Paul's Usage of χάρὶζ in Corinthians 8-9. An Ontology of Grace

Author: Becker, Joseph Peter
The aim of this work is to cast a new light on 2 Cor 8–9 by highlighting certain features of the theology of grace in that text—its doxological agency, and its pneumasomatic properties. These features, when brought to the fore, serve to both unify Paul’s presentation of grace and redefine, in Pauline thought, whar counts as spiritual.


“It would seem that a study of such an important and perennially controversial area of historical Christian theology would have produced a number of books on modern scholarly shelves dealing with it in a way more relevant to more recent students. Interestingly, [the author’s] book will look rather lonely on those shelves until more scholars take up the challenge that An Ontology of Grace presents.”-Prof. Lynn E. Mitchell, University of Houston

“This is a well-researched, well-argued and well-written thesis. The candidate has chosen a clearly defined topic for research and concentrated on the main issue with commendable tenacity.”-Prof. D. P. Davis, University of Wales

“The study is a detailed critical analysis of relevant background literature and texts showing mastery of the sources and of the Greek language including much of the student's own translations. All is clearly referenced and identified in footnotes and bibliography.”-Prof. Richard Massey, University of Wales

Table of Contents

Title Page



Table of Figures

Table of Contents


1 Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 The Proposition of This Study
1.2 The Relevant Literature
1.3 Historically Pneumasomatic Theologies of ?????
1.4 Pneumasomatic Themes in the Writings of Paul
1.5 Relevant Word Studies
1.6 Neology in Paul’s Usage of ?????
1.7 ????? in Exegetical Analyses of Paul
1.8 Where to Begin

2 Chapter 2: The Trajectory of ????? in 2 Corinthians 8–9
2.1 This Present Work’s Exegetical Approach to 2 Cor 8–9
2.2 Corinth in its Graeco-Roman Setting
2.3 Paul’s Corinthian Correspondence
2.4 The Anticipated Semantic Range of ????? in 2 Cor 8–9
2.5 The Trajectory of ????? in 2 Cor 8–9
2.6 The Individual Occurrences of ????? in 2 Cor 8–9
2.7 Conclusion

3 Chapter 3: Pneumasomatic Aspects of ????? in 2 Cor 1–7
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Pneumasomatic Aspects of ????? in 2 Cor 1–7
3.3 Summary

4 Chapter 4: Pneumasomatic Aspects of ????? in 2 Cor 8–9
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Pneumasomatic Aspects of ????? in 2 Cor 8–9
4.3 Conclusion

5 Chapter 5: Similar Presentations of ????? in Other New Testament Texts
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Similar Presentations of ????? in the Pauline Corpus
5.3 Similar Presentations of ????? in the Pauline School
5.4 Similar Presentations in Other New Testament Writings with Pauline Influence
5.5 Similar Presentations in New Testament Writings with No Apparent Pauline Influence
5.6 Summary and Conclusion
5.7 Chapter 6: Summary, Implications and Conclusions
5.8 Summary
5.9 Implications
5.11 onclusion

6 Bibliography

7 List of Bible Versions Consulted

8 List of Textual Sources Consulted

9 Becker Translation of 2 Corinthians 8–9

10 Index of Authors and Sources

11 Index of Topics