early Jews and Christian sages had their own agendas for Zipporah and the Cushite and used their stories to influence their constituencies regarding marriage, procreation and sexual renunciation, as well as circumcision and baptism. Thus, this project traces the exegetical trajectories of Jews and Christians along these lines.

Ecclesial Dimension of Personal and Social Reform in the Writings of Isaac Thomas Hecker
2001 0-7734-7332-7
This study explores the nature of the dependence of Christian ethics on religious faith from the perspective of Isaac Hecker. In Hecker’s writings there is a clear connection between personal and social ethics and the mission of the Church. Hecker’s insights shed further light on the contemporary question of the Church’s relationship to the reform of the individual and society. His works are studied within the narrative context of his life, and the study also includes the wider picture of Hecker’s place in the 19th century.

Exploring New Paradigms in Biblical and Cognate Studies
1996 0-7734-2407-5
Essays include: an exploration of the meaning of Matthew 2:15 and conclusions on how its author and community viewed Egypt; an examination of the language of cursing in the ancient Near East; a close reading of Jeremiah 46 and its use of historical information in aims that are theologically propagandistic; the place of Asipu and Asu in the spectrum of healing disciplines in ancient Mesopotamia; and an apologia and test application for a new model of biblical criticism that focuses attention on the use of cultural data as part of a text's literary artifice. These papers illustrate how heterogeneity in methodological approach, when combined with a broad interest in human culture and commitment to the synthesis of available data, can yield significant results for scholars of antiquity. They were presented at the inaugural Colloquium of the Institute for Ancient Near Eastern and Afroasiatic Cultural Research.

Figure of Abraham in the Epistles of St. Paul: in the Footsteps of Abraham
1992 0-7734-9841-9
This study examines Paul's faithfulness to his biblical heritage while at the same time identifying the Apostle as a maverick who used contemporaneous Jewish methods only to fracture the commonly accepted interpretations about Abraham. After studying all relevant Jewish and Christian literature from Genesis to the Rabbis, it is only in both Paul's epistles and Genesis that we discover similar themes concerning Abraham such as justification by faith, righteousness apart from law, blessing to the nations, etc.. This study yields new insights into the issue of Paul's continuity/discontinuity with the Old Testament and his Jewish heritage.

Figure of Samson in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic Traditions: The Myth and the Man
2014 0-7734-4278-2
This remarkable literary journey of the enigmatic ‘Samson’ titillates the reader’s curiosity. Blessed with a handsome and spectacular physique, and a naughty thirst for la dolce vita, Samson has served as a paradigm for many a well-meaning person who failed to teach himself self-restraint. Caspi and Greene chronicle the fascinating literary-historical development of the Samson figure and his significance through Jewish, Christian, and Islamic traditions, and during ancient, medieval, and modern times.


Finding and Translating the Oral-aural Elements in Written Language: The Case of the New Testament Epistles
2008 0-7734-4959-0
This book examines the interlingual, cross-cultural transmission of the Bible in contemporary languages, underscoring the importance of employing a context-based methodology in translation.

First Corinthians 1-4 in Light of Jewish Wisdom Traditions: Christ, Wisdom, and Spirituality
2000 0-7734-7833-7
This book examines the influence of Jewish wisdom traditions on Pauls thought and theology. It also evaluates background sources and contains an excellent bibliography on wisdom literature.

Five Exotic Scrolls of the Hebrew Bible (the Scrolls of the Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther): The Prominence, Literary Structure, and Liturgical Significance of the megilloth
2009 0-7734-4749-0
This work is a comprehensive, advanced introduction to the five books or scrolls in the Hebrew Bible (Song of Solomon; Ruth; Lamentations; Ecciesiastes; Esther) that constitute the Megilloth, a distinctive minor collection within the canon of the Hebrew Bible.

Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Ch?ndogya Upanisad
2006 0-7734-5712-7
This two-volume work, first published as one volume in 1987, is the product of a 14-year collaboration by the authors in developing a method for the reading of ancient religious tests. Their method is derived from the work of Leo Strauss and Robert Sacks, who had pointed out that the liberal-democratic philosophers were careful commentators on Genesis. The method taught by Dr. Combs and Dr. Post is to begin with the religious text and make the assumption that it is written carefully and deliberately – do not interject an interpretation unless it is in conformity with the details of the text; only reject that assumption when the text fails to make sense as written. This method is shown to be warranted by the careful structure and order of each text. Such careful attention illuminates an inherent comparative structure to each text, which in turn warrants a comparison with the other text, which in turn reveals deeper philosophical and theological issues latent with these texts.

Foundations of Political Order in Genesis and the Ch?ndogya Upanisad
2006 0-7734-5713-5
This two-volume work, first published as one volume in 1987, is the product of a 14-year collaboration by the authors in developing a method for the reading of ancient religious tests. Their method is derived from the work of Leo Strauss and Robert Sacks, who had pointed out that the liberal-democratic philosophers were careful commentators on Genesis. The method taught by Dr. Combs and Dr. Post is to begin with the religious text and make the assumption that it is written carefully and deliberately – do not interject an interpretation unless it is in conformity with the details of the text; only reject that assumption when the text fails to make sense as written. This method is shown to be warranted by the careful structure and order of each text. Such careful attention illuminates an inherent comparative structure to each text, which in turn warrants a comparison with the other text, which in turn reveals deeper philosophical and theological issues latent with these texts.

Friedrich Schleiermacher’s Interpretation of the Epistle to the Colossians: A Series of Sermons (1830-1831)
2009 0-7734-4689-3
These 16 sermons, on the Book of Colossians preached by the theologian and pastor Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768-1834), made available here in English for the first time, provide an instructive insight into the thought and work of Schleiermacher, as the experiential elements of this particular book of the bible are central for understanding Schleiermacher’s explication of Christianity.

Function of Exodus Motifs in Biblical Narratives Theological Didactic Drama
2002 0-7734-6994-X


Function of Sacrifice in Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah
1993 0-7734-2362-1
Examines the sacrifical scenes to determine the function of sacrifice in these narratives. Studies both the literary function of the sacrificial scene and the role played by the act of sacrifice within the community presented in the narrative.

Gathering of the Gospels From Papyrus to Printout
1997 0-7734-2427-X
This book examines the planning and production of the original copies of the four gospels and Acts. It provides much new information about these books and the relations between them. The progression from first to last is shown to be a logical sequence of addition and expansion.

Genesis 1-3 in the History of Exegesis Intrigue in the Garden
1988 0-88946-522-3
A history of the exegesis of Genesis 1-3, discussing Eve, Adam, Eden, Adam's first wife, heresy, asceticism, and related topics. As one contributor notes, "Much of the power of the Genesis myths comes from our conviction that the intrigues of the garden are really over us, that they embody and explain our sexual arrangements in some primordial and primitive way" (Mary Rose D'Angelo). Also introduces the reader to some "alien, strange, comic, and fantastical interpretations of Genesis 1-3" (from the introduction by Gregory Robbins).

Glory of Adam and the Afflictions of the Righteous: Pauline Sufferings in Context
1993 0-7734-2360-5
This study examines the role that Adam theology played in the thinking of the apostle Paul, arguing that the double motif of glory/suffering and the figure of Adam might be a valuable hermeneutic for other key Pauline texts on suffering. For each of those texts, a three-fold procedure is followed: 1) the identification of the interwoven themes of suffering and glory; 2) the uncovering of the notion of the restoration of Adam's glory through righteous suffering; and 3) the passage's contribution to the understanding of the tri-level relationship existing among the afflictions of Christ, Paul and the latter's audience.

Glossolalia a Bibliography
1989 0-88946-605-X
A 22-page bibliographical essay followed by 1,158 entries arranged in alphabetical order by author/editor, with subject and scripture indexes.

Gnostic Concept of Authority and the Nag Hammadi Documents
1995 0-7734-2391-5
This volume demonstrates that Gnostic authority originated in and was based upon the spiritual (pneumatic) Gnostic's self-identification as consubstantial with the "highest god". The "divine spark" basic to this self-identification exalted the Gnostic over his contemporaries and even over the Demiurge (the creator-God of the Old Testament) who did not possess it. The Gnostic rejected the orthodox church and the inferior law and world of the Demiurge. Either in asceticism or in libertinism, the superiority of the Gnostic's authority is clearly expressed in the Gnostic writings, and it is uniformly based on his identity with the divine.

God Who Fights the War Tradition in Holy Scriptures
1993 0-7734-1653-6
This volume argues that `the God who fights' is only on God's side. The God of the Bible acts as both protector and adversary. Such two-sidedness emerges in the Exodus and Judges periods, and passes into Israel's worship. As in the Exodus and Exile, Christ embraced both conquest and defeat, and the Christian life likewise embraces victory and defeat, united in the loving grace of the triune God.

Gospel of Mark
2006 0-7734-5553-1
This bibliography surveys works published on the Gospel of Mark from 1980 through 2005 – books, essays and articles. Journal articles are cross-referenced to their abstracts in New Testament Abstracts and, in many cases, references are given to reviews of books. The works of almost 1,500 authors extend to over 3,700 entries. The strongest aspect of this work is its indexing of the materials, which not only allows scholars to find materials directly pertinent to their work but also indicates the new directions the study of the Gospel of Mark has taken during the last quarter century. While works by scholars, for scholars, and in scholarly journals comprise the largest part of this bibliography, materials written to interpret that scholarship for a larger audience are also included.

Gospel of Mark as Midrash on Earlier Jewish and New Testament Literature
1990 0-88946-621-1
A contribution to the leading edge of Gospel studies, based on the methodology of comparative midrash, with commentary on Mark pericope by pericope.

Gospel of Matthew with Patristic Commentaries
1999 0-7734-8228-8
This translation of The Gospel of Matthew with its Greek and English parallel text format and appendix of Patristic Commentary is intended to offer the reader a glimpse into the past of the church – its first seven centuries, to be exact – the Apostolic, Subapostolic, and Patristic periods, which attract Christians of all persuasions like a lodestone.

Grace and Law in Second Isaiah
1988 0-88946-087-6
Develops the thesis that II Isaiah presented a message that included the themes of both grace and law. Although II Isaiah did not refer explicitly to the covenant at Mount Sinai or invoke its obligations, Isaiah's frequent use of formulas of divine self-predication, such as "I am the Lord," indicated that the close interrelationship of the themes of grace and law was integral to the structure of his thought.

