Stewart, Marjorie H.

Borgu and Its Kingdoms a Reconstruction of a Western Sudanese Polity
1994 0-7734-9412-X
Documents the history of Borgu (a little-known area now situated in the northern part of the Republic of Benin and the north-western region of Nigeria) from the period when Mande peoples migrated from their homeland to settle in many parts of the Western Sudan including Borgu. By the ninth century, they had established long-distance trade; the art of making brass and copper artifacts by the lost wax technique was known; and large political entities were being formed. By the fifteenth century, Borgu consisted of three kingdoms whose rulers claimed close kinship ties, and the king's position was firmly rooted in ancient religious traditions. The historical reconstruction of Borgu society rests on a detailed examination of oral tradition, linguistic and genealogical data, archival records and ethnographic fieldwork.