Impact of China and Russia on United States-Mongolian Political Relations in the Twentieth Century

Author: Campi, Alicia and Ragchaa Baasan
Written by two former diplomats, this work is the first in-depth analysis of the political relationship between the United States and Mongolia. The study elucidates why, despite over a hundred years of substantive interactions between the two countries, the establishment of formal diplomatic relations did not occur until 1987.


“[The authors] have done a superb job in understanding contemporary Mongolia. . . . [This] book offers an excellent historical guide to those readers who are keen to understand the modern history of Mongolia in the tumultuous twentieth century.” – Prof. Tsedendamba Batbayar, Mongolian Academy of Sciences

“This excellent work presents basically a unique and quite complete twentieth century diplomatic history of U.S.-Mongolian relations.” – Prof. Robert Rupen, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

“This book is a much-needed contribution to the critical area of Northeast Asian history – an account that has long been obscure. . . . promises to be the definitive study on the topic.”– Prof. Paul Hyer, Brigham Young University

". . . an interesting case study of just how difficult it can be to establish diplomatic relations between two very diverse peoples, and of how other nations, for their own purposes, can manipulate events to prevent mutual understanding." – Prof. Sharad K. Soni, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments I
Acknowledgments II
1. The Historical Context
2. Early American Officials, Missionaries, and Adventurers in Mongolia
3. Debate over Establishing a U.S. Consulate for Mongolia
4. Secret Meetings in Peking and Urga
5. The Opening of the Kalgan Consulate under Samuel Sokobin
6. Sokobin’s First Journey to Urga and the Mongols’ Request for U.S. Recognition
7. Sokobin’s Second Trip to Urga Without F. A. Larson
8. The Robert Williams Case Ends American Direct Contact with Mongolia
9. Creating an Informant Network and the Role of Roy Chapman Andrews
10. Closing of the Kalgan Consulate and Contact through other China Posts
11. Military Reports, Khalkhin Gol Battle, and Owen Lattimore
12. Edgar Snow’s Classified Memo and the Wallace-Lattimore 1944 Trip to Mongolia
13. Yalta Conference, Choibalsan’s Letter to the Secretary of State and Chinese Civil War in Inner Mongolia
14. Lattimore in the McCarthy Period; Mike Mansfield and Mongolia’s Entrance into the United Nations
15. Fits and Starts on the Tortuous Road to Diplomatic Relations
16. Successful Negotiations in Tokyo and New York Lead to Diplomatic Relations
17. Summary of First Decade of U.S.-Mongolian Diplomatic Relations
Appendices A-H