Greek Verb Endings a Reverse Index
1986 0-88946-206-2


Guide to the Hebrew Bible in the Gospel of Mark
2014 0-7734-0065-6
This contextual disclosure of the extensive underlay of canonical Hebrew scripture within the Marcan narrative will promote further exploration of intertextuality within the Bible. It will serve to allow greater appreciation of the pervasive influence of the Hebrew bible on Mark's gospel and will provide prompt access to the nature of his hermeneutics.

Hebrew Perspectives on the Human Person in the Hellenistic Era Philo and Paul
1995 0-7734-2420-2
Philo of Alexandria represented a classic assimilation of the Greek dualist view (bi-partite body and soul), into the traditional Hebraic concept, and it was generally assumed that those who followed, particularly the writers of the New Testament, continued to uphold the assimilated view. Examining this view in the light of recent scholarship and the biblical texts, this volume concludes that, while the Apostle Paul must have been exposed to hellenistic concepts of the human as bi-partite, he resisted this interpretation, developing the fundamental Hebraic concept into a distinctively Christian anthropology. The interaction of the two views reached its climax in the Corinthian correspondence, where Paul clearly reversed the hellenized interpretation. The primary value of this work consists in the integration of historical developments with in-depth textual study, bringing the biblical perspectives into closer harmony with contemporary psychological understandings. The work opens up the possibility of further examination of the New Testament (particularly the Gospels and the Book of Hebrews), by the same criteria.

Hermeneutical Foundations of Hebrews a Study in the Validity of the Epistle's Interpretation of Some Core Citations From the Psalms
1994 0-7734-2860-7
This study enquires into the consistency of both the writer's exegetical content and hermeneutical methodology with historical-grammatical hermeneutics. Part I compares Hebrews' interpretations of Psalms 45:6,7; 8:4-6; and 95:7-11 with their meanings in their respective OT contexts. Part II re-examines the writer's use of Psalm 95 from a methodological perspective since the Epistle's closest resemblances to midrash are found here. It also enquires into the hermeneutical validity of the writer's typological interpretation of Melchizedek, which arises from Psalm 110:4.

Hermeneutics of Medieval Jewish Thought
2007 0-7734-5288-5
This study examines the linguistic codes in Rashi’s commentaries on the Pentateuch and Talmud, and Nachmanide’s commentary on the Torah to elucidate their goals and concepts. Through analysis of the writing characteristics and methodological foundations of both commentators, it is possible to discern their distinct approaches and attitudes toward a multiplicity of categories.

History and Critique of Scholarship Concerning the Markan Endings
1993 0-7734-2380-X
This volume surveys and evaluates the scholarly views concerning the problem of the ending of the Gospel of Mark, from the ante-Nicene Fathers to the present day. Realizing the peripheral issues related to the ending of Mark, care was taken not to overextend the boundaries of this study. The question that guided this book was whether ephobounto gar is a legitimate ending of a work.

History as Narrative in the Deuteronomistic History and Chronicles
2003 0-7734-6783-1
It has long been recognized that, though they describe the same period of Israel’s history, the Deuteronomistic History and Chronicles do so in quite different ways due to the different theological perspectives and purposes of their respective writers. This is the first systematic comparative study into the theological concerns of each writer as demonstrated through their respective portrayal of the Davidic monarchy. It defines briefly ancient Israelite historiographical methods in relation to both the Ancient Near Eastern context and modern theories concerning the writing of history. The majority of the work then presents a comparative analysis of the portrayal of select Davidic kings. The final chapter offers a description of the overall historiographical methods and theological concerns of both the Deuteronomist and the Chronicler, as well as an evaluation for the relative value of each account for a modern reconstruction of the history of the Davidic monarchy.

History of Modern Scholarship on the Biblical Word ?erem: The Contributions of Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Peter C. Craigie, and Tremper Longman, III
2010 0-7734-3834-3
The study is the first extensive analysis of the biblical exegesis of three prominent biblical scholars (Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Peter C. Craigie, and Tremper Longman, III) who represent different perspectives within the evangelical community about how to read these difficult passages of war. The work draws the reader beyond the current cultural debate about what some have called “holy war”, allowing scholars to formulate independent conclusions about ?erem based on a close reading of biblical passages and in dialogue with evangelical biblical interpretation.

History of the Interpretation of the Gospel of Mark: Volume One
2008 0-7734-5190-0
This two-volume work examines the entire history of the interpretation of the Gospel of Mark. In this first volume, the author presents the history of the Gospel’s interpretation from the time of its composition through the nineteenth century. The second volume covers history of interpretation during the twentieth century.

History of the Interpretation of the Gospel of Mark: Volume Two, Book One and Two
2008 0-7734-5117-X
This two-volume work examines the entire history of the interpretation of the Gospel of Mark. In this second volume, the author presents the history of the Gospel’s interpretation during the twentieth century. The first volume covers the history of interpretation through the nineteenth century.

History of the Two-Hundred-Year Scholarly Debate About the Purpose of the Prologue to the Gospel of John: How Does Our Understanding of the Prologue Affect Our Interpretation of the Subsequent Text?
2015 1-4955-0356-9
A new summary of the most-oft asked questions about the Prologue to the Gospel of John that have been posed by some of the most influential Biblical Scholars over the past 200 years and the problematic nature of its interpretation.

Hope for the Restoration of the Davidic Kingdom in the Light of the Davidic Covenant in chronicles
2014 0-7734-4266-9
A fresh investigation of all the texts of the Davidic covenant appearing in the book of Chronicles. The focus of this study is to examine the texts in an effort to understand why the Chronicler’s view emphasized a hope of a postexilic restoration of the Davidic kingdom, rather than being content with the construction of the Temple and the revival of cultic sacrifices. This is an outstanding definitive work on this on-going theologically divisive subject.

How are We Healed by Christ? an Explanation of John 9:1-41
2014 0-7734-0073-7
The literary paradigm approach to this study on “healing” examines three key features in Chapter 9 in the Book of John. It provides a literary criticism on the text from an ahistorical view, it examines the autonomy of the text, and points us toward its aesthetic meaning. This approach helps the reader to understand "healing” from the perspective of the individual’s physical healing as well as his psychosocial and spiritual healing experience.

How Jonah is Interpreted in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
2011 0-7734-3931-6
This collection of essays is the first to examine the role of Jonah within the broader context of Nevi’im as interpreted by scholars of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The book provides multiple interpretations from a variety angles on the parable of Jonah. Such analyses include examining the tale from the perspectives of sin, drama, animal rights, education, and visual representations. At the same time, the book engages other biblical and prophetic texts. Despite the sheer depth and breadth of the subject, the book remains accessible to academics and non-academics alike.

How the Early Church Fathers Misinterpreted the Hebrew Bible to Promote Hostility Toward the Jewish People: A Study in
2014 0-7734-4263-4
A revealing examination of the development of religious animosity through the manufacturing of an anti-Semitic and anti-Judaism atmosphere that remains widespread in Christian society today. This study uncovers how the early Christian Church Fathers’ torturous manipulation of the Hebrew Bible, caused the marginalization of the Jews socially, economically, legally, theologically, and spiritually.

How the Easter Story Grew From Gospel to Gospel
1989 0-88946-003-5
Deals with the Easter occurrences: the reporters; the various ways of accounting for Jesus' Easter appearances, including theories that the disciples stole the body or that coma was followed by physical revival; proliferations of stories about Jesus' post-Easter ministries in parts of the world; and the development of Mary stories in connection with the Passion and Easter.

How to Determine the Meaning of a Sacred Text Cases and Methodologies
2011 0-7734-1568-8
This work applies many different approaches to the analysis of sacred texts. The articles contained in this collection are influenced by structuralism, phenomenology, the study of self-referentiality and Zen. In many cases, Eastern thought is applied to Western texts, and vice versa.

Integrating Theology and Ethics in Ephesians the Ethos of Communication
2000 0-7734-7741-1
This study examines the Letter to the Ephesians with the primary goal of indicating how the two distinct and diverse parts of the text (chapters 1-3 and chapters 4-6) are related. It proposes that the moral exhortation or paraenesis of Ephesians 4-6 is not directly or argumentatively derived from the theological narrative of Ephesians 1-3, but that the document persuades its Christian audience to accept exhortations and to behave in appropriate ways by reminding them of certain theological realities and encouraging identification with them. Methodologically, this book takes into account the oral/aural nature of early Christian texts and employs a rhetorical critical analysis of Ephesians as a way of observing the dynamics at work. As a whole, the work offers an explanation of how the halves of Ephesians are integrated with each other along with a full description of the rhetorical nature and characteristics of the letter.

Interpretation of Korah's Rebellion in Three Religious Traditions - Jewish, Christian, Muslim: A Study in Comparative Reception History
2012 0-7734-2923-9
The book addresses the ways the myth of Korah is depicted in three faith traditions: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Dialogue between religions always existed. Unfortunately, many times this dialogue was hateful if not bloody. All those who claimed God had spoken to them allowed themselves to kill in his name too. This book categorizes the history of how God revealed himself to people in these religions. The story of Korah’s rebellion against Moses is documented in the Torah. It is narrated in Numbers 16:1-40. Korah’s rebellion resisted Moses’s leadership, and concluded in his people being swallowed by the earth along with many of their households. The children were salvaged and did not die. However, this story serves as a metaphor for resisting the will of God.

The authors central argument is that the story of Korah has been invoked in various religious traditions that appeal to the Bible to highlight the authority of dominant institutions that face criticism. The volume’s comparative attention is given to how the story is depicted in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as the paradigmatic rebellion.

Interpretation of the Gospel of Luke in the 20th Century
2005 0-7734-6106-X
This is the first detailed overview of Luke’s Gospel from the beginning up to the present day. It is a careful , lively presentation which situates Lukan scholarship within the main trends of biblical interpretation. It is based on the conviction that such an overview is particularly valuable in our time of such a variety of approaches and, in particular, that much can easily be lost of the valuable heritage of Lukan scholarship. While each generation can build upon the last, new interpretations are only solidly possible when we build on the shoulders of those who have gone before us.

Interpretation of the Gospel of Luke: From Apostolic Times Through the 19th Century
2005 0-7734-6104-3
This is the first detailed overview of Luke’s Gospel from the beginning up to the present day. It is a careful , lively presentation which situates Lukan scholarship within the main trends of biblical interpretation. It is based on the conviction that such an overview is particularly valuable in our time of such a variety of approaches and, in particular, that much can easily be lost of the valuable heritage of Lukan scholarship. While each generation can build upon the last, new interpretations are only solidly possible when we build on the shoulders of those who have gone before us.

