Historical Development Toward a Non-Theistic Humanist Ethics. Essays From the Ancient Stoics to Modern Science

Author: Hillar, Marian
This book is a collection of essays written over the years on various philosophical approaches to ethics. It opens with an introduction that surveys the current status of investigations by natural scientists, biologists, and psychologists on the moral behavior of humans, comparing it with the behavior of higher animals. The remainder of the book is subdivided into seven parts, which treat development of moral theories.


“Dr. Hillar’s book consists of a series of essays that, although not a systematic presentation, nevertheless highlight a number of key philosophers who contributed to humanist ethics. Covering a wide area of Western philosophical inquiry, the essays are held together by the author’s central interest in a natural, rational and scientific basis for today’s ethics.”
-Robert H. Tucker, D.Min.,
Executive Director Emeritus,
Foundation for Contemporary Theology

Dr. Hillar critically explores the origin, emergence, spread, and evolution of human ethics, viewed through the eyes of one attempting to understand his/her place in the universe. Ethics, as a human virtue, is evaluated through Christian religious, philosophical, and sociological lenses…Hillar’s work shows true academic merit and impressively probes human ethics from every possible angle….Compelling and highly informative, Hillar’s book successfully gathers perspectives on ethics from various sources creating a truly holistic view of the topic.”
-Dr. Jason R. Rosenzweig,
Associate Professor Department of Biology,
Texas Southern University

Table of Contents

Moral Philosophy and Modern Science: From Natural Moral Law to Moral Capacity
I. The Virtue Ethics: Ethics of a Sage
The Stoic Ethics: Natural Development, Rationality and Responsibility Ethics of Philo of Alexandria
II. Christian Ethics
The Justification of Morals in the Philosophy of Thomas Aquinas
III. Critique of Christian Ethics:
Friedrich Nietzsche: Social Origin of Morals, Christian Ethics and Implications for Atheism in His The Genealogy of Morals
IV. Discursive Ethics
Jürgen Habermas: A Practical Sense Sociologist and a Kantian Moralist in a Nutshell
V. Ethics and Evolution
What Does Modern Science Say about the Origin of Co-operation? Science Confirms Philosophy
Moral Philosophy and Modern Science
Modern Science validates Philosophical Speculation
VI. Humanist Ethics
Is a Universal Ethics Possible? A Humanist Proposition Reinterpretation of Kant’s Moral Philosophy
A Quintessential Humanistic Doctrine
VII. Issues in Practical Ethics
Philosophers and the Issue of Abortion
Liberation Theology:
Religious Response to Social Problems