Herrmann, Francoise Books1992 0-7734-9834-6
Examines the results of a comparative study of language use, computer use and learning outcomes based on two orientations: the agentive, where the computer acts as tutor and offers a closed language learning context; and the instrumental, where it functions as an open-ended tool (e.g. electronic mail or word-processing) that foster collaborative action. Learning outcomes were measured and compared. The study demonstrated both the effectiveness and radically different natures of the two contexts.