Interpreting 2 Corinthians 5:14-21 An Exercise in Hermeneutics
1989 0-88946-617-3
Produced by the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches with the following goals or guidelines in mind: understanding the ancient documents on their own terms; and presenting its case for establishing a connection among the church, her task, and the documents in question.

Interpreting Luke-acts for the Local Church Luke Speaks for Himself
1994 0-7734-2388-5
This scholarly attempt to let Luke himself unfold the why, how, and what of his two-part work communicates an understanding of Luke-Acts in language that can make the material alive for those who are not professional academics. The approach to the material is new, and there are fresh interpretive insights, helping readers understand what made Luke tick in his time and how he understood (among other themes) the Hebrew Scriptures, history, the Holy Spirit, Jesus, and the church.

Interpreting the Bible in Theology and the Church
1984 0-88946-701-3
Presents the thesis that the interpretation of the Christian faith gained from the Bible exists in the community of believers prior to theological and other scientific study. ". . . a lucid and concise presentation." - Anakainosis

Interpreting the Sermon on the Mount in the Light of Jewish Tradition as Evidenced in the Palestinian Targums of the Pentateuch Selected Themes
1991 0-88946-784-6
Elucidation of several key concepts in Matthew's Sermon on the Mount: "father", "be ye perfect", "measure for measure" ,"word(s)', "vacuous", and the "fruit" metaphor, having both the presuppositions and the modest objectives proper to a study in the area of targum and New Testament at the present stage of scholarship in that area.

Introduction to Intertextuality
1995 0-7734-2387-7
This book contains a few examples of the way midrash is discovered and recognized in the Hebrew Scripture and in the New Testament. The examples given illustrate the significance of insights gained from this kind of study and the philosophy that prompted ancient prophets, Psalmists, wisdom writers, and authors of New Testament gospels, letters, essays, and sermons to compose literature in the way they did.

Irony and the Kingdom in Mark a Literary-Critical Study
1997 0-7734-2435-0
This treatment of irony and Kingdom theology in the Gospel of Mark contributes to the enrichment of Markan scholarship in four ways. First, the work is a fairly comprehensive treatment of the use of ironic technique in Mark, focusing on the Kingdom. Second, the study shows how Mark constructs his ironies and clues the reader to their presence. Third, the study classifies every irony identified in the text, and finally, the study shows that Mark takes ironical episodes and weaves them together to produce larger themes which are themselves ironical.

John's Gospel and the History of Biblical Interpretation
2002 0-7734-6980-X
Like the author's previous studies on Mark's Gospel (1982) and The History of Biblical Interpretation, this study of John's Gospel is much more than a mere list of annotated entries. The aim of these lively entries is to situate Johannean scholarship within the main trends of biblical scholarship from the first century up to the present while reaching out to the main corners of the Christian traditions. It avoids duplicating many items which are normally discussed in standard works. It is based on the firm belief that a solid knowledge of the whole Johannean tradition and its afterlife is vital for the adequate grasp of this key text. A valuable index of names is included.

Jude - A Structural Commentary
1996 0-7734-2415-6
In addition to providing the necessary information regarding the background, historical setting, etc., this unique commentary makes a decision about the semantic 'chunks' that are to be interpreted. These chunks structure all discourse, and this structural way of organizing the text helps prevent clueless contextual interpretation. It also fleshes out the implied information which is critical to understanding Jude, and looks at the contential philosophy as it gives insight to the rhetorical environment.

Kommentiertes Lexikon Zum Vierten Evangelium Seine Textkonstituenten in Ihren Syntagmen Und Wortfeldern
1993 0-7734-2386-9
This lexicon constitutes an indispensable linguistic handbook on the Fourth Gospel as a prerequisite for a regular commentary. It provides a comprehensive presentation of the style of this gospel. The text constituents are described first as syntasms within the Gospel of John and then in form of specific johannine work-fields. Its emphasis is on the semantic interpretation in its syntagmatic as well as paradigmatic relations. The lexical entries are alphabetically arranged. First statistical records are given, and then follows the semantic and syntactic commentary on each entry. The numerous cross-references within the Gospel of John are of special value to the interpreter who wants to understand the typical johannine language, its setting and thus its specific theology. In German

Lazarus and the Fourth Gospel Community
1995 0-7734-2428-8
This study offers several important contributions to Gospel studies. First, it casts light on the Fourth Gospel's Beloved Disciple, setting forth four essential questions: 1.) Is this disciple meant as a real person who followed Jesus during his ministry? 2.) If so, who was he? 3.) What does "disciple whom Jesus loved" mean? 4.) Why does the Gospel refer to him without using his name? The author makes a thorough case that Lazarus of Bethany was the Beloved Disciple. A more significant contribution follows; Lazarus is identified as Eleazar, son of Boethus, whose sisters Miriam and Martha appear briefly in rabbinic literature. This identification is based on evidence in the Fourth Gospel, in Josephus, in second-century Christian tradition, and in the Talmud and Midrash. The assumption that the Synoptics are more reliable than the Fourth Gospel is challenged. The study raises new questions about the political situation during Jesus' ministry, and the profound theology of the Fourth Gospel is explained in view of Eleazar's background as the High Priest.

Leadership in 1 Corinthians: A Case Study in Paul's Ecclesiology
2003 0-7734-6757-2
This study proposes that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians in part to encourage the church as a whole to take responsibility for its own leadership. This monograph contributes to three current discussions in scholarly circles: socio-historical scholars of Greco-Roman Corinth have been studying the impact social phenomena such as patronage and a fashionable interest in competitive rhetoric might have had on the Corinthians’ conception of leadership; theological investigators have focused on Paul’s response to the church members’ zeal for eschatology and spiritual gifts; and a third group has examined Paul and politics.

Legend of Elijah in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and Literature: A Study in Comparative Religion
2009 0-7734-4726-1
This work examines interpretations of Elijah in as an immortal being teaching the Law to the chosen ones.

Liberal Democracy and the Bible
1992 0-7734-9154-6
This bold and innovative series of essays addresses the encounter between the biblical exegesis and liberal democratic thought. Explores how early modern liberal democratic thinkers such as Hobbes, Spinoza, Locke, and Kant employ the Bible in the development of their political theories. The introductory essay focuses on the tension between Reason, Revelation, and liberal democracy, and a concluding essay proposes a substantive method for serious reflection about the issues.

Literary Examination of the Function of Satire in the Mispat Hammelek of I Samuel 8
2007 0-7734-5311-3
This study is a literary examination of the Israelite request for kingship in 1 Samuel 8 with satire in view as its genre. Through a close reading of the passage this work contends that both Yahweh's and Samuel's speeches combine in the form a judgment speech to the nation of Israel. The greater unit of 1 Samuel 8-12 also shows a satiric dialectic that is subtly anti-Saul but not anti-monarchy. This study argues that 1 Samuel 8 is religio-political satire seeking to reform both the deviation from the covenantal norm of Yahweh's kingship and the deviation from the deuteronomic standard of Yahweh-initiated (i.e., prophet anointed) kingship.

Major Events in Luke's Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles: Passages that are Critical to the Meaning of Other Passages and / or Luke's Entire Work
2014 0-7734-4335-8
The purpose of this present study is to explore and interpret ten passages in Luke-Acts that in my years of study and teaching have emerged for me as more important than others in Luke’s work because their significance extends far beyond their present context to affect the meaning of many other passages.
A cogent, compelling, precise, scholarly, insightful and informative exegetes on the Gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles drawing certain ‘moments’ or parts, that are of extraordinary significance to Luke-Acts as a whole; exploring the meaning of each of these elements beyond its context in the narrative to imbue with meaning other parts of Luke-Acts and often the whole.


Making of Mark
1996 0-7734-2393-1
This seminal work in New Testament scholarship is the culmination of forty years study by A. Q. Morton into authorship attribution. During this time his principal aim has been to establish objectively (i.e., by scientific means) exactly what is the nature of the canonical texts which form the basis of the New Testament - the four Gospels, the Epistles, and Revelations - and also to discover how they came into being. The Making of Mark addresses the historical question of its form - was it produced on a roll or a codex? The answer, suggests Morton, is found in numerical regularity that comprises the divisions within the book. Morton inquires regarding the role of the scribe in the ancient world. What influence did the Jewish-Roman War have upon the production of the book? Morton's hypothesis is that Mark was a book subject to the current means of book production and the circumstances of its time. This makes sense of what has often puzzled earlier commentators. Not only is Morton able to attribute the various sequences of sentences in the four quarters of the Mark codex, he is able to show how 'the medium is the message': that is, how the form of Mark, with its twenty different contributors (according to cusum) governs what is included and where it is inserted: such decisions depend on the form of the book.

Matthew's Gospel and the History of Biblical Interpretation Book One
1997 0-7734-2431-8
When Kealy's similar history of the interpretation of Mark's Gospel was published, it was described by Howard Clark Kee as 'an excellent comprehensive history and analysis of Marcan interpretation arranged chronologically.' This current, massive two-volume pioneering work sets all the major works on Matthew against the changing and developing background of Biblical interpretation over nearly two thousand years, from the writers of the patristic era right up through the twentieth century, form and redaction criticism, and the latest approaches.

Matthew's Gospel and the History of Biblical Interpretation Book Two
1997 0-7734-2433-4
When Kealy's similar history of the interpretation of Mark's Gospel was published, it was described by Howard Clark Kee as 'an excellent comprehensive history and analysis of Marcan interpretation arranged chronologically.' This current, massive two-volume pioneering work sets all the major works on Matthew against the changing and developing background of Biblical interpretation over nearly two thousand years, from the writers of the patristic era right up through the twentieth century, form and redaction criticism, and the latest approaches.

Mellen Biblical Commentary (intertextual) New Testament Series: The Book of Revelation Its Introduction and Prophecy
1993 0-7734-2365-6
The first is the preparation of a set of Bible Commentaries, for all books of the Bible. Each author will show all of the texts used by that particular book. For example, whoever writes a commentary on Second Isaiah would put the text of Second Isaiah in one column and in a parallel column show the sources used in bold face type. The corresponding words from Second Isaiah would take into account the midrashic relationship between the texts as none of the current translations or commentaries does. When these relationships are made visible, new insights will become evident and new hypotheses will be formed. After the textual work of the commentaries is done, it will be an easy project to prepare a new Hebrew text of the First Testament that looks like the Nestle-Aland New Testament text, with earlier texts in bold face type and documentation in the margins. It is already clear that every book of the Bible contains arguments and sermons based on earlier texts, showing that from the very beginning of our literature there has been a close relationship between the sacred text and the worshiping community. Although these commentaries will demonstrate new scholarly insights, they are also designed to be read and understood by clergy leaders who prepare sermons every week, continuing the time-honored tradition of relating the ancient text to the current church and synagogue.

Mellen Biblical Commentary (intertextual) the Gospel of Matthew Vol 1
1996 0-7734-2373-7
The first is the preparation of a set of Bible Commentaries, for all books of the Bible. Each author will show all of the texts used by that particular book. For example, whoever writes a commentary on Second Isaiah would put the text of Second Isaiah in one column and in a parallel column show the sources used in bold face type. The corresponding words from Second Isaiah would take into account the midrashic relationship between the texts as none of the current translations or commentaries does. When these relationships are made visible, new insights will become evident and new hypotheses will be formed. After the textual work of the commentaries is done, it will be an easy project to prepare a new Hebrew text of the First Testament that looks like the Nestle-Aland New Testament text, with earlier texts in bold face type and documentation in the margins. It is already clear that every book of the Bible contains arguments and sermons based on earlier texts, showing that from the very beginning of our literature there has been a close relationship between the sacred text and the worshiping community. Although these commentaries will demonstrate new scholarly insights, they are also designed to be read and understood by clergy leaders who prepare sermons every week, continuing the time-honored tradition of relating the ancient text to the current church and synagogue.

Mellen Biblical Commentary (intertextual) the Gospel of Matthew Vol 2
1996 0-7734-2421-0
The first is the preparation of a set of Bible Commentaries, for all books of the Bible. Each author will show all of the texts used by that particular book. For example, whoever writes a commentary on Second Isaiah would put the text of Second Isaiah in one column and in a parallel column show the sources used in bold face type. The corresponding words from Second Isaiah would take into account the midrashic relationship between the texts as none of the current translations or commentaries does. When these relationships are made visible, new insights will become evident and new hypotheses will be formed. After the textual work of the commentaries is done, it will be an easy project to prepare a new Hebrew text of the First Testament that looks like the Nestle-Aland New Testament text, with earlier texts in bold face type and documentation in the margins. It is already clear that every book of the Bible contains arguments and sermons based on earlier texts, showing that from the very beginning of our literature there has been a close relationship between the sacred text and the worshiping community. Although these commentaries will demonstrate new scholarly insights, they are also designed to be read and understood by clergy leaders who prepare sermons every week, continuing the time-honored tradition of relating the ancient text to the current church and synagogue.

Metaphorical Narratives in the Book of Ezekiel
2006 0-7734-5867-0
This book examines eleven passages in the book of the prophet Ezekiel that can be understood as metaphorical narratives. When the metaphorical narratives are examined in the order as presented within this book, consideration can be given not only to the metaphor itself, but also to the types of metaphors that Ezekiel used.

Mimesis and Apostolic parousia in 1 Corinthians 4 and 5: An Apologetic-Mimetic Interpretation
2010 0-7734-3719-3
The study explores the verbal, thematic, and structural connectedness of 1 Corinthians 4 and 5 and proposes an apologetic and mimetic reading of the self-referential statements in chapter 5 against the backdrop of the imitation call in chapter 4. This work is a helpful guide to the what (content) and how (rhetoric) of Paul’s calls to imitation and exemplary self-referential statements in 1 Corinthians and resource on his self-understanding of his own authority.

Miracle Stories in the Biblical Book: Acts of the Apostles
2001 0-7734-7585-0
This study first examines how Luke adapted the miracles from the Gospel of Mark and identifies consistent patterns in the way he used his source materials; it then applies these criteria to the stories and summaries in Acts, and uncovers the basic outlines of eleven pre-Lukan miracle traditions and few legend fragments. It examines how the author of Luke-Acts used these stories, how they fit in the literary design of Acts, what the relationship is of miracle to faith and conversion. The miracles stories throw into sharp relief Luke’s own understanding of Christ, the human condition, and the sovereignty of God.

Motif of Generational Change in the Old Testament: A Literary and Lexicological Study
2016 1-4955-0441-7
This pioneering study opens the way for new developments in the field of biblical history writing – e.g. the study of the formation process of this and others through patterns and literary tòpoi within biblical narrative. The contribution this book makes is the investigation of the DOR and the theme of generational change as narrative tools playing an important role in biblical history writing.

Musical References and Song Texts in the Bible
1990 0-88946-492-8
Section One contains music terms found in the Bible, accompanied by the singular verse that includes each term. Section Two lists song texts found in the Bible. Includes commentary, 20 original artworks, and two essays.

Mystery of the Acts of John an Examination and Interpretation of the Hymn and the Dance in Chapters 94 and 96 in Light of the Acts' Theology
1992 0-7734-9956-3
According to the apocryphal Acts of John, Jesus introduced to his disciples a mystery rite that included a hymn and a dance. This study examines the relationship behind this secret sacrament, the Johannine Acts, and Christian Gnosticism. Discusses the sacrament's structure and interprets this mystery according to the theology of the Acts of John.

Mystery of the Book of Revelation: Reenvisioning the End of Time
2008 0-7734-5183-8
This work represents an intersection between two important methods of interpretation. It presents a very complex theory of narrative relating to the experience of time and the production and reception of narrative is applied to the question of the eschatology of the Book of Revelation. The work argues that John of Patmos has a vision of two ages: one of a world fraught with conflict, violence and oppression and another similarly present for the Christian faithful, in which they experience the salvation expected at the end of the ages, now, gathered under God’s protection.

Narrative Irony in Luke-acts: The Paradoxical Interaction of Prophetic Fulfillment and Jewish Rejection
1996 0-7734-2359-1
The study shows, through narrative critical methodology, that the author of Luke-Acts sees irony in the events of the church's history, and that this irony is central to his primary theological purpose. The interaction of two prominent Lukan literary motifs, the fulfillment of scriptural prophecy and the Jewish rejection of Jesus and the gospel, produces a paradoxical irony of events that extends through the narrative and serves the author's christological and soteriological purposes. Christologically, the Jewish rejection of Jesus as Messiah demonstrates his messiahship, for it leads to his suffering and resurrection which fulfill the scriptural promises regarding the messianic event. Soteriologically, the Jewish rejection of the gospel actually promotes its worldwide acceptance, thereby fulfilling God's plan to grant salvation to all nations.

Nations in Deutero-Isaiah A Study on Composition and Structure
1986 0-88946-086-8
A study of Deutero-Isaiah's controversial attitude toward the nations: some find a theology of mission in Isaiah 40-55, while others claim that the prophet was an extreme nationalist. Discusses the place of the nations in Deutero-Isaiah from four perspectives using an eclectic blend of rhetorical and form criticism called compositional analysis.

New Testament Chronology
1992 0-7734-9920-2
The lack of correct understanding of the evolution of the Jewish calendar has been a stumbling block to biblical research. New Testament Chronology includes subjects of particular importance to both Christian and Jewish scholarship. Begins with the present western calendar and steps back to the opening of Genesis. The calendar system is then followed forward to the Bar Kokhba revolt in the second century CE and the later establishment of the modern Jewish calendar. Detailed studies are presented on Herodian chronology and Pontius Pilate. The dating of Acts completes the work.

New Testament Eschatology Historical and Cultural Background
1993 0-7734-2378-8
Instead of opting for one of the standard explanations of eschatology, this study looks for the origin of the concept in antiquity, requiring an examination of the Hebrew Scripture, the New Testament, the Dead Sea Scrolls, rabbinic literature, the church fathers, and surrounding Greek literature and history. It involves a study of the legal, hermeneutical, cultural, historical, and political thought forms of ancient expectations. Beliefs and practices related to eschatology are examined from eighth-century Isaiah to the end of the Crusades in relationship to the promised land and the doctrine of redemption. Insights are employed to understand such New Testament problems as the Battle of Armageddon and the mystical number 666. It also uncovers the contemporary consequences of this dynamic doctrine.

New Testament Greek an Introductory Grammar
1989 0-88946-200-3
Created by a professor of Greek who wanted a textbook that suited his needs. Includes an excellent workbook and an instructor's manual that features exercises to augment those in the text and workbook, photocopiable examinations, and keys (instructor's manual available only to professors adopting the text). Write for your free examination copy of the textbook and workbook.

New Testament Textural Variations Between the king James Bible and Its Basis, the Bishops’ Bible (1568-1602): Together with a Survey History of the Sixteenth- Century Translations of the English Bible
2015 1-4955-0433-6
First published in 1568, the Bishops’ Bible was issued in its last edition in 1602. The first of the fifteen rules given for the guidance of the King James translators stated that the Bishops’ Bible was to be followed “and as little altered as the truth of the original will permit.” Rule fourteen further specified certain English translations to be used when they agreed “better with the text than the Bishops’ Bible.” The Authorized Version was both a revision of the earlier English Bibles and a translation from the original languages, all based on the Bishops’ Bible.

The immediate concern of this work, then is why the Bishops’ Bible, and the extent to which the King James Bible is indebted to it. And second arily, the degree to which the King James Bibles relies on the earlier English translations, other possible sources that might have influenced the translators, and evidence of the translators at work as they transformed the Bishops’ Bible into the Authorized Version. The book includes a detailed history of the Bishops’ Bible and its edition as well as a complete collation of the New Testament of the 1602 Bishops’ Bible with the 1611 Authorized Version.


New Testament: An Idiomatic Translation
2006 0-7734-6103-5
This translation attempts several things: first, it tries to be faithful both to the Greek and the English languages, giving ordinary English for ordinary Greek words, avoiding “Biblical” jargon. Second, the English reflects the individual style and personality of Greek writers. Third, the documents appear in the order they were actually written, enabling the reader to follow the earliest development of Christian thought. Fourth, the little introductions reveal the psychological context of the documents, showing the motivation behind them. Finally, the introductions show how the documents reveal whether their religious dimension was attached to or grew out of the actual facts that happened historically.

The first volume, “Early Letters” consists of the letters of Paul, James, Peter, Jude and Hebrews, arranged in the following order: First and Second Thessalonians, Galatians, First Corinthians, James, the second half of Second Corinthians, the first half of Second Corinthians, Romans, Hebrews, Philippians, Philemon, “Ephesians,” Colossians, First Timothy, First Peter, Titus, Second Timothy, Jude, Second Peter. The reason for the documents’ placement is explained in the introductions to each one.

In the second volume, “The Master’s Life,” the documents’ order is Mark’s report of the Good News, Luke’s Report, Matthew’s Report, and the Acts of the Emissaries. Again, the reason for the order is explained in the introduction to the volume and the introductions to the individual Reports.

The third volume, “Further Revelation,” comprises the words of John, in the following order: The second letter of John, the third letter of John, the first letter of John, John’s Report of the Good News, and Revelation. Since Revelation does not speak for itself, a commentary is supplied, giving the passages from the Old Testament that are quoted and the number-symbolism that is used, including the number of times the nouns are repeated, forming a key to the meaning of the various numbers.

New Testament: An Idiomatic Translation
2006 0-7734-6021-7
This translation attempts several things: first, it tries to be faithful both to the Greek and the English languages, giving ordinary English for ordinary Greek words, avoiding “Biblical” jargon. Second, the English reflects the individual style and personality of Greek writers. Third, the documents appear in the order they were actually written, enabling the reader to follow the earliest development of Christian thought. Fourth, the little introductions reveal the psychological context of the documents, showing the motivation behind them. Finally, the introductions show how the documents reveal whether their religious dimension was attached to or grew out of the actual facts that happened historically.

The first volume, “Early Letters” consists of the letters of Paul, James, Peter, Jude and Hebrews, arranged in the following order: First and Second Thessalonians, Galatians, First Corinthians, James, the second half of Second Corinthians, the first half of Second Corinthians, Romans, Hebrews, Philippians, Philemon, “Ephesians,” Colossians, First Timothy, First Peter, Titus, Second Timothy, Jude, Second Peter. The reason for the documents’ placement is explained in the introductions to each one.

In the second volume, “The Master’s Life,” the documents’ order is Mark’s report of the Good News, Luke’s Report, Matthew’s Report, and the Acts of the Emissaries. Again, the reason for the order is explained in the introduction to the volume and the introductions to the individual Reports.

The third volume, “Further Revelation,” comprises the words of John, in the following order: The second letter of John, the third letter of John, the first letter of John, John’s Report of the Good News, and Revelation. Since Revelation does not speak for itself, a commentary is supplied, giving the passages from the Old Testament that are quoted and the number-symbolism that is used, including the number of times the nouns are repeated, forming a key to the meaning of the various numbers.

New Testament: An Idiomatic Translation
2006 0-7734-6061-6
This translation attempts several things: first, it tries to be faithful both to the Greek and the English languages, giving ordinary English for ordinary Greek words, avoiding “Biblical” jargon. Second, the English reflects the individual style and personality of Greek writers. Third, the documents appear in the order they were actually written, enabling the reader to follow the earliest development of Christian thought. Fourth, the little introductions reveal the psychological context of the documents, showing the motivation behind them. Finally, the introductions show how the documents reveal whether their religious dimension was attached to or grew out of the actual facts that happened historically.

The first volume, “Early Letters” consists of the letters of Paul, James, Peter, Jude and Hebrews, arranged in the following order: First and Second Thessalonians, Galatians, First Corinthians, James, the second half of Second Corinthians, the first half of Second Corinthians, Romans, Hebrews, Philippians, Philemon, “Ephesians,” Colossians, First Timothy, First Peter, Titus, Second Timothy, Jude, Second Peter. The reason for the documents’ placement is explained in the introductions to each one.

In the second volume, “The Master’s Life,” the documents’ order is Mark’s report of the Good News, Luke’s Report, Matthew’s Report, and the Acts of the Emissaries. Again, the reason for the order is explained in the introduction to the volume and the introductions to the individual Reports.

The third volume, “Further Revelation,” comprises the words of John, in the following order: The second letter of John, the third letter of John, the first letter of John, John’s Report of the Good News, and Revelation. Since Revelation does not speak for itself, a commentary is supplied, giving the passages from the Old Testament that are quoted and the number-symbolism that is used, including the number of times the nouns are repeated, forming a key to the meaning of the various numbers.

Office of Christ and Its Expression in the Church Prophet Priest King
1997 0-7734-2425-3
The Reformers saw the three occupations of prophet, priest, king in the Old Testament as completely fulfilled in Christ and expressed in his work of salvation. This is now becoming the case in other traditions. The office thus leads to a fuller understanding of the work of Christ. Even problems such as the old chestnut of predestination and free will yield to this approach. This book investigates the paradigm of prophet, priest and king in the belief that a fuller understanding of what God provided for Israel, fulfilled in Christ and extended to the Church, will provide the groundwork for a more Biblical approach to many of the problems that the modern Church is facing. It examines this not only in the experience of Western churches, but also specifically in the changing expression of Christianity in the African churches.

Old Testament Canon in the Old Testament Church the Internal Rationale for Old Testament Canonicity
1990 0-88946-084-1


Old Testament in the Old Princeton School (1812-1929)
1992 0-7734-9824-9
This study fills a lacuna in the history of Princeton Theological Seminary and in the history of Old Testament studies in America by fleshing out the history and significance of the Princeton Old Testament School (1812-1929) through a study of the lives and extant writings of the faculty, especially unpublished archival material never before scrutinized by a specialist in the Old Testament.

Oracles Against Babylon in Jeremiah 50-51 a Horror Among the Nations
1992 0-7734-9821-4
Historically, the study of 50-51 has focused on two questions: was this the authentic word of Jeremiah? and what was the structure? Given the advances in the understanding of Hebrew poetry, the growth of the biblical text, the language of prophetic speech, and the history of the exile, these chapters are ripe for renewed study. Investigates Jeremiah 50-51 in four parts: poetry and structure; text and tradition; forms and images; and related anti-Babylonian traditions.

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs
2006 0-7734-5707-0
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

Origin and Development of the Christian Liturgy According to Cultural Epochs
2006 0-7734-5709-7
These books on the origin and development of the Christian liturgy are the result of the author’s teaching the subject to university students. It is not an original work, but rather a collection, compendium and thesaurus of historical, and especially liturgical, data through the centuries, with names, dates, and an ample bibliography. This publication is a significant contribution to the liturgical literature, since no book of the history of liturgy exists in the English language.

The history of the liturgy is divided according to cultural epochs. If liturgy is the communal manifestation of religious encounter between God and his people, then this manifestation would be influenced in each age according to certain cultural patterns. The books do not provide the liturgical data in isolation, but considers them within their political, cultural and church-historical context.

The main purpose of the work is to give some tools to readers today for distinguishing the essential, permanent elements of liturgy and its historically conditioned manifestations. At the same time, besides the scientific apparatus of specialized bibliography, the reader will enjoy the political, cultural and ecclesial overview of each epoch before becoming familiar with the changes in the liturgy itself.

Patterns of Redemption in the Fourth Gospel an Experiment in Structural Analysis
1998 0-7734-8396-9
The analysis of the textual structuring of the Fourth Gospel leads directly to the issue of its exegetical import. It is part of the theory and practice of concentric compositions that the structures exist in order to underline basic thematic concerns: the choice of form sets up a system of points of emphasis and points that are linked through some kind of correspondence. Thematic analysis shows that 21 large concentric compositions, arranged symmetrically, are organized in a prologue and seven parts, around two main themes of Jesus as the New Temple and Jesus as the Light and Life of the World.

Paul's Defense of His Ministerial Style: A Study of His Second Letter to the Corinthians
2011 0-7734-1557-2
This study of 2 Corinthians indicates that Paul maintained that Christian life and ministry generally, and apostolic ministry in particular, must be carried out through divine power, not human power.

Paul's Rhetoric in 1 Corinthians 15 an Analysis Utilizing the Theories of Classical Rhetoric
1995 0-7734-2351-6
This study provides a comprehensive and detailed rhetorical analysis with regard to invention, arrangement, and style. Despite the forensic structure of Paul's arrangement, I Corinthians 15 is best understood as a piece of deliberative discourse.

Paul's Use of Ethos, Pathos, and Logos in 2 Corinthians 10-13
1995 0-7734-2369-9
This study uses a new paradigm to come to an understanding of the function and meaning of these chapters. It examines Paul's communicative strategy as a distinct rhetorical unit, through the lens of Aristotle's three constitutive methods of proof in any persuasive argumentation: ethos, pathos, and logos. Paul's use of these three proofs is a mirror image of the strategy of slander employed by the false apostles. Unlike most of the traditional historical-rhetorical analyses applied in Pauline studies (the model of Hans Dieter Betz), this model advances the exegesis of the text. Maintaining strict methodological control, it arrives at an exegetical understanding, first, by examining the literary theory of these three methods of proof in the Greco-Roman rhetorical tradition; then giving numerous examples of the use of these proofs from classical writers; and last applying this theory and practice to an understanding of Paul's persuasive vindication of his apostleship, his authority, and the form and content of his gospel. This paradigm can be used in the study of other Pauline letters and in other early Christian texts to understand the formal aspects of their writings to project cogency and achieve conviction.

Paul’s Concept of Baptism and Its Present Implications for Believers Walking in the Newness of Life
1999 0-7734-8040-4
The major contribution of this work is the rediscovery of the present implications of baptism for Paul. Paul's baptismal language relates to the central theme of his message, which is the proclamation of the Kerygma consisting of the crucifixion, burial and resurrection of Christ. These events which were the basis of believers' conversion experience and new life are lucidly portrayed in the rite of Christian baptism. Thus in his use of baptism, Paul pursues an argument that develops according to the inner logic of believers' experience.

Perfection in New Testament Theology Ethics and Eschatology in Relational Dynamic
1996 0-7734-2355-9
This volume first presents comparative research in one conceptual domain of ancient Jewish/Christian thought, and secondly, points out that modern critical theology, past and present, has misunderstood ancient Jewish and Christian perfectionism. Examines three unrelated samples of perfectionistic espousal from Second Temple Judaism in a Palestinian setting contemporaneous with the rise of Christianity. The relationship between ethics and eschatology reveals certain basic commonalities and specific individual divergences. Three unrelated samples of perfectionistic espousal are also taken from the New Testament, sharing some of the same basic commonalities with the Jewish writings. They also share some basic commonalities in contradistinction to them. The real basis for Jewish perfectionism was covenantal relationship, involving conforming behavior expressive of elect relationship. The basis for New Testament perfectionism is relationship to Christ within the gracious provision of the New Covenant. Perfection is a relational dynamic, one that can coexist with and increasingly conquer sin. It is human destiny as relationship with God, presently opened to all who identify with the new work of God accomplished by Jesus.

Peripateo (the `walking Image') as a Thematic Marker for Pauline Ethics
1992 0-7734-9943-1
This study presents a thorough investigation of a major metaphor in the letters of Paul, used over thirty times (more than any other metaphor) to describe some feature of the Christian life. The articles in the major theological dictionaries give Paul's use of the image bare treatment and are in error on the vital question of Paul's relation to the LXX. This study will fill a gap in the study of Pauline ethical vocabulary. The study also presents what are the major ethical themes of the Apostle Paul.

Perspectives on Contemporary New Testament Questions Essays in Honor of T. C. Smith
1992 0-7734-2852-6
Essays include: T. C. Smith - Scholar, Teacher, Churchman (Morris Ashcraft); New Testament Theology - Historical Event, Literary Text, and the Locus of Revelation (Dan O. Via); Reframing and Reevaluating the Argument of the Pastoral Epistles toward a Contemporary New Testament Theology (Marion L. Soards); Essene Influence in Roman Christianity - A Look at the Second-Century Evidence (E. Glen Hinson); Tradition and Witness in Antioch - Acts 15 and Didache 6 (Clayton N. Jefford); The Church and Inclusive Language for God? (Charles H. Talbert); and Christian Higher Education at the Crossroads (William E. Hull).

Perspectives on John: Method and Interpretation in the Fourth Gospel
1993 0-7734-2856-9
These essays represent a broad theological spectrum, and employ diverse methodologies. Articles deal with introductory issues (especially regarding questions of authorship, sources, and historical reliability), topics related to the worship and liturgy of the Johannine community, and employ literary and redactional methods to explore specific passages or themes in John.

Perspectives on the Social Gospel Papers From the Inaugural Social Gospel Conference at Colgate Rochester Divinity School
1999 0-7734-8042-0
These essays address the important question of defining the term “social gospel”, showing that the social gospel, once seen as a clearly identifiable time period in American religious history, is not as easily defined as once thought, suggesting that it covers a broad spectrum of religious and theological traditions that can point beyond liberal Protestant and North American origins. “. . . this collection seeks to give a more critical and fairer account of the Movement and to trace important continuities in later theology. Many who have read Rauschenbusch directly will welcome such a reassessment. . . . together they give a fresh and balanced perspective.” – Theological Book Review

Portrayal of Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew
2012 0-7734-1406-1
This is the first monograph on Matthew’s presentation of Jesus as “Shepherd.” Seven passages are selected and critically analysed. (Matt 2,1-12; 9,35-38; 15,21-28; 18,10-14; 25,31-46; 26,30-35; 28,16-20)

Psalms of Lamentation and the Enigma of Suffering
1996 0-7734-2416-4
This study investigates the psalms of lamentation in order to determine what contributions they provide toward the understanding of suffering. Three areas were selected for investigation: the reasons for suffering, the reactions to suffering, and resolutions to suffering. The psalms of lamentation address the issue of suffering more clearly than any portions of the Old Testament. Identification is the key - as we identify with the authors of the psalms, and the reasons they suffered, how they reacted to pain, and how they resolved their pain, then we can understand better our suffering.

Psychoanalytic Interpretation of the Story of Joseph, the Son of Jacob: A Study in Comparative Culture, Ethics, and Spirituality
2015 1-4955-0385-2
This is a new and different psychoanalytic interpretation of the Old Testament Joseph Story which examines different cultural perspectives including the Christian, Hebraic and Qur’anic versions of this familiar religious story.

Psychological Perspectives on the Life of Paul An Application of the Methodology of Gerd Theissen
1990 0-88946-622-X
Focuses on the person of Paul (as opposed to Pauline theology) in an attempt both to provide insights into his conversion and to interpret a broad selection of the data provided by his letters.

Qoheleth and Its Pessimistic Theology Hermeneutical Struggles in Wisdom Literature
1997 0-7734-2429-6
This study examines the possibility that Qoheleth's main canonical function may be to grant integrity and comfort to sensitive and thoughtful believers who see the harsh reality of life and God's apparent indifference to it. It also struggles with issues in hermeneutics with regard to the problematics between exegesis and theology which Qoheleth acutely presents in the canon and for theology. The introduction deals with some introductory matters in Qoheleth studies (death and emotional effects in Qoheleth, scepticism/pessimism and form criticism of the book), followed by a new English translation. Part I employs historical criticism in the exegesis of Qoheleth. Part II looks at alternative theological and literary views to wisdom and Qoheleth.

Qoheleth's Language Re-Evaluating Its Nature and Date
1988 0-88946-088-4
Previous conclusions on the date of the language of Qoheleth (Ecclesiastes) have been based on comparisons with Mishnaic Hebrew, Late Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, and Canaanite-Phoenician. This study concludes that when all such comparisons are submitted to reliable methodology, the late date of Qoheleth's composition becomes less probable since the language shows itself to be basically classical in both grammar and vocabulary.

Rabbinic Views of Qohelet
1999 0-7734-7971-6
"Dr. Sandberg's book is a careful and thoughtful study of the variety of Rabbinic interpretations of the Biblical Book of Qohelet with special attention to the ways in which Rabbinic and medieval Jewish Biblical interpretation had to re-interpret the original text's meaning in order to accommodate it to ‘normative' Jewish beliefs. . . . The book contains large chunks of gracefully translated sections of Rabbinic midrash and medieval exegesis (RaShBaM) and, along with Dr. Sandberg's lucid commentary on the texts, this book will provide a very useful textbook for courses in Jewish interpretation and thought and perhaps even Bible." – David Stern

Rectification (‘justification’) in Paul, in Historical Perspective and in the English Bible God’s Gift of Right Relationship Vol. 2: Paul’s Doctrine of Rectification in Its Historical Perspective
2003 0-7734-7070-0


Relation Analysis of the Fourth Gospel a Study in Reader-Response Criticism
1993 0-7734-2364-8
The method of relation analysis seeks to identify and delineate the primary forms of relationship that John presents in the text of his gospel, with special attention to their significance for John's understanding of Christian faith. This analysis occurs within the context of reader-response criticism, since the network may be understood as constituting the narrative world that the author invites the reader to affirm. The study also calls attention to strategies that the author employs to encourage the reader in actualizing or completing the text.

Resurrection According to Paul
1993 0-7734-2358-3
This study examines the impact the apocalyptic tradition contained in I Thessalonians 4:16-17a had on the development of Paul's understanding of resurrection. It corrects the prevailing view that his understanding arose primarily from his experience of having seen the risen Christ. It examines traditional views of resurrection which Paul inherited from Judaism, and the beliefs in life after death in the Greek world and cults of Thessalonica. The study contends that the apocalyptic tradition in I Thessalonians provides Paul with a temporal sequence and a depiction of the glory of the last events, and allows Paul to provide assurance to the young Thessalonian congregation.

Rethinking 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 Through Archaeological and Moral-Rhetorical Analysis
1997 0-7734-8562-7
". . . a genuine contribution to research. The cultural practice which Paul recommends here has bedeviled interpreters for years, and thus further investigation is warranted, especially since we now have the capability to search Greek literature in a comprehensive way through computer analysis. Blattenberger argues that the custom in view is not veiling nor does Paul demand the wearing of a shawl when women pray or prophesy. The cultural practice in view relates, says Blattenberger, to the way a woman wears her hair . . . . Blattenberger has made a good case for his proposal, and his evidence must be seriously considered by scholars in identifying the practice commanded in 1 Cor. 11:2-16." - Thomas R. Schreiner ". . . provides a discussion of important issues that many will find significant for their own work in this area." - E. Earle Ellis

Reverend Edward Taylor’s Sacramental Meditations on the Song of Songs
2012 0-7734-3921-8
This text is the first to employ and semiotic theory, gender and sexuality studies to render a fresh reading of Taylor’s erotically charged devotion

Revisionist Reading of the Esau-Jacob Stories in Genesis 25-36: Understanding Esau in a Positive Light
2011 0-7734-3670-7
Traditional interpretations of Esau in Jewish and early Christian literature have provided a negative portrayal of Esau and contemporary Genesis commentators tend to interpret Esau as cruel, stupid, and impulsive, having no concern for the family tradition or the future legacy. The present book revisits these negative perceptions of Esau and rereads the texts according to the sequence of the Jacob-Esau narrative.

Rhetoric and Exegesis in Augustine’s Interpretation of Romans 7:24-25a
2001 0-7734-7535-4
This study makes a three-fold contribution to scholarship. On a general level, it demonstrates the impact of rhetorical culture on early Christian approaches to the Bible. It also demonstrates how Augustine’s interpretation of Paul was shaped by a ‘persuasive’ rhetorical milieu. Finally, it shows the history of a critical text (roman’s 7:24-25a) that Augustine employs from first to final writings. As such, it provides a lens for viewing and interpreting his theological and exegetical development over the course of his career.

Rhetorical Purpose and the Political and Military Character of Philippians: A Call to Stand Firm
1993 0-7734-2374-5
Argues that Paul wrote Philippians in order to encourage the Christians in Philippi to remain steadfast in their commitment to Christ and the Gospel ministry and to show them how to do so. To organize the letter and accomplish his hortatory purpose, Paul drew upon the conventions of ancient deliberative rhetoric and utilized political topoi, terminology, and concepts to portray and reinforce corporate Christian identity as "heavenly citizenship".

Righteousness of the Kingdom
1999 0-7734-8149-4
Interpretation of the Social Gospel concept in two related areas of thought: What is the structure of Christian social-ethical thought, and in what way is the New Testament a resource for social ethics? This book treats many areas of process formation, raising concrete and general questions and issues of concern to the Christian perspective.

Role of the Rule of Faith in the Formation of the New Testament Canon According to Eusebius of Caesarea
2014 0-7734-4254-5
The book evaluates the canonization process from a new angle in that, according to Eusebius of Caesarea, the Rule of Faith served as a criterion of canonicity, encompassing both the subcriteria of apostolicity and catholicity.

Sacrificial Rhetoric in the Prophetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible
2012 0-7734-2915-8
It addresses a problem that has created much scholarly controversy, namely the different attitudes in the prophetic literature of the Hebrew Bible towards the sacrificial cult. This controversy is the subject of debate because the interpretation of sacrificial rituals is still disputed. Even more disputed is the literature of its criticism in prophetic literature. It has been suggested that the prophetic “No!” to sacrifices that can be heard in some passages of the Hebrew Bible was not meant in an absolute sense. This book discusses the nuances of how to interpret the prophetic tendencies towards sacrifices, which were different at different times in history. At many points in the Bible a prophecy is made regarding sacrifices. The conclusion drawn by the author might be startling. Concluding that sacrifice was of central importance in the life of Israel and Judah, even to the prophets, the case is made that sacrifice was an integral part of the Hebrew Bible.

Salvation and Discipleship Continuum in Johannine Literature: Toward an Evaluation of the Faith Alone Doctrine
2014 0-7734-3507-7
An honest and significant response to the Faith Alone or Free Grace Movement. In this work Dr. Sujaya James tackles the inherent link between salvation/assurance and discipleship in the writings of the Apostle John to demonstrate that Faith Alone teaching is inconsistent with John’s presentation of salvation and discipleship continuum.


Samaritan Version of the Book of Numbers with Hebrew Viariants: A Close Textual Study
2014 0-7734-4317-7
The voice of long-dead native speakers is resurrected in this outstanding study on the Old Testament Book of Numbers. Accurate translation of Old Testament scripture has always been problematic without the input of native speakers for the written languages of that record. This work seeks to stay as close as possible to the voice of the verbs and non-verbs of the Hebrew sentences of those ancient texts.

This book provides the critical Hebrew text of Numbers circa 600BCE along with a coherent English translation that visually shows off all the autograph differences from the traditional text. The purpose of giving the lexicon form and the grammar of all variant Hebrew words, and their manuscript sources, is to allow access to everyone who wants an analysis of the Hebrew language.



Scholarly Reconstruction of St. Paul and His Times the Historical Evidence
2002 0-7734-7279-7


Scripture and Royal Supremacy in Tudor England: The Use of Old Testament Historical Narrative
2012 0-7734-3074-1
This detailed treatise comprehensively examines a topic much debated by scholars: the supporting hermeneutic for the biblical doctrine of Royal Supremacy. This hermeneutic is fundamental for the establishment of national churches, specifically the Church of England. in this instance, deriving from it a biblical doctrine of Kingship. The author examines the development of the doctrine of Royal Supremacy, beginning with Henry VIII and continuing up to Elizabeth I and the passage of the Act of Supremacy in 1559. He contrasts scriptural discussions connected with Royal Supremacy found in polemical works, beginning with those of John Jewel and proceeding to those written by Richard Hooker, with the writings of opposing Catholic and Presbyterian theologians. At the same time, Professor Gazal demonstrates that the understanding of the underlying scriptural hermeneutic was subject to change with the passage of time. It was nonetheless sufficiently persuasive to postpone open conflict in England until the middle of the seventeenth century.

Seventieth Week of Daniel 9:27 as a Literary Key for Understanding the Structure of the Apocalypse of John
1996 0-7734-2434-2
No current consensus on the structure of the Apocalypse of John exists. This study demonstrates that the judgment section of the Apocalypse (Rev. 4-19) is structured, in part, by the seventieth week of Daniel 9:27. The synoptic eschatological discourses of Matthew 24, Mark 13, and Luke 21 provide the historical link between Daniel 9:27 and the Apocalypse. Chapters correlate common apocalyptic features among the texts, produce a framework by which the judgment section of Apocalypse is structured, and critique current proposals.

Significance of Theophilus as Luke’s Reader
2004 0-7734-6384-4
Few studies of Luke’s Gospel (or Acts) give much attention to Theophilus and his potential significance despite the fact that Luke indicates specifically that he is writing ‘for Theophilus’. Those which do not recognize the importance of Theophilus nevertheless dismiss him because almost nothing is known about the individual.

Admittedly, we are left to conjecture and theory but the task, however daunting, is still necessary. A proper appreciation of Luke’s Gospel – particularly when it departs from Markan tradition – must look to Theophilus’ interests and concerns as the likely influence on the way the material is presented. To ignore Theophilus and to refer instead to Luke’s ‘church audience’ is dangerous.

This book attempts to solve the mystery of Theophilus and the man’s influence on Luke’s version of the tradition. As noted by H.J. Cadbury, the New Testament scholar is a virtual detective.

Simile and Prophetic Language in the Old Testament
1996 0-7734-2413-X
Using Homeric and Miltonic studies as a model, this study provides a literary analysis of the many similes occurring in the prophetic literature of ancient Israel. In addition to examining the various grammatical ways that similes are expressed in Hebrew, the book addresses the literary forms in which similes appear, the sources from which prophetic images emerge, the structure of similes within the prophetic literature, and the function of similes in context.

Social and Ethnic Dimensions of Matthean Salvation History "go Nowhere Among the Gentiles . . ." (matt. 10:5b)
1989 0-88946-614-9
Seeks to redress the methodologically questionable and often implicitly anti-Jewish technique of negatively valuing the exclusivity logion and then assigning it to narrow "Jewish-Christian" sources incompatible with Matthew's own outlook.

Social-Scientific Approaches in Biblical Literature
1999 0-7734-8025-0


Socio-Rhetorical Interpretation of the Seven Trumpets of Revelation
2012 0-7734-2567-5
An innovative biblical study that focuses on the idea of social and ideological “markers” when interpreting the text surrounding the seven trumpets found in the Book of Revelation. It is the first study to give a detailed explanation of these trumpets and what they symbolize in Revelation.

Sociology of Johannine Christianity
1996 0-7734-8753-0
This study uncovers the first-century community dynamics that occurred among the people to whom the Gospel of John is addressed. It first separates early from late passages, then portrays the local social situation around each layer of literary tradition. Following the successive portrayals, the study finds a change from the 'forum' social situation to a 'jurisdictional dispute', and then to a schism between Christians and non-Christians within a local synagogue. Following the schism came the formation of separate Jewish and Christian identities, a high christology among the Christians, and a conformance on the part of part of the Johannines to the practices of other Christian groups. Special discussions focus on Johannine conceptions of ultimacy, the desyncretizing activity among the Johannine Christians, and their similitude of modernity.

Spirit and Letter in Paul
1996 0-7734-9703-X
Although the antithesis of spirit and letter has figured prominently in the history of interpretation, this is the first critical investigation to place Paul's contribution to this conceptual dialectic within the cultural and political debate of the ancient world. Employing a variety of exegetical lenses, including rhetorical analysis, Dewey explores the historical as well as conceptual drama beginning with Galatians 3. After a detailed excursus which presents the interpretive options for spirit and letter in the ancient world, Dewey moves on to II Corinithians 3 as he uncovers Paul's radical political speech. Finally, in an analysis of Romans 2-3, 7-8, Dewey discloses the communal and cosmic dimensions of Paul's developing thought. The entire investigation is itself a hermeneutical experience, demonstrating that theology is more than a static reproduction, inviting the engaged reader to discover what has been long silenced in the Pauline texts.

St Augustine’s Doctrine of Eternal Punishment: His Biblical and Theological Argument
2010 0-7734-3676-6
The thesis of this work is that Augustine’s doctrine of eternal punishment is not the result of his employment of the Platonic concept of the immortal and divine soul but the product of his theological conviction, based on sound exegetical conclusions, that the Bible clearly teaches the eternity of hell.

Structure and Composition of Jeremiah 50:2 - 51:58
1995 0-7734-2353-2
Using rhetorical, textual, form, and redaction criticism, six individual poems can be discerned in Jeremiah 50-51, each with its own distinctive structure, theme, and image patterns. The delimination of the six poems leads to a significant number of exegetical gains and makes better sense of these chapters in their parts and as a whole. Although the material in Jeremiah 50-51 has often received negative assessments from scholars, the poetry when carefully analyzed no longer seems disjointed or overly repetitious. The poetry has received scant scholarly attention, perhaps because of the vengefulness that characterizes it. In addition, within this material the popular theologies of the time are challenged and the sovereignty of God is emphatically affirmed.

Structure of Paul's Theology "the Truth Which is the Gospel"
1995 0-7734-2422-9
Arguing that certain passages from the seven undisputed Pauline epistles represent summary statements in which the apostle himself set forth the coherent center of his theology, this study reconstructs the content of this center as a network of fourteen core convictions, revolving around four ideas. The result is an apocalyptic interpretation of the Christ event. By showing that 'dying with Christ' and similar phrases are Pauline metaphors for Christ-like trust in God, this study is also able to fully integrate Paul's doctrine of 'righteousness through trust' with his doctrine of 'participation in Christ'.

Studies in Hebrew Language, Intertextuality, and Theology
2003 0-7734-6767-X


Studies in the Life and Ministry of the Early Paul and Related Issues
1993 0-7734-2368-0
This study interprets Paul on the basis of Paul's own statements, and only in an appendix considers material from Acts and shows how this does and does not conform to Paul's account of his early life and ministry through the Galatians 2:11-14 incident. In dialogue with Martin Sengel's Pre-Christian Paul, the study demonstrates that Paul grew up in Jerusalem, was trained as one of the strictest of the Pharisees, and only became the Hellenized person we meet in his letters during his 14-17 years in Syria and Cilicia after his call/encounter with Messiah Jesus.

Study of Romans 6:5a United to a Death Like Christ's
1993 0-7734-9946-6
Presents a thorough history and interpretation, contributes a careful analysis of this enigmatic verse, speculating on a "union" between the believer and his/her own death to sin. Also engages in creative reflection upon the origins of the Pauline language in the verse.

Synoptic Gospels Compared
2003 0-7734-6814-5
For over two centuries of controversy has raged over priority of writing among Matthew, Mark, and Luke (the Synoptic Problem), with no solution to date that does not bristle with difficulties. But there is one approach that has not been considered: that Mark wrote the first Gospel, Luke revised and expanded it into his version, and Matthew re-edited Marks Gospel, also using and editing Luke along with it. Once this approach is taken, the complexities and difficulties suddenly vanish. This book shows this by putting all the texts side by side, typographically pointing up similarities and differences, and showing the implications in each section for the different possible solutions to the Synoptic Problem. In addition to establishing solidly the Matthew-last hypothesis, the book provides a resource for scholars testing other theories, since the data are there at their fingertips, clearly marked. Anyone interested in a given text of one evangelist can also discover with ease just what the other two Synoptic authors did with the same incident.

Syntax Criticism of Johannine Literature, the Catholic Epistles, and the Gospel Passion Accounts
1990 0-88946-618-1
From the author of the acclaimed Syntax Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels.

Teaching the Bible as a Cross Cultural Classic in a Middle-Eastern Society
2005 0-7734-6111-6
This book will be of vital interest to all those concerned with the Contemporary Middle East, Pahlavi Iran, cross-cultural education, the education of women (especially in a third world context), as well as teaching English language and literature to those for whom English is a second language. As a visiting professor at Damavand College, Tehran, Iran, the author taught a 75 semester hour course on the English Bible as a “global classic” in the World Literatures major at that college for women. In seven chapters, he describes the country, the college, and outlines the challenges and opportunities of communicating a “religious classic” cross-culturally to students, who were predominately Shiite Muslims, and doing so while respecting the “dignity of difference.” Naturally, this is of interest to those who teach the English Bible in both public and private institutions, but it also reflects deeply on the nature of “Literature” and how it may be interpreted.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs: Structure, Source, and Composition
2013 0-7734-4480-7
This book is an investigation of the pseudepigraphical Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (TPatr) as a complete literary product. TPatr is examined with the underlying hypothesis that such an analysis will provide a key to enhance our understanding of the document’s inner logic and composition, as well as of the writer’s adaptation of sources.

Theory for Bible Translation
2008 0-7734-5205-2
This study provides a theory of Bible translation known as Optimal Equivalence. The author provides a general description of the theory is provided followed by a formal description of Biblical Hebrew grammar and syntax based on a text-linguistic model of the language employing transformations at the phrase, clause, and text levels. Seven appendices provide more advanced discussions of various phases of the theory. A glossary of terms, a subject and author index, and a Scripture reference index are provided.

Tithe as Gift the Institution in the Pentateuch and in Light of Mauss's Prestation Theory
1992 0-7734-9959-8
Studies the biblical tithe from anthropological and theological perspectives. Explores biblical tithe as gift rather than tax, the common interpretation of the tithe to date.

Toward a Reassessment of the Shepherd of Hermas Its Date and Its Pneumatology
1993 0-7734-2382-6
This study contends that the Shepherd of Hermas, a non-canonical early Christian document generally classified among the writings called the Apostolic Fathers, has been wrongly understood by most scholars as typifying the traits of "early Catholicism." The document is more accurately understood as being Jewish Christian. The study deals first with the authorship and date of the Shepherd of Hermas, concluding that it was written by a single author in the last two decades of the first century. The greater part of the book deals with Hermas's pneumatology, that is, his understanding of the Holy Spirit. It shows that it is derived from Judaism, specifically from the type of Judaism evidenced in the Dead Sea Scrolls. The book is recommended for scholars of early Christianity and Christian origins.

Transferal of the Relics of St. Augustine of Hippo From Sardinia to Pavia in the Early Middle Ages Awarded the Adele Mellen Prize for Outstanding Scholarship
2000 0-7734-7827-2
To date there has been no comprehensive modern study of this important event; this work examines the transferal’s historical contexts and assesses the tradition’s historical authenticity. The volume also examines photographic reproductions of scenes from two major art works which depict the transferal – the 14th century marble sculpture of the Arca di Sant’Agostino in S. Pietro in Ciel d’Oro, and paintings from an anonymous late 15th century South German Vita Sancti Augustini. The study presents a possible route from Sardinia to Pavia, and examines the events of the journey of the relics, as well as political implications of events occurring soon thereafter.

Transfiguration of Christ in Scripture and Tradition
1986 0-88946-609-2
A study, both biblical and patristic, that bridges the gap that has developed between dogmatics and biblical exegesis. Presents the basic texts on the transfiguration of Christ in Mark and their exegesis, then discusses the interpretation of this theme in the early Greek and Latin Church Fathers. Includes translations of the basic Latin and Greek texts dealing with the transfiguration.

Trinitarian Theology of Novatian of Rome: A Study in Third-Century Orthodoxy
2008 0-7734-5026-2
This work explores Novatian’s historical context, his use of Latin terminology, and his New Testament exegesis, in order to discover and clarify how he solved the Christological problem of how Christ could be fully divine without compromising the oneness of God. The study includes a new translation of his De Trinitate and shows that Novatian’s christology is not only progressive for his time, it anticipates Nicaean and Chalcedonian christology.

Twelve Religions of the Bible
1982 0-88946-600-9
Shows the Bible to be a succession of twelve relatively separate religions, eight in the Old Testament and four in the New: the Sumero-Akkadian religion of Genesis 1-11; the Aramaean religion of the patriarchal nomads; the Egypto-Midianite religion of Moses; Joshua's religion of genocide; the Canaanite-Hebrew religion of the Judges and Kings; the revolutionary religion of Israel's prophets; Judaism; the humanistic religion of poets and scholars; the Mandaean religion of John the Baptist; the spiritual religion of Jesus; Paul's mystical religion of the indwelling of Christ; and the apocalyptic religion of the Revelator.

Understanding Canon 17 of the 1983 Code of Canon Law in Light of Contemporary Hermeneutics
2000 0-7734-7773-X
This study formulates a theory of understanding which incorporates pertinent results of hermeneutical reflection, for the interpretation of canon law, in particular, Canon 17 of the 1983 Code. Hermeneutics creates the awareness that the meaning of a legal text is not simply offered to a passive subject-interpreter in any routine procedure, but presents itself as a dynamic and creative reality requiring constant interaction between various subjective and objective, textual and extra-textual factors.

Understanding Our Biblical and Early Christian Tradition an Introductory Textbook in Theology
1991 0-7734-9668-8


Understanding Schleiermacher
2003 0-7734-8324-1
A Festschrift in Honor of Terrence Nelson Tice

This volume contains essays by leading international Schleiermacher scholars and translators. The essays are grouped under the headings: Schleiermacher’s Biography; Early Works; Philosophy; Theology; Schleiermacher and Later Religious Thinkers and Theologians; Bibliography; and a final essay by Terrence Tice, “Replies and Next Tasks.” The bibliography has been updated to 2003.

Walter Benjamin and the Bible
2003 0-7734-6727-0
This book follows the theme of sacred text from Benjamin’s early writings on religion, Judaism, and language to the study of Baroque tragedy, modernism, history, and the Paris Arcades. All of these writings reflect a commentary on the idea of the sacred text in Western culture.

Wisdom and Law in the Reign of Solomon
1993 0-7734-2356-7
This study uses recent literary theory to reconcile apparent contradictions and discrepancies in the narrative concerning Solomon (I Kings 1-11) into an internally coherent statement about wisdom and law. After a brief survey of various historical-critical approaches, it moves to a literary perspective to show literary criticism's convergence and divergence with historical criticism. It outlines an appropriate methodology to begin a holistic study. It examines the deep structure, and drawing upon the structural analysis, pulls together the themes embedded in the narrative, especially Solomon's volatile relationship to wisdom and torah.

Wisdom Books of the Bible-proverbs, job, ecclesiastes, ben Sira,/i>, wisdom of Solomon
2012 0-7734-2601-9
“Where is the life we have lost in living? Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is knowledge we have lost in information?”

These lines from the opening stanza of T.S. Eliot’s “Choruses from the Rock” are perhaps a good reflection on Sean Kealy’s study of O.T. Wisdom (The Edwin Mellen Press, 2012).

Modern scholars use the term “wisdom” literature to include the books of Proverbs, Job, Ecclesiastes, some psalms and also Ben Sira, the Wisdom of Solomon. Such books differed clearly from the rest of the OT in style and find their closest parallels outside the Bible, especially in Egyptian and Mesopotamian literature. In particular scholars note that the word “wisdom” is popular in all the books.

Sean Kealy comes to grips with the complex theme of wisdom in the Old Testament. He is well aware of the complexity and variety of O.T. wisdom and why an adequate definition still escapes us. It ranges from a simple philosophy based on human observation to the complex anti-wisdom found in the influential Book of Job. While providing the biblical panoramic view of wisdom, Kealy is well aware that there are no simple answers or summaries.

This work should provide an excellent basis for classroom discussions and debate.

Wisdom Christology in the Fourth Gospel
1992 0-7734-9947-4
This study traces the wisdom themes in the Johannine portrait of Jesus. After reconstructing the picture of Wisdom in pre-Christian Judaism, it investigates the wisdom themes in the gospel, explores the contributions which Wisdom Christology makes to contemporary Christology, giving particular attention to The Myth of God Incarnate debate and process Christology.

Writing in Greek But Thinking in Aramaic: A Study of Vestigial Verbal Communication in the Gospels
2012 0-7734-4062-3
In this monograph the author investigates the syntactic construction found in the Semitic languages known as verbal coordination as it relates to the translation and therefore the interpretation of the scriptures. In the course of his analysis, the author also discusses grammaticalization that has occurred to translate the function of the word from Hebrew to Greek. According to the author, translations of this construction account for certain awkward expressions in the Greek Gospel texts, particularly Mark and John, because the writers were thinking in Semitic and writing in Greek. There are significant implications for Bible scholars, translators and linguists.

Yahweh/baal Confrontation and Other Studies in Biblical Literature and Archaeology
1995 0-7734-2426-1


Yahweh’s Emergence as “judge” Among the Gods: A Study of the Hebrew Root Spt
2007 0-7734-5518-3
This book attempts to answer questions about the meaning of the Hebrew root špt; the status of a šopet; and how Yahweh could be called a šopet. An examination of past research shows that several scholars have argued against assigning špt (or its cognates) the basic meaning “to judge.” Semitic texts (Mari, Ugaritic and Punic) themselves reveal that the root is used in relation to diverse functions of the king’s deputy. In these texts, the superior ruler appointed the tapitu/šapitu to serve in various capacities of administration. Therefore, špt is multifarious; its various meanings are determined by the contexts in which it is used. In the Book of Judges, the šopetim were deputies of Yahweh. They governed or delivered the Israelites from their enemies by Yahweh’s authority (ruah). If Yahweh was Israel’s king, how could he also be šopet ? A study of Yahweh’s status in relation to the ?'elohim of Israel indicates that Yahweh was, after all, the deputy of the council of the gods.